रॉबर्ट नॉज़िक : अराजकता, राज्य व स्वप्नलोक

इस लेख में नॉज़िक की चर्चित पुस्तक ‘एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ पर तीन विद्वानों द्वारा परिचर्चा की गई है – सम्पादक

(प्रथम खण्ड : जेम्स कोलमैन)

जेम्ल कोलमैन, बोरिस फ्रैंकल, डेरेक एल. फिलिप्स : रॉबर्ट नॉज़िक प्राकृतिक अधिकारों के सिद्धान्त के प्रबल समर्थक थे. अपनी पुस्तक ‘एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ (अराजकता, राज्य व स्वप्नलोक) की शुरूआत करते हुये वे कहते हैं, ‘’व्यक्तियों के पास अधिकार हैं, और कोई व्यक्ति या समूह उन्हें छू नहीं सकता : ऐसा करना उनका उल्लंघन होगा. ये  अधिकार इतने सशक्त व व्यापक हैं कि वे इस प्रश्न को जन्म देते हैं कि क्या राज्य व उसके अधिकारी कुछ कर भी सकते हैं.’’ प्राकृतिक राज्य में निवास करने वाले ऐसे विवेकशील, स्वार्थी व अधिकार प्राप्त तथा हाब्स की परिकल्पना के अनुसार सभी से युद्ध जैसी स्थिति में रहने वाले व्यक्तियों के लिये यह पुस्तक उपरोक्त प्रश्न का उत्तर देने का प्रयास करती है.

नॉज़िक इस प्रश्न का में उत्तर तीन भागों में देते हैं और उसी के अनुरूप उन्होंने पुस्तक को तीन खण्डों में बांटा है. प्रथम खण्ड में वह जानने का प्रयास करते हैं कि प्राकृतिक अवस्था की अराजकता को छोड़ कर विवेकशील लोग कैसे आम सहमति से राज्य जैसे किसी संगठन का निर्माण कर सके. इस खण्ड में वह अराजकतावादियों के विरुद्ध तर्क देकर यह सिद्ध करते हैं कि यह ‘प्रभावी संरक्षक समुदाय’ राज्य जैसा चरित्र अर्थात् ‘बाध्यकारी व हिंसा पर एकाधिकार’ रखने के बावजूद एक ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ की अवधारणा को ही प्राप्त करता है. द्वितीय खण्ड में वह बताते हैं कि व्यक्तियों के अधिकारों का हनन किये बिना ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ से आगे नहीं जाया जा सकता. यदि राज्य हस्तक्षेप कर किसी भी प्रकार अधिकारों का पुनर्वितरण करता है तो यह उन व्यक्तियों के अधिकारों का उल्लंघन होगा जिनसे राज्य स्वयं अधिकार प्राप्त करता है. और, तृतीय खण्ड में वह दिखाने का प्रयास करते हैं कि कैसे एक ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ का बाध्यकारी व सक्रिय समाज से तालमेल बैठाकर एक स्वप्नलोकीय आदर्श का निर्माण करता है.

नॉजिक का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण उद्देश्य न तो अराजकतावादियों को यह दिखाकर पराजित करना था कि बिना अधिकारों के उल्लंघन के भी राज्य की स्थापना हो सकती है और नही अपने स्वप्नलोक को आदर्श व्यवस्था के रूप में प्रस्तुत करना था, वरन् यह कि ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ से ज्यादा किसी भी राज्य की अवधारणा वैयक्तिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन करती है और इसलिए अन्यायपूर्ण है. इसी बिन्दु पर नॉज़िक की सर्वाधिक रुचि थी और यहीं पर उसकी पुस्तक समाज-विज्ञान की समकालीन प्रवृत्तियों से टकराती है. अत: मैं अपना विमर्श इसी खण्ड पर केन्द्रित रखूंगा.

