रॉबर्ट नॉज़िक : अराजकता, राज्य व स्वप्नलोक

इस लेख में नॉज़िक की चर्चित पुस्तक ‘एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ पर तीन विद्वानों द्वारा परिचर्चा की गई है – सम्पादक

(प्रथम खण्ड : जेम्स कोलमैन)

जेम्ल कोलमैन, बोरिस फ्रैंकल, डेरेक एल. फिलिप्स : रॉबर्ट नॉज़िक प्राकृतिक अधिकारों के सिद्धान्त के प्रबल समर्थक थे. अपनी पुस्तक ‘एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ (अराजकता, राज्य व स्वप्नलोक) की शुरूआत करते हुये वे कहते हैं, ‘’व्यक्तियों के पास अधिकार हैं, और कोई व्यक्ति या समूह उन्हें छू नहीं सकता : ऐसा करना उनका उल्लंघन होगा. ये  अधिकार इतने सशक्त व व्यापक हैं कि वे इस प्रश्न को जन्म देते हैं कि क्या राज्य व उसके अधिकारी कुछ कर भी सकते हैं.’’ प्राकृतिक राज्य में निवास करने वाले ऐसे विवेकशील, स्वार्थी व अधिकार प्राप्त तथा हाब्स की परिकल्पना के अनुसार सभी से युद्ध जैसी स्थिति में रहने वाले व्यक्तियों के लिये यह पुस्तक उपरोक्त प्रश्न का उत्तर देने का प्रयास करती है.

नॉज़िक इस प्रश्न का में उत्तर तीन भागों में देते हैं और उसी के अनुरूप उन्होंने पुस्तक को तीन खण्डों में बांटा है. प्रथम खण्ड में वह जानने का प्रयास करते हैं कि प्राकृतिक अवस्था की अराजकता को छोड़ कर विवेकशील लोग कैसे आम सहमति से राज्य जैसे किसी संगठन का निर्माण कर सके. इस खण्ड में वह अराजकतावादियों के विरुद्ध तर्क देकर यह सिद्ध करते हैं कि यह ‘प्रभावी संरक्षक समुदाय’ राज्य जैसा चरित्र अर्थात् ‘बाध्यकारी व हिंसा पर एकाधिकार’ रखने के बावजूद एक ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ की अवधारणा को ही प्राप्त करता है. द्वितीय खण्ड में वह बताते हैं कि व्यक्तियों के अधिकारों का हनन किये बिना ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ से आगे नहीं जाया जा सकता. यदि राज्य हस्तक्षेप कर किसी भी प्रकार अधिकारों का पुनर्वितरण करता है तो यह उन व्यक्तियों के अधिकारों का उल्लंघन होगा जिनसे राज्य स्वयं अधिकार प्राप्त करता है. और, तृतीय खण्ड में वह दिखाने का प्रयास करते हैं कि कैसे एक ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ का बाध्यकारी व सक्रिय समाज से तालमेल बैठाकर एक स्वप्नलोकीय आदर्श का निर्माण करता है.

नॉजिक का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण उद्देश्य न तो अराजकतावादियों को यह दिखाकर पराजित करना था कि बिना अधिकारों के उल्लंघन के भी राज्य की स्थापना हो सकती है और नही अपने स्वप्नलोक को आदर्श व्यवस्था के रूप में प्रस्तुत करना था, वरन् यह कि ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ से ज्यादा किसी भी राज्य की अवधारणा वैयक्तिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन करती है और इसलिए अन्यायपूर्ण है. इसी बिन्दु पर नॉज़िक की सर्वाधिक रुचि थी और यहीं पर उसकी पुस्तक समाज-विज्ञान की समकालीन प्रवृत्तियों से टकराती है. अत: मैं अपना विमर्श इसी खण्ड पर केन्द्रित रखूंगा.

इस खण्ड(दो) में नॉज़िक अपने सहयोगी जॉन रॉल्स के ‘न्याय सिद्धांत’ से टकराता है. रॉल्स ‘वितरणात्मक न्याय’ की वकालत करता है; नॉज़िक इसके विरोध में वितरणात्मक न्याय सिद्धान्तों की चर्चा करता है, फिर अपना सिद्धान्त प्रतिपादित करता है. नॉज़िक उदाहरण देकर बताता है कि कैसे वितरणात्मक न्याय भू-सम्पत्तियों के ‘वितरण में’ ‘न्याय’ की समस्या खड़ी कर देता है क्योंकि वहां पूर्वाग्रह काम करता है. उसके अनुसार भू-स्वामित्व के सम्बन्ध में ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ ज्यादा ठीक है. इस सिद्धान्त के तीन घटक हैं –

(i) भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने में न्याय: न्याय सिद्धान्त के अनुसार भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करना

(ii) भू-स्वामित्व हस्तान्तरण में न्याय : किसी अन्य सिद्धान्त के अनुसार हस्तान्तरित भूमि प्राप्त करना.

(iii) अन्याय का निराकरण : उपरोक्त विधियों (i) व (ii) के अतिरिक्त किसी अन्य विधि से भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने का हक किसी को नहीं. यदि किसी के पास इन दो विधियों के अलावा किसी अन्य विधि से भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त है तो वह अन्यायपूर्ण है और उस अन्याय का निराकरण आवश्यक है – अर्थात् निराकरण के लिये उन परिस्थितियों को पैदा करना होगा जिसके अन्तर्गत न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व व हस्तान्तरण सम्भव हो सके.

नॉज़िक ‘न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व’ व ‘न्यायपूर्ण हस्तान्तरण’ को परिभाषित नहीं करता और न ही यह बताता है कि न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व व हस्तान्तरण के लिये उपयुक्त पात्र कौन है. पर उसके सिद्धान्तों के अनुसार भूमि का स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने की प्रक्रिया में ही न्याय को देखा जा सकता है, जबकि रॉल्स, उपयोगितावादी और अन्य वितरणात्मक सिद्धान्तवादी भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने की प्रक्रिया की उपेक्षा करते हैं और केवल ‘वितरण’ पर ही ध्यान देते हैं. अपने ‘ऐतिहासिक’ सिद्धान्त की तुलना में वह उन्हें ‘अन्तिम-उत्पाद-सिद्धान्त’ की संज्ञा देते हैं.

ऐसे सिद्धातों के अन्तर्गत वितरणात्मक न्याय को यदि कानूनी स्वरूप दे दिया जाये तो प्रत्येक नागरिक को सम्पूर्ण सामाजिक उत्पाद के एक अंश पर कानूनी हक प्राप्त हो जायेगा – बिना यह फिक्र किये कि कौन उस उत्पाद का वर्तमान स्वामी है और उसे उस पर स्वामित्व कैसे मिला ? यह स्वामित्वधारी नागरिकों के उत्पादों में आंशिक-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने जैसा है. इस प्रकार नॉज़िक वर्तमान राज्य के पुनर्वितरणात्मक स्वरूप को व्यक्ति के लिये अच्छा नहीं मानता. इसके अन्तर्गत राज्य सम्पन्न व्यक्तियों की परिसम्पत्तियों का अधिग्रहण कर उसे विपन्न व्यक्तियों में बांट देगा. इस पूरे वितरण में भाग लेने के लिये ऐसे सम्पन्न व्यक्तियों को रॉल्स के न्याय पर आधारित समाज कोई लाभ भी नहीं देता.

रॉल्स इसका प्रत्युत्तर देता है. मूल स्थिति में विवेकशील व्यक्ति को यह भान नहीं था कि आगे चलकर वह सम्पन्न होगा या विपन्न. और उसने उन संस्थाओं को स्वीकार किया जो विपन्नता में उसकी मदद करें. मूल स्थित में लोगों ने इसीलिये संस्थाएं स्वीकार की ताकि वे सम्पन्नता में उनसे लेकर उन्हें उनकी विपन्नता में (अन्यों से लेकर) लौटा सकें. इस तर्क को काटने के लिये नॉज़िक को अज्ञानता की मूल स्थिति, पर वह ऐसा नहीं करता और, परिणामस्वरूप, उसके सिद्धान्त में कुछ कमियां/कमजोरियां आ जाती हैं.

रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों मानते हैं कि अज्ञानता की स्थिति में भी विवेकशील लोग यह तय कर लेंगे कि सामाजिक उत्पाद का बंटवारा कैसे हो. लेकिन ऐसा हो ही क्यों ? इसके पूर्व सामाजिक समझौते का प्रश्न उठता है – कि लोग कौन से अधिकार उस सामूहिकता (जैसे राज्य या सामान्य इच्छा) को देंगे और कौन से अधिकार अपने पास रखेंगे. जब इस प्रश्न का निपटारा हो जायेगा तभी यह स्पष्ट हो पायेगा कि भू-स्वामित्व के पुनर्वितरण का क्या परिणाम होगा. जैसा कि हम जानते हैं रूसो सभी अधिकारों के हस्तान्तरण की बात करता है, पर लॉक सीमित अधिकारों को ही राज्य को सौंपता है. लेकिन जब ऐसा कोई भी सामाजिक समझौता हो जायेगा, तब इस बात की संभावना ही कहां रह जायेगी कि लोग यह तय कर सकें कि सामाजिक उत्पाद का बंटवारा कैसे हो – जैसा कि रॉल्स या नॉज़िक सोचते हैं?

