भारतीय राजनीति के विरोधाभास पिछड़ा अभिजन वर्ग, प्रगतिशील सामान्य वर्ग

नलिनी कान्त झा : भारतीय राजनीति का अत्यन्त रोचक तत्व इस तथ्य से परिलक्षित होता है कि भारत की राजनीति में नितान्त विरोधाभासी तत्वों का समावेश है जो अतिपरम्परावादी प्रतीकों एवं मान्यताओं के माध्यम से क्रियाशील हैं. भारतीयों का मतदान आचरण अधिकांशत: अतार्किक एवं बौद्धिकता विहीन है जो भारतीय राजीनितक अभिजात्य वर्ग की पिछड़ी मानसिकता से संचालित होता है. प्रत्येक निर्वाचन के समय राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर चर्चा होती है कि किन आधारों पर जनता अपने प्रत्याशी का चयन करेगी. सार्वभौमिक रूप से यह निष्कर्ष निकालना नितान्त दुष्कर होता है कि जनमानस किस तथ्य को अधिक महत्व प्रदान करेगा. भारत में राष्ट्रीय एवं प्रादेशिक स्तर पर अत्यधिक भिन्नताएं होने के कारण जनता की मनोवृत्तियों में भी भिन्नताएं होना सर्वथा स्वाभाविक है. जनमानस की समस्याएं तथा जो मुद्दे राजनीतिज्ञों द्वारा चुनावों के समय प्रचारित किये जाते हैं उनमें भी अत्यधिक अन्तर दृष्टिगोचर होते हैं. एक ओर जहां राजनीतिक अभिजन, धर्म, जाति, समुदाय इत्यादि तथ्यों को चुनावी मुद्दा बनाते हैं, दूसरी तरफ जनता मुख्यत: जल, आर्थिक परिस्थितियों एवं आधारभूत आवश्यकताओं के प्रति आकर्षित होती है. यह प्रवृत्ति जनमानस की ‘प्रगतिशीलता’ तथा अभिजात्य वर्ग के ‘पिछड़ेपन’ को परिलक्षित करती है. भारत का अभिजन सामाजिक, आर्थिक एवं शैक्षणिक स्तर पर विकसित एवं पल्लवित है जबकि सामान्य जनता अपेक्षाकृत आधुनिक है क्योंकि वह राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर जातिगत एवं साम्प्रदायिक प्रतीकों से ऊपर उठकर अपने मताधिकार का प्रयोग करती है.

इसमें कोई आश्चर्य नहीं कि आज आधुनिक संसदात्मक लोकतान्त्रिक प्रणाली के पांच दशकों के क्रियान्वयन के पश्चात् भी जातिगत तथा साम्प्रदायिक प्रतीकों ने भारत को हिंसात्मक द्वन्द्वों की पुनरावृत्ति के लिये सर्वथा प्रेरित किया है जो राजनेताओं की कुत्सित मनोवृत्ति का द्योतक है. अनेक विचारकों द्वारा इन जातिवादी एवं साम्प्रदायिक तत्वों को इस आधार पर समर्थन दिया जाता है कि वे सामाजिक जीवन की वास्तविकता एवं अस्तित्व से सम्बद्ध हैं यद्यपि वे इस तथ्य को भी स्वीकार करते हैं कि राजनेताओं को इन मान्यताओं से परे जाकर राजनीतिक क्रियाकलाप सम्पादित करने चाहिये. अजीब बिडम्बना है कि राजनीतिक दलों द्वारा जनमानस का सहयोग प्राप्त करने के लिये समुदाय को सम्प्रदाय में परिवर्तित कर दिया जाता है तथा जनता द्वारा इस युक्ति को समझकर भी राजनेता जातिवाद एवं अल्पसंख्यक-सम्प्रदायवाद को ‘सामाजिक न्याय’ एवं ‘धर्म-निरपेक्षता’ के आवरण में प्रोत्साहन देते हैं.