इस खण्ड(दो) में नॉज़िक अपने सहयोगी जॉन रॉल्स के ‘न्याय सिद्धांत’ से टकराता है. रॉल्स ‘वितरणात्मक न्याय’ की वकालत करता है; नॉज़िक इसके विरोध में वितरणात्मक न्याय सिद्धान्तों की चर्चा करता है, फिर अपना सिद्धान्त प्रतिपादित करता है. नॉज़िक उदाहरण देकर बताता है कि कैसे वितरणात्मक न्याय भू-सम्पत्तियों के ‘वितरण में’ ‘न्याय’ की समस्या खड़ी कर देता है क्योंकि वहां पूर्वाग्रह काम करता है. उसके अनुसार भू-स्वामित्व के सम्बन्ध में ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ ज्यादा ठीक है. इस सिद्धान्त के तीन घटक हैं –

(i) भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने में न्याय: न्याय सिद्धान्त के अनुसार भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करना

(ii) भू-स्वामित्व हस्तान्तरण में न्याय : किसी अन्य सिद्धान्त के अनुसार हस्तान्तरित भूमि प्राप्त करना.

(iii) अन्याय का निराकरण : उपरोक्त विधियों (i) व (ii) के अतिरिक्त किसी अन्य विधि से भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने का हक किसी को नहीं. यदि किसी के पास इन दो विधियों के अलावा किसी अन्य विधि से भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त है तो वह अन्यायपूर्ण है और उस अन्याय का निराकरण आवश्यक है – अर्थात् निराकरण के लिये उन परिस्थितियों को पैदा करना होगा जिसके अन्तर्गत न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व व हस्तान्तरण सम्भव हो सके.

नॉज़िक ‘न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व’ व ‘न्यायपूर्ण हस्तान्तरण’ को परिभाषित नहीं करता और न ही यह बताता है कि न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व व हस्तान्तरण के लिये उपयुक्त पात्र कौन है. पर उसके सिद्धान्तों के अनुसार भूमि का स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने की प्रक्रिया में ही न्याय को देखा जा सकता है, जबकि रॉल्स, उपयोगितावादी और अन्य वितरणात्मक सिद्धान्तवादी भू-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने की प्रक्रिया की उपेक्षा करते हैं और केवल ‘वितरण’ पर ही ध्यान देते हैं. अपने ‘ऐतिहासिक’ सिद्धान्त की तुलना में वह उन्हें ‘अन्तिम-उत्पाद-सिद्धान्त’ की संज्ञा देते हैं.

ऐसे सिद्धातों के अन्तर्गत वितरणात्मक न्याय को यदि कानूनी स्वरूप दे दिया जाये तो प्रत्येक नागरिक को सम्पूर्ण सामाजिक उत्पाद के एक अंश पर कानूनी हक प्राप्त हो जायेगा – बिना यह फिक्र किये कि कौन उस उत्पाद का वर्तमान स्वामी है और उसे उस पर स्वामित्व कैसे मिला ? यह स्वामित्वधारी नागरिकों के उत्पादों में आंशिक-स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने जैसा है. इस प्रकार नॉज़िक वर्तमान राज्य के पुनर्वितरणात्मक स्वरूप को व्यक्ति के लिये अच्छा नहीं मानता. इसके अन्तर्गत राज्य सम्पन्न व्यक्तियों की परिसम्पत्तियों का अधिग्रहण कर उसे विपन्न व्यक्तियों में बांट देगा. इस पूरे वितरण में भाग लेने के लिये ऐसे सम्पन्न व्यक्तियों को रॉल्स के न्याय पर आधारित समाज कोई लाभ भी नहीं देता.