व्यक्ति के लिये सुरक्षित अधिकारों के क्षेत्र में यदि व्यक्ति के अपने श्रम से पैदा की गई या दूसरों के द्वारा स्वेच्छा से दी गई सम्पत्ति को रखने का हक हो तो नॉज़िक का ‘एन्टाइटिलमेण्ट सिद्धान्त’ निकलता है. लेकिन यदि सभी अधिकार सामूहिकता को हस्तान्तरित हो जायें (जैसा रूसो में) तब रॉल्स के वितरणात्मक न्याय की तरफ बढ़ा जा सकता है.

अत: जहां नॉज़िक की मान्यता – कि अज्ञानता की मूल स्थिति में विवेकशील लोग रॉल्स के भिन्नता सिद्धान्त तक नहीं पहुंच सकते – सही है, वहीं यह कि उससे वितरणात्मक न्याय के किसी सिद्धान्त तक नहीं पहुंचा जा सकता – गलत है. वास्तव में वे ऐसे ही किसी सिद्धान्त का चयन कर सकते हैं क्योंकि मूल स्थिति में लोग उन अधिकारों का निर्धारण करेंगे जिन्हें वे एक व्यक्ति के रूप में तथा एक सामूहिकता के रूप में प्रयोग कर सकें और यही निर्धारण इस बात को तय करेगा कि एक व्यक्ति दूसरे व्यक्ति के साथ कैसा व्यवहार करेगा और उसे प्रभावित करने के लिये केन्द्रीय सत्ता क्या कर सकती है. हम नॉज़िक से पूछ सकते हैं कि उसके ‘एन्टाइटिलमेण्ट के सिद्धान्त’ की शुरुआत समाज में कैसे होगी? चाहे भले ही हम वैयक्तिक अधिकारों से शुरू करें, पर ‘एन्टाइटिलमेण्ट सिद्धान्त’ तो सामूहिक रूप से ही लागू होगा तथा वैधता प्राप्त करेगा. पर यह वैधता आयेगी कैसे ? अज्ञानता की मूल स्थिति में विवेकशील लोगों के समझौते द्वारा. इस प्रकार नॉजिक के ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ के लिये सामाजिक समझौते की अपरिहार्यता स्वयं सिद्ध है.

पर यदि ऐसा है तो लोग अपने श्रम से उपजे उत्पाद पर पूर्ण स्वामित्व के अतिरिक्त कोई और निर्धारण (सीमित स्वामित्व) क्यों नहीं करते ?

अपनी सम्पन्नता के दौरान हम कुछ ऐसे टैक्स क्यों नहीं देते जो विपन्नता में हमारा सहारा बन सके ? क्यों नहीं हम मूल स्थिति में अपने स्वामित्व के एक अंश को समाज को देने की व्यवस्था करते हैं जो हमारी गरीबी के दिनों में हमें राहत दे? पर ऐसे किसी अंश को देना इस बात पर निर्भर करेगा कि हम सम्पन्नता व विपन्नता में अपने हित को कैसे देखते हैं.

यहां पर ‘अंश’ महत्वपूर्ण नहीं है. लेकिन यदि यह मान लिया जाये कि ऐसा किया जाना चाहिये, तब नॉज़िक का ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ कैसे ठहरेगा ? लोग किसी ऐसे अंश को रखकर अपना भविष्य सुरक्षित रखना चाहते हैं. यदि वे इस अंश को राज्य को सौंपते हैं तो राज्य लोककल्याणकारी कार्यों को करने में इस अंश का पुनर्वितरण कर सकता है – जो नॉज़िक के ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ की अवधारणा के विरुद्ध होगा, वह एक पूर्ण कल्याणकारी राज्य भी बन सकता है.

इस पर नॉज़िक की क्या प्रतिक्रिया होगी ? संभवत: नॉज़िक मूल स्थिति में ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे के विचार’ पर चोट करेगा – जिस विचार पर उसकी जोरदार असहमति थी. यदि ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे’ को त्याग दिया जाय, तो वे लोग राज्य को ज्यादा शक्ति देने की वकालत करेंगे जो यह जानते होंगे कि वे राज्य पर ज्यादा नियन्त्रण रखेंगे और वे लोग कमजोर राज्य की वकालत करेंगे जो जानते हैं कि वे ऐसा नियन्त्रण न रख सकेंगे. अमीर लोग अपने उत्पाद पर पूर्ण स्वामित्व की मांग करेंगे, वहीं गरीब लोग अमीरों पर ज्यादा टैक्स की बात करेंगे. इस प्रकार, ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे’ के बिना विवेकशील स्वार्थी लोग बराबर एक संघर्ष की स्थिति में रहेंगे. पर ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे’ में रहने पर लोग अपने दोनों ही स्थितियों सम्पन्नता व विपन्नता की परिकल्पना कर सकते हैं. अत: मूल स्थिति में यद्यपि हम स्वार्थी लोगों से शरूआत करते हैं पर फिर भी वहां हम एक न्यायपूर्ण समझौते पर सर्वसम्मति से पहुंच पाते हैं.

नॉज़िक के अनुसार यदि हम व्यक्तियों के प्राकृतिक अधिकार से शुरूआत करें तो सैद्धान्तिक एकरूपता इस बात की आज्ञा नहीं देती कि अज्ञानता के पर्दे का सहारा लेकर उन्हें हम उस अधिकार से तब वंचित कर दे जब वे एक संवैधानिक निर्णय ले रहे हों. अत: उसके अनुसार, यदि सामाजिक समझौता होगा तो वह प्राकृतिक रूप से असमान लोगों के मध्य होगा तब प्रत्येक व्यक्ति इस बात का पूर्वानुमान लगा सकेगा कि समाज में उसकी क्या स्थिति होने वाली है.

यदि ऐसा है तो हम संवैधानिक निर्णय लेने के आधार तक नहीं पहुंच सकते क्योंकि पारस्परिक हितों का टकराव बना रहेगा. इस कारण नॉज़िक के अनुसार सभी लोग स्वेच्छा से अधिकारों का परित्याग नहीं करेंगे जिससे उनका पुनर्वितरण किया जा सके और तब ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ से आगे का राज्य बिना प्राकृतिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन किये नहीं बन सकता. मुझे नॉज़िक का यह विचार गलत लगा है. उदाहरण के लिये मान लें कि एक धनी व दूसरा निर्धन वर्ग है; धनी वर्ग चाहेगा कि बेरोज़गारी के लिये उस पर कम टैक्स लगे, पर गरीब वर्ग चाहेगा कि धनिकों पर ज्यादा टैक्स लगाया जाय. लेकिन इसके बावजूद वे दोनों वर्ग किसी एक फार्मूले पर सहमत हो सकते हैं; ऐसा नहीं कि वे सहमति तक पहुंच ही नहीं सकें. अत: मैं समझता हूं कि नॉज़िक का यह तर्क तो गलत है जहां वह समझाने की कोशिश करता है कि ‘न्यूनतम से अधिक’ राज्य की अवधारणा तक व्यक्तियों के प्राकृतिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन किये बिना नहीं पहुंचा जा सकता है पर मैं मानता हूं कि उसने वितरणात्मक न्याय (खास तौर से रॉल्स) के सिद्धान्तों की मूलभूत कमी को भी रेखांकित किया है.

द्वितीय खण्ड : बोरिस फ्रैंकल

समकालीन राज्य के स्वरूप के सम्बन्ध में अनेक कृतियां प्रकाश में आयीं. लोककल्याणकारी बनाम युद्ध राज्य, नौकरशाही की तानाशाही व नैतिक पतन जैसी तमाम कमजोरियां तब प्रकट हो रही हैं जब पूंजीवाद और नौकरशाही को बचाने के लिये तथा सामाजिक क्रान्ति को रोकने के लिये राज्य की भूमिक बढ़ गई है. नॉज़िक की पुस्तक ‘एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ उस बुर्जुआ व्यक्तिवाद को बचाने की संभवत: आखिरी कोशिश है जिसका उद्भव 17वीं शताब्दी में हुआ. यद्यपि नॉज़िक लोककल्याणाकरी राज्य की अन्त्येष्टि करने वालों का प्रवक्ता लगता है पर यह उसकी पुस्तक की विशेषता नहीं है. वास्तव में यह पुस्तक बुर्जुआ राजनीतिक दर्शन के स्वरूप को रेखांकित करती है और यह इंगित करती है कि यदि उसके सिद्धान्तों के साथ छेड़छाड़ की गई तो समाज का विघटन हो जायेगा.

नॉज़िक प्राकृतिक अवस्था को स्वीकार करता है. अधिकतर विचारकों ने राज्य को प्राकृतिक अवस्था की कठिनाइयों तथा भावी नागरिक समाज की आवश्यकताओं से जोड़ा है. लेकिन प्राकृतिक अवस्था का चित्रण विचारकों ने अपनी आवश्यकता के अनुसार किया है. इसीलिये हमें हॉब्स, लॉक व रूसो में प्राकृतिक अवस्था का परस्पर विरोधी चित्रण मिलता है.

नॉज़िक के न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा के विकास में कुछ तार्किक सोच है. बुर्जुआ सिद्धान्त संविदा के माध्यम से राज्य बनाने का कोई तार्किक आधार खोजता है. यह आधार वास्तव में भय, असुरक्षा व दूसरों द्वारा बल प्रयोग के शाश्वत मूल्यों पर आधारित है – जो उसके निराकरण के लिये असुरक्षा, हर्जाना व राज्य जैसी सशक्त संस्था की मांग करता है. व्यक्तिगत सम्पत्ति का अधिकार प्राकृतिक अधिकारों से जुड़ा है. अत: बुर्जुआ सिद्धान्त निजी सम्पत्ति के वितरण में और पूंजीवादी राज्य के ऐतिहासिक विकास में संवैधानिक व सर्वशक्तिमान राज्य के महत्व को स्वीकार करना पड़ेगा.