indian-democracy

ब्रिटिश इतिहास में जिन धार्मिक तत्वों को ब्रिटिश जनगणना के समय अत्यन्त घातक माना गया था, उन्हीं तत्वों को राजनीतिक दलों ने भारतीयों पर आरोपित किया जिसकी परिणति भारत के विभाजन तथा बहुसंख्यक एवं अल्पसंख्यक समुदाय के निर्माण के रूप में हुई. आज यह विषय वाद-विवाद के सर्वथा योग्य है कि अंग्रेजों द्वारा भारतीयों के लिए जो ‘फूट डालो व शासन करो’ की नीति का षडयन्त्र सृजित किया गया था, क्या स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्ति के पश्चात् राजनीतिक अभिजन वर्ग का यह नैतिक कर्तव्य नहीं है कि वह इस मानसिकता के परे हो, अल्पसंख्यक एवं बहुसंख्यक की खाई को पाटकर जनहित के मुद्दों को प्राथमिकता दे? किन्तु यह भारतीयों का दुर्भाग्य है कि आज तक किसी राजनेता ने स्वार्थपरक राजनीति से ऊपर उठकर इस विषय पर कदापि मनन नहीं किया. भारतीय निर्वाचन के इतिहास पर यदि विश्लेषणात्मक दृष्टि डालें तो ज्ञात होता है कि पिछले पांच दशकों में जनता ने अनेक बार अपने अधिकारों एवं समस्याओं के प्रति जागरूकता प्रदर्शित की है. यहां तक कि अशिक्षित ग्रामीण मतदाताओं को भी अपने मताधिकार की शक्ति का ज्ञान है. वे इस तथ्य से परिचित हैं कि उनका मत इस राष्ट्र की सरकार का निर्माण करेगा एवं सरकार की अकुशलता तथा अकर्मण्यता सिद्ध होने पर उसे सत्ता से विमुख होने के लिये तत्पर रहना चाहिये. इस प्रकार, स्पष्ट है कि हिंसात्मक गतिविधियां, प्रलोभन तथा राजनेताओं द्वारा सामान्यत: मत प्राप्त करने के लिये प्रयुक्त इसी प्रकार की अन्य अनैतिक प्रवृत्तियां – जातिवाद, सम्प्रदायवाद एवं भाषा इत्यादि – निश्चित रूप से निर्वाचन के समय निर्णायक नहीं हो पाती.

राजनेता प्राय: इस तथ्य को विस्मृत कर देते हैं कि भारतीय प्रजातन्त्र विश्व के उन गिने-चुने प्रजातन्त्रों में से एक हैं जहां मतदाता राजनीतिक रूप से अधिक जागरूक हैं. विदेशी विचारकों द्वारा भारतीय जनमानस का जो चित्रण किया गया है वह भी अंशत: गलत है, यद्यपि जाति एं सम्प्रदाय भारतीय राजनीति में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभा रहे हैं तथापि आर्थिक उन्नति, साक्षरता, जनता के जीवन-स्तर में सुधार इत्यादि तत्व अन्तत: भारतीय राजनीतिक-अभिजन वर्ग के भविष्य को नूतन दिशा प्रदान करेंगे. अत: यही उपयुक्त समय है जब नीति निर्धारक इस वास्विकता से अवगत हों कि राजनीतिक क्रियाशीलता के लिए परस्पर विभाजित करने वाली प्रवृत्तियों का अनुसरण न केवल राष्ट्रीय एवं प्रादेशिक एकीकरण के लिये अपितु स्वयं उनके भविष्य के लिए भी घातक है. आवश्यकता इस बात की है कि राजनीतिक दल एवं नेतृत्व भारतीय समाज में विघटनकारी प्रवृत्तियों का अतिक्रमण कर राष्ट्रीय एकीकरण एवं राष्ट्रहित की प्रवृत्तियों का अनुसरण एवं अनुपालन करें. इसके लिए सर्वप्रथम निर्वाचन पद्धति में तनिक परिवर्तन सर्वथा अपेक्षित है जिसके माध्यम से एक प्रत्याशी मात्र बहुमत प्राप्त होने पर विजयी घोषित नहीं किया जाएगा अपितु उसे सम्पूर्ण मतों का पूर्ण बहुमत प्राप्त करना नितान्त अपरिहार्य होगा. ऐसा न होने की स्थिति में दो सर्वोच्च मत प्राप्त प्रत्याशियों के मध्य चुनाव कराया जाएगा. केवल यही पद्धति इन समस्त समस्याओं का समाधान है. किन्तु यह तभी सम्भव है जब राजनीतिक अभिजन वर्ग द्वारा पूर्ण सहयोग प्रदान किया जाए.

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘द इंडियन जर्नल ऑफ पोलिटिकल साइन्स’ अंक 62, संख्या 2, जून 2001, पृष्ठ 221-240 से साभार उद्धृत. मूल लेख ‘पैराडाक्स ऑफ इंडियन पॉलिटिक्स : बैकवर्ड इलीट, फॉरवर्ड मॉस’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

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