रॉल्स इसका प्रत्युत्तर देता है. मूल स्थिति में विवेकशील व्यक्ति को यह भान नहीं था कि आगे चलकर वह सम्पन्न होगा या विपन्न. और उसने उन संस्थाओं को स्वीकार किया जो विपन्नता में उसकी मदद करें. मूल स्थित में लोगों ने इसीलिये संस्थाएं स्वीकार की ताकि वे सम्पन्नता में उनसे लेकर उन्हें उनकी विपन्नता में (अन्यों से लेकर) लौटा सकें. इस तर्क को काटने के लिये नॉज़िक को अज्ञानता की मूल स्थिति, पर वह ऐसा नहीं करता और, परिणामस्वरूप, उसके सिद्धान्त में कुछ कमियां/कमजोरियां आ जाती हैं.

रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों मानते हैं कि अज्ञानता की स्थिति में भी विवेकशील लोग यह तय कर लेंगे कि सामाजिक उत्पाद का बंटवारा कैसे हो. लेकिन ऐसा हो ही क्यों ? इसके पूर्व सामाजिक समझौते का प्रश्न उठता है – कि लोग कौन से अधिकार उस सामूहिकता (जैसे राज्य या सामान्य इच्छा) को देंगे और कौन से अधिकार अपने पास रखेंगे. जब इस प्रश्न का निपटारा हो जायेगा तभी यह स्पष्ट हो पायेगा कि भू-स्वामित्व के पुनर्वितरण का क्या परिणाम होगा. जैसा कि हम जानते हैं रूसो सभी अधिकारों के हस्तान्तरण की बात करता है, पर लॉक सीमित अधिकारों को ही राज्य को सौंपता है. लेकिन जब ऐसा कोई भी सामाजिक समझौता हो जायेगा, तब इस बात की संभावना ही कहां रह जायेगी कि लोग यह तय कर सकें कि सामाजिक उत्पाद का बंटवारा कैसे हो – जैसा कि रॉल्स या नॉज़िक सोचते हैं?

व्यक्ति के लिये सुरक्षित अधिकारों के क्षेत्र में यदि व्यक्ति के अपने श्रम से पैदा की गई या दूसरों के द्वारा स्वेच्छा से दी गई सम्पत्ति को रखने का हक हो तो नॉज़िक का ‘एन्टाइटिलमेण्ट सिद्धान्त’ निकलता है. लेकिन यदि सभी अधिकार सामूहिकता को हस्तान्तरित हो जायें (जैसा रूसो में) तब रॉल्स के वितरणात्मक न्याय की तरफ बढ़ा जा सकता है.

अत: जहां नॉज़िक की मान्यता – कि अज्ञानता की मूल स्थिति में विवेकशील लोग रॉल्स के भिन्नता सिद्धान्त तक नहीं पहुंच सकते – सही है, वहीं यह कि उससे वितरणात्मक न्याय के किसी सिद्धान्त तक नहीं पहुंचा जा सकता – गलत है. वास्तव में वे ऐसे ही किसी सिद्धान्त का चयन कर सकते हैं क्योंकि मूल स्थिति में लोग उन अधिकारों का निर्धारण करेंगे जिन्हें वे एक व्यक्ति के रूप में तथा एक सामूहिकता के रूप में प्रयोग कर सकें और यही निर्धारण इस बात को तय करेगा कि एक व्यक्ति दूसरे व्यक्ति के साथ कैसा व्यवहार करेगा और उसे प्रभावित करने के लिये केन्द्रीय सत्ता क्या कर सकती है. हम नॉज़िक से पूछ सकते हैं कि उसके ‘एन्टाइटिलमेण्ट के सिद्धान्त’ की शुरुआत समाज में कैसे होगी? चाहे भले ही हम वैयक्तिक अधिकारों से शुरू करें, पर ‘एन्टाइटिलमेण्ट सिद्धान्त’ तो सामूहिक रूप से ही लागू होगा तथा वैधता प्राप्त करेगा. पर यह वैधता आयेगी कैसे ? अज्ञानता की मूल स्थिति में विवेकशील लोगों के समझौते द्वारा. इस प्रकार नॉजिक के ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ के लिये सामाजिक समझौते की अपरिहार्यता स्वयं सिद्ध है.