नॉज़िक राज्य को एक निश्चित भू-भाग पर शक्ति का एकाधिकार रखने वाली संस्था मानता है. अत: राज्य दण्ड, प्रतिरोध व सुरक्षा देने के लिये उत्तरदायी है. रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों मूल अवस्था में व्यक्ति को ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे के पीछे’ मानते हैं पर  वे यह अवश्य जानते हैं कि व्यक्ति एक दूसरे के प्रति बुरा भाव रखते हैं. मूल समझौता करने वालों को रॉल्स अच्छा, सहयोगी व प्रेमी नहीं मानता. इसका कारण है कि रॉल्स व नॉज़िक न्यायपूर्ण समाज की कल्पना करने में अपने व्यावहारिक अनुभवों से नियन्त्रित होते हैं जहां वे व्यक्ति को हिंसा, घृणा व अहं से भरा व्यवहार करते देखते हैं. रॉल्स व्यक्ति में आर्थिक व सामाजिक असमानता स्वीकार करता है तथा कमजोर के लिये हर्जाने की वकालत करता है. नॉज़िक द्वारा रॉल्स की पूरी आलोचना उसकी आर्थिक मनुष्य की अवधारणा पर आधारित है – आर्थिक मनुष्य जिसकी इच्छाएं व सुख भौतिक वस्तुओं पर निर्भर हैं और जो ज्यादा धन प्राप्त करने के लिये ज्यादा काम करता है.

रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों ही मूल स्थिति में आर्थिक व राजनीतिक असमानता को स्वीकार करते हैं. पूंजीवादी लोककल्याणकारी विचारक के रूप में रॉल्स ‘धन के वितरण’ द्वारा सामाजिक-क्रांति की जैसे खतरनाक वकालत सी करता है पर वह व्यक्तिगत सम्पत्ति व बाज़ार की अवधारणा को त्यागता नहीं. वह मानता है कि ‘कुछ’ लोगों के ज्यादा कल्याण के आधार पर अन्य लोगों की स्वतन्त्रता के नुकसान को उचित नहीं ठहराया जा सकता. नॉज़िक भी यही कहता है कि ‘दूसरों के लिये कुछ लोगों के त्याग को उचित नहीं माना जा सकता. नॉज़िक चेतावनी देता है कि रॉल्स का वितरणात्मक न्याय हमारे पापों को दण्डित करने के लिये समाजवाद का प्रारम्भ करेगा. इस त्रासदी को रोकने के लिये नॉज़िक(अपने सिद्धान्त में कुछ लचीलापन ला कर) कुछ समय के लिये व्यापक राज्य को स्वीकार करने का पक्षधर है जिससे पुराने अन्याय को सुधारा जा सके, बजाय इसके कि स्थायी रूप से समाजवाद लाद दिया जाए.

रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों ही आर्थिक असमानता के औचित्य पर अपने न्याय सिद्धान्त की स्थापना करते हैं. फिर भी, रॉल्स द्वारा बुर्जुआ समाज के कमजोर समर्थन को नॉज़िक चुनौती देता है. जहां रॉल्स पूंजीवाद के आर्थिक, जातीयतावादी और राजनीतिक अन्याय के स्वरूप पर शर्मिन्दा है, वहीं नॉज़िक बुर्जुआ का घोर समर्थक है तथा पूंजीवाद से कतई शर्मिन्दा नहीं है. यदि हम स्वार्थ, प्रतिस्पर्धा और भौतिकता को ही सर्वश्रेष्ठ मानवीय मूल्य मान लें, तो नॉज़िक के न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा तर्कपूर्ण हो जाती है. नॉज़िक अपने अहंकारी व्यक्ति को तभी बचा सकता है जब वह वितरणात्मक न्याय से प्रतिबद्ध राज्य के हस्तक्षेप के प्रयास को अस्वीकार कर दे.पर, बाज़ार के बारे में समान दृष्टिकोण होने से उसके द्वारा रॉल्स की आलोचना करना सरल हो गया; उसे केवल वैयक्तिक सम्पत्ति से प्रतिबद्धता को ही अन्तिम बिन्दु तक ले जाना है जो रॉल्स के सिद्धान्त में निहित खतरों को दिखा देगा.

मार्क्स के साथ ऐसा नहीं है. मार्क्स के शोषण के सिद्धान्त पर नॉज़िक का मत है कि वास्तव में मार्क्स लोगों की अर्थशास्त्र की कमजोर समझ का शोषण करता है. लेकिन शायद स्वयं नॉज़िक ही मार्क्सवाद को ठीक से समझ नहीं पाया. नॉज़िक का दृष्टिकोण किसी समरसतापूर्ण समाज का आधार नहीं; पर, उसके न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा समाजवादियों के लिये आकर्षक है. इसका कारण यह है कि मार्क्स तो स्वयं राज्य के तिरोहित(समाप्त) होने के सिद्धान्त का प्रतिपादन करता है और एक राज्य विहीन समाज की परिकल्पना करता है (एक ऐसी स्थिति जिसमें राज्य के पास व्यक्ति से ज्यादा कोई अधिकार नहीं होते) मार्क्स ने समाज को वर्गों के रूप में देखा तथा बुर्जुआ व्यवस्थाओं (संविधानों) को इसीलिए सराहा क्योंकि वे सामन्तवाद से छुटकारा दिलाकर आगे की स्थिति को व्यक्त करते हैं. नॉज़िक उसे बखूबी स्वीकार करता है पर मार्क्स बुर्जुआ समाज का अन्त करके उससे भी आगे जाना चाहता था जिससे सामाजिक व राजनीतिक शक्तियां एकाकार हो सकें, और ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ की अवधारणा तक पहुंचा जा सके.

खण्ड तीन : डेरेक एल. फिलिप्स

मेरे आलेख में भी नॉज़िक की पुस्तक के द्वितीय खण्ड पर ध्यान केन्द्रित किया गया है जिसमें नॉज़िक न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा को नैतिक बताता है और यह मानता है कि व्यक्ति के अधिकारों का हनन किये बिना न्यूनतम राज्य का अस्तित्व हो सकता है.

न्याय के सभी सिद्धान्त लोगों को वस्तुओं, अवसरों, पुरस्कारों आदि का आबंटन करने पर ध्यान केन्द्रित करते हैं. वितरणात्मक न्याय तुलनात्मक आबंटन की बात करता है. वह लोगों को उनकी योग्यताओं – अयोग्यताओं, आवश्यकताओं – क्षमताओं तथा उनकी उपयोगिता – हित के आधार पर न्याय देने की वकालत करता है. पर रॉल्स का सिद्धान्त एक अपवाद है. उसके अनुसार सभी सामाजिक मूल्यों (स्वतन्त्रता व अवसर, आय और सम्पत्ति, तथा आत्मसम्मान के आधार) का समाज में समान वितरण होना चाहिये जब तक कि उनमें से सभी या किसी का असमान वितरण करना सभी के लिये लाभकारी न हो. उसके अनुसार जहां असमानताएं सभी के लिये लाभकारी न हों, वहां ‘अन्याय’ होता है.

नॉज़िक के अनुसार रॉल्स का न्याय सिद्धान्त लोगों के अधिकारों का हनन करता है, अत: नैतिक नहीं. अन्य न्याय सिद्धान्तों की ही भांति रॉल्स का सिद्धान्त भी लोगों के ‘हक’ (एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट) की उपेक्षा करता है. ज्यादातर न्याय सिद्धान्तों में आवश्यकता, योग्यता और कार्य के अनुसार वितरण का एक पैटर्न होता है. इस पैटर्न को बनाये रखने के लिये या तो हमें लोगों द्वारा अपने संसाधनों के स्वतंत्र हस्तान्तरण पर नियन्त्रण करना होगा अथवा उन लोगों के संसाधनों को अधिग्रहीत करना होगा जिसे अन्य लोगों ने उन्हें स्वेच्छा से हस्तान्तरित किया होगा. इस प्रकार, बिना लोगों की स्वतन्त्रता पर ग्रहण लगाये आर्थिक समानता की स्थापना नहीं की जा सकती. इसलिये नॉज़िक ऐतिहासिक सिद्धान्त पर ध्यान आकृष्ट करता है जो यह बताता है कि संसाधनों का स्वामित्व आया कैसे ? उसका ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ संसाधनों के ‘स्वामित्व में न्याय’ पर आधारित है. और यदि मूल स्वामित्व ही अन्याय पर आधारित हो तो आज उन लोगों को मुआवज़ा कौन दे जो उस अन्याय के शिकार हुये? क्या कुछ राज्य वह मुआवज़ा दें या पश्चिमी समाज या उन लोगों के वंशज मुआवजा दें जिन्होंने शुरू में अन्याय किया? नॉज़िक के अनुसार निर्णय काफी कठिन होगा.

लॉक की तरह ही नॉज़िक भी मानता है कि किसी भी संसाधन का स्वामित्व अधिग्रहण करने से यदि सम्पूर्ण समाज पर संकट छा जाये तो उसे नियन्त्रित करना पड़ेगा. लेकिन सम्पत्ति के ऐसे अधिकारों के अतिक्रमण तभी वैध माने जायेंगे जब उससे समाज के जीवन-मरण का प्रश्न जुड़ा हो. अत: किसी भी व्यक्ति द्वारा अधिक सम्पत्ति का स्वामित्व व उस पर नियन्त्रण तब तक अन्यायपूर्ण नहीं माना जायेगा जब तक उससे समाज के अन्य व्यक्तियों के जीवन पर ही प्रश्न चिन्ह न लग जाये.

पर, नॉज़िक के सिद्धान्त में कई कमज़ोरियां हैं. प्रथम, वह यह नहीं स्पष्ट कर पाया कि ‘मूल न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व’ क्या है (उसका प्रथम सिद्धान्त न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व का है) ? मूल स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने की प्रक्रिया के आधार पर ही स्वामित्व को न्यायपूर्ण या अन्यायपूर्ण माना जा सकेगा और तभी मुआवज़े का प्रश्न उचित होगा. इसी से जुड़ा हुआ ‘सम्पत्ति का सिद्धान्त’ है जो समानता और वितरणात्मक न्याय के लिये बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है. हालांकि नॉज़िक व्यक्ति के सम्पत्ति के प्राकृतिक अधिकार को राज्य में भी बनाये रखना चाहता है पर इसका उसने कोई सटीक व संतोषजनक तरीका नहीं बताया. नॉज़िक के अनुसार चूंकि वितरण करने योग्य प्रत्येक संसाधन पर लोगों का पहले से ही स्वामित्व होता है अत: समानता के लिये किसी पैटर्न युक्त वितरण से समानता की स्थापना स्वतन्त्रता की ही कीमत पर हो सकती है. अनेक स्वतन्त्रताएं परस्पर विरोधी होती हैं, अत: उन्हें पदसोपानीय क्रम से विन्यासित करना पड़ता है और उच्च श्रेणी की स्वतन्त्रताओं के लिये निचली श्रेणी की स्वतन्त्रताओं को त्यागना पड़ता है.

यही बात स्वतन्त्रता व समानता के सम्बन्धों पर लागू होती है. अनेक स्वतन्त्रताएं ऐसी होती हैं जिन्हें लागू करने में लोगों की ‘समान आवश्यकताएं’ प्रभावित हो सकती हैं. अत: वहां केवल स्वतन्त्रता व समानता में ही टकराहट नहीं होती, वरन् उनके विभिन्न प्रकारों में भी टकराहट होती है.

हम यह कह सकते हैं कि सभी लोगों को ‘जीवन का समान अधिकार’ प्राप्त है और इसके लिये जो न्यूनतम जरूरतें हैं (जैसे भोजन, आवास, वस्त्र, स्वास्थ्य सेवा आदि) उसके लिये सभी हकदार हैं. उसके आगे की आवश्यकताओं पर श्रेष्ठ व विवेकपूर्ण लोगों में मतभेद हो सकता है. पर मुझे लगता है कि श्रेष्ठ व विवेकीजन न केवल इस पर मतभेद रखेंगे, वरन् ‘न्यूनतम जरूरतों’ की अवधारणा पर भी मतभेद रखेंगे.

नॉज़िक के अनुसार, न्यूनतम जरूरतों जैसे भोजन, आवास, वस्त्र, स्वास्थ्य सेवाएं आदि कोई आकाशीय वस्तुएं नहीं हैं, वरन् उन पर कुछ लोगों का स्वामित्व है और वे उस पर अपना हक मान सकते हैं. कुछ लोग ऐसा कह सकते हैं कि ऐसे लोगों के हक छीनने का किसी को अधिकार नहीं है. लेकिन नॉज़िक ऐसा नहीं मानता.

नॉज़िक का मत है कि आज जिन लोगों के पास सम्पत्ति व संसाधनों का स्वामित्व है वह स्वामित्व मूल रूप में अधिग्रहण के न्यायपूर्ण सिद्धान्त के अनुरूप नहीं था, इसलिये उनके द्वारा उनका हस्तान्तरण भी न्यायपूर्ण नहीं कहा जा सकता. इस प्रकार, नॉज़िक के अनुसार न्याय के प्रथम व द्वितीय सिद्धान्तों (सम्पत्ति का न्यायपूर्ण अधिग्रहण, व सम्पत्ति का न्यायपूर्ण हस्तान्तरण) की अवहेलना से वर्तमान स्वामित्व का स्वरूप अन्यायपूर्ण है, अत:  तीसरे सिद्धान्त (अन्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व का समाधान) की आवश्यकता पड़ती है. नॉज़िक के अनुसार, अन्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व का अन्त करने की प्रक्रिया में कुछ लोगों को लग सकता है कि उनकी स्वतन्त्रता का हनन हो रहा है, पर यदि उन्होंने उस सम्पत्ति को अधिग्रहण व हस्तान्तरण के न्यायपूर्ण सिद्धान्त के अनुरूप नहीं प्राप्त किया, तो उन्हें उस सम्पत्ति पर कोई अधिकार नहीं है और उस सम्पत्ति पर हस्तक्षेप कोई अन्याय नहीं. पर ऐसा हस्तक्षेप चाहे जितना जरूरी व न्यायपूर्ण हो, उससे यह उम्मीद लगाना ठीक नहीं कि वह सम्पत्ति व संसाधनों का समतापूर्ण वितरण करेगा.

अन्य अनुदारवादियों के विपरीत, नॉज़िक का ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ सम्पत्ति के आमूल-चूल पुनर्वितरण का समर्थन करता है, जब तक कि यह प्रमाणित न किया जाये कि मूलरूप में सम्पत्ति को न्यायपूर्ण तरीके से प्राप्त किया गया था. पर इससे कुछ मूलभूत प्रश्न उठते हैं : कैसे पता लगे कि लोगों की सम्पत्तियां न्यायपूर्ण तरीके से प्राप्त की गई? यदि उनके द्वारा अन्यायपूर्ण तरीके से स्वामित्व प्राप्त किया गया, तो उसका समाधान कैसे हो? किन-किन क्षेत्रों (जैसे – सम्पत्ति, आवास, स्वास्थ्य सेवा या अन्य) में समाधान लागू होगा? और कौन इस समाधान को लागू करेगा? यदि इसकी जिम्मेदारी राज्य को दी जाये तो हमें वर्तमान राज्य की अपेक्षा एक सक्रिय व व्यापक उत्तरदायित्व निभाने वाला राज्य मिल जायेगा. जिसमें रहना शायद हम लोग पसन्द न करें. ये सभी प्रश्न वास्तव में ‘समाधान के सिद्धान्त’ की जरूरतों की ओर इशारा करते हैं. इस दृष्टि से नॉज़िक की पुस्तक एक महत्वपूर्ण संकेत देती है.

पुनर्लेखन – संपादक एवं शोधार्थी शोध मण्डल

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘थ्योरी एण्ड सोसाइटी’ वाल्यूम 3, संख्या 3 (ऑटम 1976),पृष्ठ 437-458 से साभार उद्धृत. मूल लेख ‘रॉबर्ट्स नॉज़िक्स एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

Post navigation

PREVIOUS POST:वाल्ज़र : उदारवाद की समुदायवादी समालोचना

5,018 comments

  1. I just want to say I am newbie to blogs and really liked your page. Likely I’m want to bookmark your blog post . You really come with good articles and reviews. With thanks for revealing your webpage.

  2. Woah I’m just truly digging the design and style/strategy of this web page. It is easy, nevertheless excellent. Much more frequently than not it is tough to acquire the excellent involving excellent usability along with visual appearance. I have to say you have carried out a amazing task. In addition, your web site starts super fast personally with World wide web explorer. Exceptional Web site

  3. An excellent share, I just offered this onto a colleague that was doing a little evaluation on this. And also he in fact purchased me breakfast due to the fact that I discovered it for him. smile. So let me reword that: Thnx for the reward! Yet yeah Thnkx for spending the moment to discuss this, I feel highly regarding it and also enjoy reading more on this topic. Preferably, as you end up being competence, would certainly you mind upgrading your blog site with even more information? It is extremely handy for me. Huge thumb up for this post!

  4. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d most certainly donate to this fantastic blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will share this website with my Facebook group. Talk soon!

  5. This website is actually a walk-through for every one of the information you desired regarding this and also didn?t know that to ask. Glance right here, and also you?ll definitely uncover it.

  6. Wonderful beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your site, how could i subscribe for a blog site? The account helped me a acceptable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  7. The next time I read a blog site, I wish that it doesn’t disappoint me as long as this one. I imply, I understand it was my selection to read, but I in fact believed youd have something fascinating to claim. All I listen to is a number of yawping about something that you can take care of if you werent as well hectic searching for attention.

  8. I was recommended this web site by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my problem. You are amazing! Thanks!

  9. Its like you read my mind! You appear to grasp so much about this, like you wrote the ebook in it or something. I believe that you can do with a few % to drive the message home a bit, but instead of that, that is wonderful blog. An excellent read. I will definitely be back.

  10. Can I just say what a reduction to seek out someone who truly is aware of what theyre talking about on the internet. You undoubtedly know easy methods to carry a problem to light and make it important. Extra folks have to read this and understand this side of the story. I cant imagine youre not more well-liked because you undoubtedly have the gift.

  11. Hello there, I found your site by the use of Google at the same time as looking for a related topic, your web site came up, it seems great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  12. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch as I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thanks for lunch!

  13. Odwróć uwagę Jedną z pierwszych rzeczy, które powinieneś zrobić, aby pozbyć się niechcianej erekcji, jest zastanowienie się nad czymś innym. Nie myśl o erekcji i unikaj myślenia pobudzającego myśli. Zamiast tego pomyśl o czymś, co cię rozproszy, na przykład trudne słowo lub problem matematyczny.

  14. Your style is really unique compared to other folks I’ve read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I will just book mark this blog.

  15. Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on blogs I stumbleupon every day. It will always be exciting to read through content from other authors and practice something from their websites.

  16. I think other web-site proprietors should take this website as an model, very clean and great user friendly style and design, as well as the content. You are an expert in this topic!