पर यदि ऐसा है तो लोग अपने श्रम से उपजे उत्पाद पर पूर्ण स्वामित्व के अतिरिक्त कोई और निर्धारण (सीमित स्वामित्व) क्यों नहीं करते ?

अपनी सम्पन्नता के दौरान हम कुछ ऐसे टैक्स क्यों नहीं देते जो विपन्नता में हमारा सहारा बन सके ? क्यों नहीं हम मूल स्थिति में अपने स्वामित्व के एक अंश को समाज को देने की व्यवस्था करते हैं जो हमारी गरीबी के दिनों में हमें राहत दे? पर ऐसे किसी अंश को देना इस बात पर निर्भर करेगा कि हम सम्पन्नता व विपन्नता में अपने हित को कैसे देखते हैं.

यहां पर ‘अंश’ महत्वपूर्ण नहीं है. लेकिन यदि यह मान लिया जाये कि ऐसा किया जाना चाहिये, तब नॉज़िक का ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ कैसे ठहरेगा ? लोग किसी ऐसे अंश को रखकर अपना भविष्य सुरक्षित रखना चाहते हैं. यदि वे इस अंश को राज्य को सौंपते हैं तो राज्य लोककल्याणकारी कार्यों को करने में इस अंश का पुनर्वितरण कर सकता है – जो नॉज़िक के ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ की अवधारणा के विरुद्ध होगा, वह एक पूर्ण कल्याणकारी राज्य भी बन सकता है.

इस पर नॉज़िक की क्या प्रतिक्रिया होगी ? संभवत: नॉज़िक मूल स्थिति में ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे के विचार’ पर चोट करेगा – जिस विचार पर उसकी जोरदार असहमति थी. यदि ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे’ को त्याग दिया जाय, तो वे लोग राज्य को ज्यादा शक्ति देने की वकालत करेंगे जो यह जानते होंगे कि वे राज्य पर ज्यादा नियन्त्रण रखेंगे और वे लोग कमजोर राज्य की वकालत करेंगे जो जानते हैं कि वे ऐसा नियन्त्रण न रख सकेंगे. अमीर लोग अपने उत्पाद पर पूर्ण स्वामित्व की मांग करेंगे, वहीं गरीब लोग अमीरों पर ज्यादा टैक्स की बात करेंगे. इस प्रकार, ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे’ के बिना विवेकशील स्वार्थी लोग बराबर एक संघर्ष की स्थिति में रहेंगे. पर ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे’ में रहने पर लोग अपने दोनों ही स्थितियों सम्पन्नता व विपन्नता की परिकल्पना कर सकते हैं. अत: मूल स्थिति में यद्यपि हम स्वार्थी लोगों से शरूआत करते हैं पर फिर भी वहां हम एक न्यायपूर्ण समझौते पर सर्वसम्मति से पहुंच पाते हैं.

नॉज़िक के अनुसार यदि हम व्यक्तियों के प्राकृतिक अधिकार से शुरूआत करें तो सैद्धान्तिक एकरूपता इस बात की आज्ञा नहीं देती कि अज्ञानता के पर्दे का सहारा लेकर उन्हें हम उस अधिकार से तब वंचित कर दे जब वे एक संवैधानिक निर्णय ले रहे हों. अत: उसके अनुसार, यदि सामाजिक समझौता होगा तो वह प्राकृतिक रूप से असमान लोगों के मध्य होगा तब प्रत्येक व्यक्ति इस बात का पूर्वानुमान लगा सकेगा कि समाज में उसकी क्या स्थिति होने वाली है.