  17. I was extremely delighted to find this web-site. I intended to thanks for your time for this fantastic read!! I definitely enjoying every bit of it and also I have you bookmarked to take a look at new things you article.

  18. Thanks for your intriguing article. Other thing is that mesothelioma is generally a result of the inhalation of material from asbestos fiber, which is a very toxic material. It really is commonly viewed among individuals in the building industry who may have long experience of asbestos. It’s also caused by residing in asbestos insulated buildings for years of time, Inherited genes plays an important role, and some consumers are more vulnerable to the risk than others.

  19. I simply want to mention I am very new to weblog and certainly savored this blog. Probably I’m likely to bookmark your website . You surely come with impressive articles. Many thanks for sharing your blog.

  20. An added important area is that if you are a mature person, travel insurance intended for pensioners is something you should make sure you really contemplate. The mature you are, a lot more at risk you will be for having something awful happen to you while in most foreign countries. If you are not covered by a number of comprehensive insurance policy, you could have many serious issues. Thanks for expressing your suggestions on this web site.

  21. Good post. I learn something new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon every day. It’s always helpful to read through articles from other writers and use a little something from their web sites.

  22. One other thing to point out is that an online business administration training course is designed for students to be able to easily proceed to bachelor’s degree programs. The 90 credit certification meets the lower bachelor college degree requirements so when you earn your own associate of arts in BA online, you will have access to the most recent technologies with this field. Some reasons why students want to be able to get their associate degree in business is because they are interested in the field and want to find the general training necessary in advance of jumping in a bachelor education program. Thx for the tips you provide in the blog.

  23. Your style is unique in comparison to other people I’ve read stuff from. Thank you for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I’ll just bookmark this blog.

  24. Howdy! This blog post could not be written any better! Looking at this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept preaching about this. I will forward this post to him. Fairly certain he will have a very good read. Thanks for sharing!

  25. Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Thank you so much, However I am experiencing troubles with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t join it. Is there anybody else having the same RSS problems? Anyone who knows the answer will you kindly respond? Thanks!

  26. I am glad for writing to let you be aware of of the nice encounter my wife’s daughter went through using your web page. She came to understand several issues, with the inclusion of what it is like to have an amazing giving mood to get the rest with ease gain knowledge of some grueling subject matter. You really exceeded our expected results. Many thanks for offering those essential, safe, explanatory and easy tips on that topic to Emily.

  27. You are my inspiration, I possess few blogs and often run out from post :). “To die for a religion is easier than to live it absolutely.” by Jorge Luis Borges.

  28. you are actually a just right webmaster. The website loading speed is amazing. It kind of feels that you’re doing any distinctive trick. Furthermore, The contents are masterpiece. you have performed a excellent activity in this matter!

  29. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blog that’s equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, you have hit the nail on the head. The issue is something not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. I’m very happy I came across this during my search for something regarding this.

  30. This is the best blog site for any person that wishes to learn about this subject. You recognize a lot its practically hard to suggest with you (not that I actually would want?HaHa). You certainly placed a new spin on a subject thats been written about for many years. Wonderful stuff, simply terrific!

  31. Next time I read a blog, Hopefully it won’t fail me as much as this particular one. After all, Yes, it was my choice to read through, however I actually believed you would probably have something helpful to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something that you could possibly fix if you weren’t too busy seeking attention.

  32. naturally like your web-site but you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very troublesome to tell the truth nevertheless I’ll definitely come back again.

  33. I blog often and I truly thank you for your content. This great article has truly peaked my interest. I am going to take a note of your blog and keep checking for new details about once per week. I subscribed to your Feed as well.

  34. Wonderful work! This is the type of information that should be shared around the net. Shame on the search engines for not positioning this post higher! Come on over and visit my site . Thanks =)

  35. I want to to thank you for this fantastic read!! I definitely enjoyed every little bit of it. I have got you bookmarked to look at new stuff you post…

  36. Right here is the perfect blog for anyone who really wants to find out about this topic. You know so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You definitely put a new spin on a topic that’s been discussed for years. Excellent stuff, just great.

  37. This website is truly a walk-through for all of the information you desired concerning this and also didn?t understand who to ask. Glimpse right here, as well as you?ll most definitely find it.

  38. Really interesting subject, appreciate it intended for posting. «I usually do not pretend to know exactly where many ignorant many men sure-that is all this agnosticism means. » by Clarence Darrow.

  39. I in addition to my pals have been going through the great information located on the website and suddenly I had a terrible feeling I had not thanked you for those strategies. My young men ended up absolutely warmed to read them and already have definitely been tapping into these things. Thank you for being indeed kind as well as for making a choice on some impressive subjects millions of individuals are really wanting to discover. Our honest regret for not expressing appreciation to earlier.

  40. I need to to thank you for this fantastic read!! I certainly enjoyed every bit of it. I have you saved as a favorite to look at new things you post…

  41. Can I simply just say what a relief to find someone that truly understands what they are discussing over the internet. You definitely know how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More and more people have to look at this and understand this side of your story. I was surprised that you are not more popular because you most certainly possess the gift.

  42. It is perfect time to make some plans for the long run and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I may I want to suggest you some interesting issues or tips. Perhaps you can write next articles relating to this article. I desire to learn even more things approximately it!

  43. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a co-worker who has been doing a little homework on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending the time to talk about this topic here on your website.

  44. Hey there! I’ve been reading your site for a while now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout out from Porter Texas! Just wanted to tell you keep up the great job!

  45. I’m impressed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blogthat’s both equally educative and interesting, and let me tell you,you have hit the nail on the head. The problem is somethingwhich too few folks are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy I stumbled across this during my hunt for something concerning this.

  46. Thanks for your tips. One thing we have noticed is banks plus financial institutions really know the spending routines of consumers as well as understand that most of the people max out and about their credit cards around the holidays. They smartly take advantage of this particular fact and then start flooding your inbox and snail-mail box together with hundreds of 0 APR credit card offers shortly when the holiday season concludes. Knowing that if you are like 98 in the American community, you’ll leap at the opportunity to consolidate financial debt and move balances to 0 interest rates credit cards.

  47. Heya this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding know-how so I wanted to get guidance from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

  48. Spot on with this write-up, I really feel this site needs far more attention. I’ll probably be returning to read through more, thanks for the information!

  49. Hey very cool site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb .. I will bookmark your website and take the feeds additionally…I am glad to seek out a lot of helpful info right here within the post, we’d like develop more strategies on this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  50. Your style is very unique compared to other folks I’ve read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I will just bookmark this web site.

  51. Hiya, I’m really glad I have found this info. Nowadays bloggers publish only about gossip and net stuff and this is really annoying. A good web site with interesting content, this is what I need. Thank you for making this website, and I’ll be visiting again. Do you do newsletters by email?

  52. Greetings, I believe your website may be having browser compatibility problems. Whenever I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine however when opening in IE, it has some overlapping issues. I simply wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Aside from that, fantastic blog.

  53. There are some interesting points in this short article but I don?t recognize if I see all of them facility to heart. There is some legitimacy however I will hold opinion till I consider it further. Excellent short article, thanks and also we desire extra! Included in FeedBurner also

  54. Hiya, I am really glad I have found this info. Today bloggers publish only about gossip and web stuff and this is actually irritating. A good blog with interesting content, this is what I need. Thanks for making this web-site, and I will be visiting again. Do you do newsletters by email?

  55. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a bit, but instead of that, this is magnificent blog. An excellent read. I’ll certainly be back.

  56. Very interesting information!Perfect just what I was looking for! “If you want to test your memory, try to recall what you were worrying about one year ago today.” by Rotarian.

  57. Really when someone doesn’t know then its up to other visitors that they will assist, so here it happens.|

  58. Everything is very open with a clear clarification of the challenges. It was definitely informative. Your site is very helpful. Thank you for sharing!|

  59. My brother suggested I might like this blog. He was totally right. This post actually made my day. You can not imagine just how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!|

  60. That is very interesting, You are an overly professional blogger.
    I’ve joined your rss feed and sit up for searching for
    extra of your fantastic post. Also, I’ve shared your website in my social networks!

  61. Great blog you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any discussion boards that cover the same topics talked about in this article? I’d really love to be a part of community where I can get feedback from other experienced individuals that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Thank you!|

  62. wonderful publish, very informative. I’m wondering why the other specialists of this sector don’t understand this. You must proceed your writing. I am confident, you’ve a huge readers’ base already!|

  63. I was very pleased to uncover this website. I wanted to thank you for ones time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely appreciated every part of it and I have you book marked to look at new stuff in your web site.

  64. I’m curious to find out what blog platform you’re utilizing? I’m having some small security problems with my latest blog and I’d like to find something more safe. Do you have any recommendations?|

  65. Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Many thanks, However I am experiencing issues with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t join it. Is there anyone else getting the same RSS issues? Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond? Thanx!!|

  66. You’ve made some really good points there. I looked on the internet to learn more about the issue and found most people will go along with your views on this website.|

  67. Hi there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it is truly informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you continue this in future. A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!|

  68. Asking questions are genuinely pleasant thing if you are not understanding anything totally, except this piece of writing provides pleasant understanding yet.|

  69. It’s actually a great and helpful piece of info. I am satisfied that
    you simply shared this helpful information with us.

    Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  70. Next time I read a blog, Hopefully it won’t disappoint me just as much as this one. I mean, Yes, it was my choice to read through, however I really believed you would have something interesting to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of moaning about something you can fix if you weren’t too busy seeking attention.

  71. That is very attention-grabbing, You are an overly professional blogger.
    I have joined your rss feed and look ahead to in search of extra of your wonderful post.
    Additionally, I’ve shared your website in my social networks!

  72. Hello there, I found your web site via Google while looking for a related topic, your website came up, it looks good. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  73. Have you ever considered creating an e-book or guest authoring on other websites? I have a blog based on the same information you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my audience would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e-mail.

  74. Nice post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed!
    Very helpful information specifically the
    closing part 🙂 I deal with such info a lot.
    I was looking for this particular info for a very long
    time. Thanks and good luck.

  75. Great post. I was checking continuously this blog and I’m inspired!
    Very helpful information particularly the last section :
    ) I deal with such info much. I was looking
    for this particular information for a very long
    time. Thanks and best of luck.

  76. It’s really a nice and useful piece of info. I’m glad that you just shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.|

  77. What a stuff of un-ambiguity and preserveness of valuable familiarity on the topic of unexpected feelings.|

  78. Hi! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading your articles. Can you suggest any other blogs/websites/forums that deal with the same subjects? Thanks for your time!|

  79. It’s really a nice and helpful piece of info. I am glad that you shared this useful info with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.|

  80. Having read this I believed it was very enlightening. I appreciate you spending some time and energy to put this content together. I once again find myself personally spending way too much time both reading and posting comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile!|

  81. I should say also believe that mesothelioma cancer is a scarce form of melanoma that is generally found in individuals previously exposed to asbestos. Cancerous tissues form in the mesothelium, which is a protecting lining which covers a lot of the body’s bodily organs. These cells usually form inside lining of the lungs, abdominal area, or the sac which actually encircles one’s heart. Thanks for giving your ideas.

  82. Having read this I believed it was extremely informative. I appreciate you taking the time and energy to put this content together. I once again find myself personally spending a significant amount of time both reading and leaving comments. But so what, it was still worth it.

  83. I haven’t checked in here for some time since I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are good quality so I guess I’ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

  84. Throughout the awesome design of things you’ll receive a B- for hard work. Where exactly you lost me personally was first on your details. You know, it is said, the devil is in the details… And that couldn’t be more true at this point. Having said that, allow me say to you what exactly did deliver the results. Your text is definitely highly persuasive which is probably why I am making an effort to opine. I do not really make it a regular habit of doing that. 2nd, whilst I can certainly notice the jumps in logic you come up with, I am not certain of exactly how you seem to connect the ideas that help to make your conclusion. For now I shall yield to your issue however wish in the near future you link your facts better.

  85. Aw, this was an exceptionally nice post. Taking a few minutes and actual effort to create a superb article… but what can I say… I procrastinate a lot and don’t seem to get anything done.

  86. Appreciating the commitment you put into your blog and detailed information you present.
    It’s good to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same old rehashed information. Fantastic
    read! I’ve saved your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds
    to my Google account.

  87. Good day! This post could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my good old room mate! He always kept chatting about this. I will forward this page to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read. Thanks for sharing!

  88. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message home a bit, but other than that, this is magnificent blog. A great read. I’ll certainly be back.

  89. you are actually a excellent webmaster. The web site loading pace is amazing. It sort of feels that you are doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have performed a great activity on this matter!

  90. Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with the pictures on this blog loading? I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog. Any responses would be greatly appreciated.

  91. I am usually to running a blog and i really admire your content. The write-up has really highs my interest. I will bookmark your own web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new data.

  92. Today, I went to the beach with my children. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She placed the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is totally off topic but I had to tell someone!|

  93. Thank you, I have just been searching for information about this
    topic for a long time and yours is the best I have came upon till now.

    However, what concerning the botytom line? Are youu
    positive about tthe source?

  94. Have you ever thought about publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?
    I have a blog based upon on the same subjects you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information.
    I know my viewers would value your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free
    to send me an e mail.

  95. I will right away clutch your rss as I can not find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please let me understand in order that I may just subscribe. Thanks.

  96. Wow! This can be one of the most useful blogs we have ever come across on thesubject. Basically excellent article! I am also an expert in this topic so I can understand your hard work.

  97. I have been browsing online greater than 3 hours today, but I by no means found any fascinating article like yours. It’s pretty price enough for me. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made excellent content material as you probably did, the net will likely be a lot more helpful than ever before.|

  98. Woah! I’m really enjoying the template/theme of this blog. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s tough to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and visual appeal. I must say that you’ve done a amazing job with this. Additionally, the blog loads extremely quick for me on Chrome. Outstanding Blog!|

  99. Howdy! Quick question that’s entirely off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My blog looks weird when browsing from my iphone 4. I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able to correct this issue. If you have any recommendations, please share. Thank you!

  100. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a colleague who was doing a little homework on this. And he in fact ordered me breakfast due to the fact that I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending some time to talk about this subject here on your internet site.

  101. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently fast.|

  102. We are a gaggle of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community. Your site provided us with valuable information to work on. You have done a formidable job and our whole community can be grateful to you.|

  103. It’s nearly impossible to find well-informed people about this subject, but you sound like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

  104. What i don’t realize is in reality how you’re no longer really much more neatly-favored than you might be now. You are so intelligent. You understand thus considerably on the subject of this subject, produced me in my view consider it from so many varied angles. Its like men and women don’t seem to be fascinated unless it’s one thing to do with Lady gaga! Your individual stuffs great. At all times deal with it up!|

  105. Hi! I simply would like to give you a huge thumbs up for the great info you have right here on this post. I am returning to your website for more soon.

  106. Just want to say your article is as astonishing. The clearness in your post is simply great and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission allow me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable work.

  107. Hello there! I just wish to offer you a big thumbs up for the excellent information you have here on this post. I am coming back to your web site for more soon.

  108. Nice post. I was checking constantly this weblog and I’m
    inspired! Very helpful info specially the closing phase 🙂
    I deal with such information much. I was seeking this particular information for a long time.
    Thank you and best of luck.

    My page :: pmp software (gust.com)

  109. Hello there! This article could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He constantly kept preaching about this. I’ll forward this post to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. I appreciate you for sharing!

  110. Hi there, simply was aware of your weblog through Google, and found that it’s truly informative. I’m going to watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future. Many other folks will be benefited out of your writing. Cheers!|

  111. Pingback: tadalafil online
  112. Hello there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it is really informative. I am going to watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you continue this in future. Many people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  113. I do agree with all of the ideas you have presented in your post. They are very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for starters. Could you please extend them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

  114. You are so awesome! I don’t suppose I have read a single thing like this before. So good to find somebody with unique thoughts on this topic. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing that’s needed on the web, someone with a bit of originality.

  115. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my site so i came to “return the favor”.I am attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  116. Your style is really unique in comparison to other folks I have read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I will just book mark this web site.

  117. Appreciating the persistence you put into your site and in depth information you provide. It’s good to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same outdated rehashed information. Fantastic read! I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  118. This is the perfect site for anybody who wants to understand this topic. You know a whole lot its almost hard to argue with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a new spin on a subject that’s been written about for ages. Wonderful stuff, just great.

  119. This is a good tip especially to those fresh to the blogosphere. Simple but very accurate information… Thanks for sharing this one. A must read article.

  120. Hiya very nice website!! Man .. Excellent .. Superb ..
    I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds also? I am happy to search out
    a lot of helpful information here in the post, we want develop more strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing.
    . . . . .

    Have a look at my website software (http://s.qurdo.com/2mgh6)

  121. Your style is really unique compared to other folks I have read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I will just book mark this web site.

  122. An interesting discussion is definitely worth comment. I believe that you ought to publish more on this issue, it might not be a taboo matter but generally folks don’t speak about these issues. To the next! Cheers!

  123. Simply wish to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your publish is simply excellent and i could assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine along with your permission allow me to take hold of your RSS feed to keep up to date with imminent post. Thank you one million and please continue the gratifying work.

  124. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this site. I’m hoping to see the same high-grade content from you in the future as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my own, personal blog now 😉

  125. I blog often and I seriously appreciate your information. This great article has really peaked my interest. I will book mark your website and keep checking for new details about once a week. I subscribed to your Feed as well.

  126. Have you ever considered publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog based upon on the same topics you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would value your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to send me an email.|

  127. Right here is the right webpage for anyone who hopes to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a fresh spin on a subject that’s been written about for years. Wonderful stuff, just wonderful!|

  128. The next time I read a blog, Hopefully it doesn’t disappoint me as much as this one. After all, I know it was my choice to read through, however I actually thought you would have something useful to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of moaning about something that you can fix if you weren’t too busy seeking attention.

  129. Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article.
    I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more
    of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely comeback.

    Feel free to surf to my homepage: answers (Ulrike)

  130. Can I simply claim what a relief to discover somebody who in fact recognizes what theyre discussing on the internet. You definitely recognize just how to bring a concern to light and make it important. Even more people require to read this and comprehend this side of the story. I angle believe youre not much more popular because you certainly have the gift.

  131. If some one wishes expert view on the topic of running a blog then i propose him/her to pay a visit this web site, Keep up the good job.|

  132. Nice post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed! Extremely useful info specifically the last part 🙂 I care for such info a lot. I was seeking this particular information for a very long time. Thank you and good luck.|

  133. When I initially commented I clicked the -Inform me when brand-new comments are included- checkbox as well as currently each time a comment is included I get four e-mails with the exact same remark. Exists any way you can eliminate me from that service? Many thanks!

  134. Aw, this was a really nice post. Taking a few minutes and actual effort to generate a really good article… but what can I say… I put things off a whole lot and don’t manage to get nearly anything done.

  135. Way cool! Some very valid points! I appreciate you penning this write-up plus the rest of the website is extremely good.