यदि ऐसा है तो हम संवैधानिक निर्णय लेने के आधार तक नहीं पहुंच सकते क्योंकि पारस्परिक हितों का टकराव बना रहेगा. इस कारण नॉज़िक के अनुसार सभी लोग स्वेच्छा से अधिकारों का परित्याग नहीं करेंगे जिससे उनका पुनर्वितरण किया जा सके और तब ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ से आगे का राज्य बिना प्राकृतिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन किये नहीं बन सकता. मुझे नॉज़िक का यह विचार गलत लगा है. उदाहरण के लिये मान लें कि एक धनी व दूसरा निर्धन वर्ग है; धनी वर्ग चाहेगा कि बेरोज़गारी के लिये उस पर कम टैक्स लगे, पर गरीब वर्ग चाहेगा कि धनिकों पर ज्यादा टैक्स लगाया जाय. लेकिन इसके बावजूद वे दोनों वर्ग किसी एक फार्मूले पर सहमत हो सकते हैं; ऐसा नहीं कि वे सहमति तक पहुंच ही नहीं सकें. अत: मैं समझता हूं कि नॉज़िक का यह तर्क तो गलत है जहां वह समझाने की कोशिश करता है कि ‘न्यूनतम से अधिक’ राज्य की अवधारणा तक व्यक्तियों के प्राकृतिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन किये बिना नहीं पहुंचा जा सकता है पर मैं मानता हूं कि उसने वितरणात्मक न्याय (खास तौर से रॉल्स) के सिद्धान्तों की मूलभूत कमी को भी रेखांकित किया है.

द्वितीय खण्ड : बोरिस फ्रैंकल

समकालीन राज्य के स्वरूप के सम्बन्ध में अनेक कृतियां प्रकाश में आयीं. लोककल्याणकारी बनाम युद्ध राज्य, नौकरशाही की तानाशाही व नैतिक पतन जैसी तमाम कमजोरियां तब प्रकट हो रही हैं जब पूंजीवाद और नौकरशाही को बचाने के लिये तथा सामाजिक क्रान्ति को रोकने के लिये राज्य की भूमिक बढ़ गई है. नॉज़िक की पुस्तक ‘एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ उस बुर्जुआ व्यक्तिवाद को बचाने की संभवत: आखिरी कोशिश है जिसका उद्भव 17वीं शताब्दी में हुआ. यद्यपि नॉज़िक लोककल्याणाकरी राज्य की अन्त्येष्टि करने वालों का प्रवक्ता लगता है पर यह उसकी पुस्तक की विशेषता नहीं है. वास्तव में यह पुस्तक बुर्जुआ राजनीतिक दर्शन के स्वरूप को रेखांकित करती है और यह इंगित करती है कि यदि उसके सिद्धान्तों के साथ छेड़छाड़ की गई तो समाज का विघटन हो जायेगा.

नॉज़िक प्राकृतिक अवस्था को स्वीकार करता है. अधिकतर विचारकों ने राज्य को प्राकृतिक अवस्था की कठिनाइयों तथा भावी नागरिक समाज की आवश्यकताओं से जोड़ा है. लेकिन प्राकृतिक अवस्था का चित्रण विचारकों ने अपनी आवश्यकता के अनुसार किया है. इसीलिये हमें हॉब्स, लॉक व रूसो में प्राकृतिक अवस्था का परस्पर विरोधी चित्रण मिलता है.

नॉज़िक के न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा के विकास में कुछ तार्किक सोच है. बुर्जुआ सिद्धान्त संविदा के माध्यम से राज्य बनाने का कोई तार्किक आधार खोजता है. यह आधार वास्तव में भय, असुरक्षा व दूसरों द्वारा बल प्रयोग के शाश्वत मूल्यों पर आधारित है – जो उसके निराकरण के लिये असुरक्षा, हर्जाना व राज्य जैसी सशक्त संस्था की मांग करता है. व्यक्तिगत सम्पत्ति का अधिकार प्राकृतिक अधिकारों से जुड़ा है. अत: बुर्जुआ सिद्धान्त निजी सम्पत्ति के वितरण में और पूंजीवादी राज्य के ऐतिहासिक विकास में संवैधानिक व सर्वशक्तिमान राज्य के महत्व को स्वीकार करना पड़ेगा.

नॉज़िक राज्य को एक निश्चित भू-भाग पर शक्ति का एकाधिकार रखने वाली संस्था मानता है. अत: राज्य दण्ड, प्रतिरोध व सुरक्षा देने के लिये उत्तरदायी है. रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों मूल अवस्था में व्यक्ति को ‘अज्ञानता के पर्दे के पीछे’ मानते हैं पर  वे यह अवश्य जानते हैं कि व्यक्ति एक दूसरे के प्रति बुरा भाव रखते हैं. मूल समझौता करने वालों को रॉल्स अच्छा, सहयोगी व प्रेमी नहीं मानता. इसका कारण है कि रॉल्स व नॉज़िक न्यायपूर्ण समाज की कल्पना करने में अपने व्यावहारिक अनुभवों से नियन्त्रित होते हैं जहां वे व्यक्ति को हिंसा, घृणा व अहं से भरा व्यवहार करते देखते हैं. रॉल्स व्यक्ति में आर्थिक व सामाजिक असमानता स्वीकार करता है तथा कमजोर के लिये हर्जाने की वकालत करता है. नॉज़िक द्वारा रॉल्स की पूरी आलोचना उसकी आर्थिक मनुष्य की अवधारणा पर आधारित है – आर्थिक मनुष्य जिसकी इच्छाएं व सुख भौतिक वस्तुओं पर निर्भर हैं और जो ज्यादा धन प्राप्त करने के लिये ज्यादा काम करता है.

रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों ही मूल स्थिति में आर्थिक व राजनीतिक असमानता को स्वीकार करते हैं. पूंजीवादी लोककल्याणकारी विचारक के रूप में रॉल्स ‘धन के वितरण’ द्वारा सामाजिक-क्रांति की जैसे खतरनाक वकालत सी करता है पर वह व्यक्तिगत सम्पत्ति व बाज़ार की अवधारणा को त्यागता नहीं. वह मानता है कि ‘कुछ’ लोगों के ज्यादा कल्याण के आधार पर अन्य लोगों की स्वतन्त्रता के नुकसान को उचित नहीं ठहराया जा सकता. नॉज़िक भी यही कहता है कि ‘दूसरों के लिये कुछ लोगों के त्याग को उचित नहीं माना जा सकता. नॉज़िक चेतावनी देता है कि रॉल्स का वितरणात्मक न्याय हमारे पापों को दण्डित करने के लिये समाजवाद का प्रारम्भ करेगा. इस त्रासदी को रोकने के लिये नॉज़िक(अपने सिद्धान्त में कुछ लचीलापन ला कर) कुछ समय के लिये व्यापक राज्य को स्वीकार करने का पक्षधर है जिससे पुराने अन्याय को सुधारा जा सके, बजाय इसके कि स्थायी रूप से समाजवाद लाद दिया जाए.

रॉल्स व नॉज़िक दोनों ही आर्थिक असमानता के औचित्य पर अपने न्याय सिद्धान्त की स्थापना करते हैं. फिर भी, रॉल्स द्वारा बुर्जुआ समाज के कमजोर समर्थन को नॉज़िक चुनौती देता है. जहां रॉल्स पूंजीवाद के आर्थिक, जातीयतावादी और राजनीतिक अन्याय के स्वरूप पर शर्मिन्दा है, वहीं नॉज़िक बुर्जुआ का घोर समर्थक है तथा पूंजीवाद से कतई शर्मिन्दा नहीं है. यदि हम स्वार्थ, प्रतिस्पर्धा और भौतिकता को ही सर्वश्रेष्ठ मानवीय मूल्य मान लें, तो नॉज़िक के न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा तर्कपूर्ण हो जाती है. नॉज़िक अपने अहंकारी व्यक्ति को तभी बचा सकता है जब वह वितरणात्मक न्याय से प्रतिबद्ध राज्य के हस्तक्षेप के प्रयास को अस्वीकार कर दे.पर, बाज़ार के बारे में समान दृष्टिकोण होने से उसके द्वारा रॉल्स की आलोचना करना सरल हो गया; उसे केवल वैयक्तिक सम्पत्ति से प्रतिबद्धता को ही अन्तिम बिन्दु तक ले जाना है जो रॉल्स के सिद्धान्त में निहित खतरों को दिखा देगा.