  136. Wonderful beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog web site? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear idea

  137. I¡¦ll right away snatch your rss feed as I can’t find your email subscription link or newsletter service. Do you have any? Please let me recognize so that I may subscribe. Thanks.

  138. Hey there! I just wish to provide a substantial thumbs up for the wonderful info you have here on this blog post. I will certainly be returning to your blog site for more quickly.

  139. Hi there! Someone in my Myspace group shared this site with us so I came to give it a look. I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Great blog and fantastic design.|

  140. Hi there! This is kind of off topic but I need some advice from an established blog. Is it hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where to start. Do you have any tips or suggestions? With thanks|

  141. After looking over a number of the blog posts on your web page, I seriously appreciate your way of writing a blog. I saved it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back in the near future. Take a look at my website too and let me know your opinion.

  142. I’m really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one these days..

  143. Greetings! Very helpful advice in this particular article! It is the little changes that make the most significant changes. Thanks for sharing!

  144. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and energy to put this short article together. I once again find myself spending a significant amount of time both reading and posting comments. But so what, it was still worth it!

  145. I am really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one these days..

  146. When someone writes an post he/she keeps the idea of a user in his/her brain that how a user can be aware of it. Thus that’s why this post is amazing. Thanks!|

  147. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I’ve truly read through anything like this before. So wonderful to discover another person with genuine thoughts on this subject. Seriously.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing that is required on the web, someone with a bit of originality.

  148. I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my problem. You’re incredible! Thanks!

  149. When I initially commented I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I receive four emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a means you can remove me from that service? Appreciate it.

  150. excellent post, very informative. I wonder why the other specialists of this sector don’t notice this. You should continue your writing. I am confident, you have a huge readers’ base already!

  151. I’m amazed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s equally educative and entertaining, and without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the head. The problem is an issue that not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. Now i’m very happy that I came across this in my hunt for something regarding this.

  152. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this site. I am hoping to see the same high-grade content from you later on as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own, personal blog now 😉

  153. Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyway, just wanted to say wonderful blog!

  154. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your weblog. You have some really great articles and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please shoot me an email if interested. Regards!

  155. I’m still learning from you, while I’m trying to reach my goals. I certainly love reading everything that is written on your site.Keep the stories coming. I loved it!

  156. Wow! This can be one particular of the most helpful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Excellent. I am also an expert in this topic so I can understand your effort.

  157. obviously like your web-site however you need to check the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling problems and I to find it very bothersome to tell the truth however I will definitely come back again.|

  158. Having read this I thought it was really informative. I appreciate you finding the time and energy to put this information together. I once again find myself spending a lot of time both reading and posting comments. But so what, it was still worth it.

  159. Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs? I have a blog centered on the same topics you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e mail.|

  160. This excellent website definitely has all the info I needed concerning this subject and didn’t know who to ask. |

  161. I¡¦ve been exploring for a little bit for any high-quality articles or weblog posts on this sort of area . Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this site. Studying this information So i am satisfied to express that I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed. I such a lot surely will make certain to do not overlook this site and give it a look regularly.

  162. Whats up very nice website!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb ..
    I will bookmark your web site and take the feeds additionally?
    I am happy to seek out a lot of useful info right here in the post, we’d like
    develop extra techniques in this regard, thanks for
    sharing. . . . . .

    Also visit my page :: answers (http://www.cplusplus.com)

  163. After looking at a handful of the articles on your web site, I really appreciate your technique of writing a blog. I saved it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back soon. Please visit my website as well and let me know your opinion.

  164. After looking into a number of the articles on your blog, I seriously like your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back in the near future. Please check out my web site as well and tell me what you think.

  165. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I have joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your great post. Also, I’ve shared your website in my social networks!

  166. My husband and i have been so thrilled that Peter could finish up his basic research from the precious recommendations he got through your web site. It’s not at all simplistic just to happen to be offering key points that many some people may have been trying to sell. We do understand we now have the blog owner to give thanks to for this. Most of the illustrations you’ve made, the straightforward website menu, the friendships you can help to foster – it is everything impressive, and it’s facilitating our son and the family do think this situation is brilliant, which is really essential. Thank you for the whole thing!

  167. Thank you for sharing superb informations. Your website is so cool. I’m impressed by the details that you¡¦ve on this web site. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for more articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched all over the place and just couldn’t come across. What a perfect web site.

  168. Way cool! Some very valid points! I appreciate you writing this write-up plus the rest of the
    website is also really good.

    Also visit my site – diagram; Earnest,

  169. You’re so interesting! I do not think I’ve truly read through a single thing like that before. So wonderful to discover someone with a few genuine thoughts on this subject. Seriously.. many thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing that is required on the web, someone with a bit of originality.

  170. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blog that’s equally educative and engaging, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The issue is an issue that not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. Now i’m very happy I stumbled across this during my search for something regarding this.

  171. I like what you guys are up too. Such clever work and reporting!
    Carry on the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll.
    I think it’ll improve the value of my site :).

    Also visit my web blog; diagram (Brenna)

  172. After I initially left a comment I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I receive 4 emails with the same comment. There has to be a means you are able to remove me from that service? Thanks.

  173. Wonderful post. I discover something extra challenging on various blogs day-to-day. It will always be boosting to check out content from various other authors and practice a something from their shop. I?d choose to use some with the web content on my blog site whether you don?t mind. Natually I?ll offer you a link on your web blog site. Thanks for sharing.

  174. The next time I check out a blog site, I really hope that it does not disappoint me as long as this. I mean, I understand it was my option to review, however I in fact thought youd have something intriguing to state. All I listen to is a number of grumbling concerning something that you might take care of if you werent also busy searching for focus.

  175. Your style is unique compared to other people I’ve read stuff from. Thanks for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I’ll just book mark this site.

  176. Hey! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to take a look.
    I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m book-marking
    and will be tweeting this to my followers! Terrific blog and excellent design.

    Also visit my web site; schema – Armando

  177. I blog quite often and I really thank you for your content. Your article has truly peaked my interest. I will bookmark your blog and keep checking for new information about once a week. I subscribed to your Feed as well.

  178. Hello there! Do you know if they make any plugins
    to safeguard against hackers? I’m kinda paranoid about
    losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any recommendations?

  179. Great blog post. I learn something extra difficult on different blogs daily. It will certainly always be boosting to review content from other writers as well as practice a something from their shop. I?d like to utilize some with the content on my blog whether you don?t mind. Natually I?ll provide you a link on your internet blog site. Thanks for sharing.

  180. I was recommended this web site by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. You’re incredible! Thanks!

  181. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your great post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  182. This is the best blog site for any person that intends to learn about this topic. You recognize a lot its nearly hard to say with you (not that I really would want?HaHa). You absolutely placed a new spin on a subject thats been written about for many years. Excellent things, simply great!

  183. I’m curious to find out what blog system you have been working with?
    I’m having some minor security problems with my latest website and I’d like
    to find something more safeguarded. Do you have any solutions?

  184. Do you have a spam problem on this site;
    I also am a blogger, and I was curious about your situation; many of us have
    developed some nice methods and we are looking to swap
    techniques with other folks, why not shoot me an e-mail
    if interested.

  185. Cool blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog jump out. Please let me know where you got your theme. Cheers

  186. I got what you mean , regards for posting .Woh I am glad to find this website through google. “If one does not know to which port one is sailing, no wind is favorable.” by Seneca.

  187. Excellent website. Plenty of useful information here. I’m sending it to several pals ans additionally sharing in delicious. And naturally, thanks on your sweat!

  188. Right now it sounds like BlogEngine is the best blogging platform out there right now.

    (from what I’ve read) Is that what you are using on your blog?

    Also visit my webpage :: schema (Erwin)

  189. Hi there! I could have sworn I’ve been to your blog before but after browsing through a few of the articles I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely pleased I found it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back regularly.

  190. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch because I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

  191. Your style is really unique in comparison to other people I’ve read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I’ll just book mark this site.

  192. I was more than happy to uncover this website. I want to to thank you for ones time for this particularly wonderful read!! I definitely loved every bit of it and I have you saved as a favorite to look at new things on your site.

  193. A motivating discussion is definitely worth comment. I do think that you need to write more on this issue, it might not be a taboo matter but typically people do not discuss these subjects. To the next! Best wishes!

  194. Howdy very cool site!! Man .. Excellent ..
    Superb .. I will bookmark your blog and take the feeds additionally?
    I am satisfied to seek out so many helpful info
    right here in the post, we need develop
    extra techniques in this regard, thank you for sharing.
    . . . . .

    Also visit my webpage test (v.gd)

  195. Good way of describing, and nice post to take facts on the topic of my presentation topic, which i am going to deliver in school.

  196. You are my inspiration, I own few blogs and very sporadically run out from post :
    ).

    my web-site :: [Latest] Hwmonitor Pro Download [Mac & Win] (Patsy)

  197. I will right away grab your rss feed as I can’t to find your email subscription link or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Please let me recognise so that I may subscribe. Thanks.

  198. I not to mention my guys were actually looking at the best hints on the website and all of the sudden came up with a terrible suspicion I never thanked the web site owner for those techniques. Those boys were so excited to read all of them and already have certainly been enjoying these things. Thanks for truly being very considerate and also for picking out some good areas millions of individuals are really desirous to discover. My honest apologies for not expressing gratitude to you earlier.

  199. Hi there very cool blog!! Man .. Beautiful .. Wonderful .. I will bookmark your blog and take the feeds additionally?
    I’m satisfied to seek out so many useful info here within the
    submit, we need work out more techniques in this regard, thanks for sharing.
    . . . . .

    Check out my web page … test (bit.ly)

  200. You actually make it seem really easy with your presentation however I to
    find this matter to be actually one thing which I believe
    I would never understand. It seems too complex and extremely wide for me.

    I am taking a look forward to your subsequent publish, I’ll attempt to
    get the hold of it!

  201. Good way of describing, and nice post to take facts on the topic of my presentation topic, which i am going to deliver in school.

  202. An fascinating discussion is worth comment. I believe that you should write more on this topic, it may not be a taboo subject but generally individuals are not enough to talk on such topics. To the next. Cheers

  203. Right now it seems like WordPress is the best blogging platform
    available right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you’re using on your blog?

  204. Can I simply claim what a relief to find someone that actually recognizes what theyre talking about on the internet. You absolutely know exactly how to bring a concern to light and make it important. More individuals require to read this as well as comprehend this side of the story. I cant believe youre not more popular because you definitely have the gift.

  205. Interesting article. It is extremely unfortunate that over the last 10 years, the travel industry has had to tackle terrorism, SARS, tsunamis, bird flu virus, swine flu, plus the first ever real global tough economy. Through everything the industry has really proven to be robust, resilient plus dynamic, discovering new tips on how to deal with difficulty. There are usually fresh issues and the opportunity to which the marketplace must again adapt and react.

  206. What i don’t realize is in fact how you’re now not really a lot more smartly-preferred than you may be right now. You are very intelligent. You already know therefore significantly on the subject of this topic, made me in my view consider it from so many numerous angles. Its like women and men don’t seem to be involved until it’s something to do with Girl gaga! Your individual stuffs outstanding. All the time maintain it up!

  207. Thank you for some other informative blog. Where else may just I
    get that kind of information written in such an ideal manner?
    I have a project that I’m simply now working on, and I have been at the glance out for such information.

  208. Howdy! This post couldn’t be written much better! Reading through this article reminds me of my previous roommate!
    He constantly kept preaching about this. I’ll send this information to him.

    Pretty sure he’ll have a very good read. Thanks for sharing!

  209. Hey just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Internet explorer. I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let you know. The design and style look great though! Hope you get the problem resolved soon. Cheers

  210. Merely a smiling visitant here to share the love (:, btw outstanding style and design. “The price one pays for pursuing a profession, or calling, is an intimate knowledge of its ugly side.” by James Arthur Baldwin.

  211. What’s Happening i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It positively useful and it has aided me out loads. I am hoping to give a contribution & help other users like its aided me. Good job.

  212. I have not checked in here for some time because I thought it was getting boring, but the last several posts are good quality so I guess I will add you back to my everyday bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

  213. Знаете ли вы?
    Министр социального обеспечения Израиля однажды назвала почти всех выходцев из СССР своими клиентами.
    Водитель ледового комбайна стал звездой единственного матча НХЛ, в котором принял участие.
    Вместо Плещеева озера Пётр I мог построить потешный флот на озере Неро.
    Российских легкоалетов могут сурово наказать за действия чиновников от спорта.
    Сооснователь и глава Социал-демократической партии Великобритании стал бароном.

    http://0pb8hx.com

  214. Needed to draft you one tiny word to help say thanks a lot again on your superb solutions you have shared in this article. It’s certainly surprisingly generous of you to present freely all a few individuals could have offered for sale as an electronic book in making some dough for their own end, most importantly considering that you could possibly have tried it if you ever decided. The solutions additionally worked like a good way to fully grasp that other people online have the same zeal really like mine to learn great deal more on the topic of this condition. Certainly there are numerous more enjoyable sessions ahead for folks who view your website.

  215. Yet another issue is that video games usually are serious in nature with the primary focus on knowing things rather than entertainment. Although, it has an entertainment factor to keep the kids engaged, each and every game will likely be designed to focus on a specific expertise or area, such as math or scientific disciplines. Thanks for your publication.

  216. Great work! That is the kind of information that are supposed to be shared
    across the net. Shame on Google for now not positioning this publish upper!
    Come on over and visit my website . Thank you =)

    My page; test (n9.cl)

  217. Good day very nice website!! Man .. Excellent .. Wonderful ..
    I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds additionally?

    I am happy to seek out numerous useful info right here within the post, we need develop more
    strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing. . . . .
    .

  218. Oh my goodness! a fantastic short article man. Thank you However I am experiencing concern with ur rss. Don?t recognize why Unable to sign up for it. Exists anyone getting identical rss issue? Any individual who knows kindly react. Thnkx

  219. Whats up very nice blog!! Man .. Beautiful .. Superb ..
    I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds additionally?
    I’m happy to find a lot of useful info right here
    within the put up, we’d like work out extra techniques in this regard,
    thank you for sharing. . . . . .

    Also visit my web-site: test – Casimira,

  220. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thanks, However I am having troubles with your RSS.
    I don’t know the reason why I cannot subscribe to it. Is there anybody
    else getting the same RSS issues? Anybody who knows the solution can you kindly respond?
    Thanx!!

  221. Its such as you read my thoughts! You appear to know a lot about
    this, like you wrote the book in it or something.

    I feel that you simply can do with some p.c. to power
    the message house a bit, however instead of that, that is wonderful blog.
    An excellent read. I will definitely be back.

  222. Howdy! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new iphone!

    Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and
    look forward to all your posts! Carry on the great work!

  223. I think what you said was actually very reasonable.

    However, what about this? what if you were to write a killer
    headline? I mean, I don’t wish to tell you how to run your
    blog, but what if you added a title to maybe get folk’s attention?
    I mean रॉबर्ट नॉज़िक : अराजकता, राज्य व स्वप्नलोक – Shodharthy is a little boring.
    You should peek at Yahoo’s front page and see how they create article headlines
    to get people to click. You might add a related video or a related picture
    or two to get readers interested about everything’ve got
    to say. Just my opinion, it would make your blog a little livelier.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site test [https://clck.ru]

  224. Goood post. I learn something totally new and challenging
    on sites I stumbleupon everyday. It’s always helpful to read through content from other authors and practice a little something from other
    sites.

    Also visit my blog post company

  225. There are some fascinating times in this article however I don?t know if I see every one of them facility to heart. There is some validity but I will hold opinion till I check into it further. Good post, thanks and also we want much more! Added to FeedBurner too

  226. Hi, Neat post. There’s a problem with your web site in web explorer, may test this?
    IE still is the marketplace leader and a good section of folks will leave out your fantastic
    writing due to this problem.

  227. I was just looking for this info for a while. After six hours of continuous Googleing, finally I got it in your site.
    I wonder what’s the lack of Google strategy that do not rank
    this kind of informative sites in top of the list.

    Generally the top websites are full of garbage.

    my web blog … exam (Bernadette)

  228. Good – I should certainly pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs and related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, website theme . a tones way for your customer to communicate. Excellent task.

  229. Nice blog here! Also your web site loads up fast! What web host are you using? Can I am getting your associate link in your host? I wish my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  230. I have noticed that charges for on-line degree gurus tend to be an incredible value. For instance a full Bachelor’s Degree in Communication from The University of Phoenix Online consists of Sixty credits at $515/credit or $30,900. Also American Intercontinental University Online makes available Bachelors of Business Administration with a total study course element of 180 units and a tuition fee of $30,560. Online learning has made having your certification been so detailed more than before because you could earn your degree from the comfort of your dwelling place and when you finish working. Thanks for all the tips I have certainly learned through the website.

  231. The very next time I read a blog, I hope that it doesn’t disappoint me just as much as this one. I mean, I know it was my choice to read, nonetheless I genuinely thought you would have something useful to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of moaning about something that you could fix if you weren’t too busy seeking attention.

  232. Thanks a bunch for sharing this with all of us you really understand what you are speaking about! Bookmarked. Please also consult with my site =). We can have a hyperlink exchange contract between us!

  233. Right now it looks like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right
    now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you’re using on your blog?

    Feel free to visit my web-site: test – Lynette

  234. I like what you guys are up too. Such smart work and reporting!
    Carry on the excellent works guys I’ve incorporated you
    guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my site :).

    Take a look at my web page – exam (bitly.su)

  235. I believe everything published was very logical.
    But, what about this? suppose you added a little content?
    I ain’t suggesting your information is not
    good, however suppose you added a post title that grabbed people’s attention? I mean रॉबर्ट नॉज़िक :
    अराजकता, राज्य व स्वप्नलोक – Shodharthy is a little
    boring. You should look at Yahoo’s home page and note how they create post headlines to get people
    to open the links. You might add a related video or a related pic or two to get people excited about what you’ve
    written. Just my opinion, it could bring your blog a little bit
    more interesting.

    My website :: exam; https://n9.cl/,

  236. Keep up the good piece of work, I read few blog posts on this site and I believe that your web site is very interesting and holds circles of great information.

    Also visit my page; test, Anke,

  237. Hey there! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came
    to check it out. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers!

    Exceptional blog and superb design and style.

    My web blog test (haa.su)

  238. I enjoyed reading what you had to say. Good job on this article! You are a very persuasive writer. Got suckedinto your siteforaboutthe last 30 minutes.

  239. There are some intriguing points in this post but I don?t understand if I see all of them facility to heart. There is some credibility however I will hold point of view till I look into it additionally. Good post, thanks and also we want a lot more! Contributed to FeedBurner too

  240. When I originally commented I clicked the -Alert me when new comments are included- checkbox as well as currently each time a remark is included I obtain 4 e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove me from that solution? Thanks!

  241. I think the admin of this website is genuinely working hard in support
    of his web page, because here every stuff is quality based data.