मार्क्स के साथ ऐसा नहीं है. मार्क्स के शोषण के सिद्धान्त पर नॉज़िक का मत है कि वास्तव में मार्क्स लोगों की अर्थशास्त्र की कमजोर समझ का शोषण करता है. लेकिन शायद स्वयं नॉज़िक ही मार्क्सवाद को ठीक से समझ नहीं पाया. नॉज़िक का दृष्टिकोण किसी समरसतापूर्ण समाज का आधार नहीं; पर, उसके न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा समाजवादियों के लिये आकर्षक है. इसका कारण यह है कि मार्क्स तो स्वयं राज्य के तिरोहित(समाप्त) होने के सिद्धान्त का प्रतिपादन करता है और एक राज्य विहीन समाज की परिकल्पना करता है (एक ऐसी स्थिति जिसमें राज्य के पास व्यक्ति से ज्यादा कोई अधिकार नहीं होते) मार्क्स ने समाज को वर्गों के रूप में देखा तथा बुर्जुआ व्यवस्थाओं (संविधानों) को इसीलिए सराहा क्योंकि वे सामन्तवाद से छुटकारा दिलाकर आगे की स्थिति को व्यक्त करते हैं. नॉज़िक उसे बखूबी स्वीकार करता है पर मार्क्स बुर्जुआ समाज का अन्त करके उससे भी आगे जाना चाहता था जिससे सामाजिक व राजनीतिक शक्तियां एकाकार हो सकें, और ‘न्यूनतम राज्य’ की अवधारणा तक पहुंचा जा सके.

खण्ड तीन : डेरेक एल. फिलिप्स

मेरे आलेख में भी नॉज़िक की पुस्तक के द्वितीय खण्ड पर ध्यान केन्द्रित किया गया है जिसमें नॉज़िक न्यूनतम राज्य की अवधारणा को नैतिक बताता है और यह मानता है कि व्यक्ति के अधिकारों का हनन किये बिना न्यूनतम राज्य का अस्तित्व हो सकता है.

न्याय के सभी सिद्धान्त लोगों को वस्तुओं, अवसरों, पुरस्कारों आदि का आबंटन करने पर ध्यान केन्द्रित करते हैं. वितरणात्मक न्याय तुलनात्मक आबंटन की बात करता है. वह लोगों को उनकी योग्यताओं – अयोग्यताओं, आवश्यकताओं – क्षमताओं तथा उनकी उपयोगिता – हित के आधार पर न्याय देने की वकालत करता है. पर रॉल्स का सिद्धान्त एक अपवाद है. उसके अनुसार सभी सामाजिक मूल्यों (स्वतन्त्रता व अवसर, आय और सम्पत्ति, तथा आत्मसम्मान के आधार) का समाज में समान वितरण होना चाहिये जब तक कि उनमें से सभी या किसी का असमान वितरण करना सभी के लिये लाभकारी न हो. उसके अनुसार जहां असमानताएं सभी के लिये लाभकारी न हों, वहां ‘अन्याय’ होता है.

नॉज़िक के अनुसार रॉल्स का न्याय सिद्धान्त लोगों के अधिकारों का हनन करता है, अत: नैतिक नहीं. अन्य न्याय सिद्धान्तों की ही भांति रॉल्स का सिद्धान्त भी लोगों के ‘हक’ (एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट) की उपेक्षा करता है. ज्यादातर न्याय सिद्धान्तों में आवश्यकता, योग्यता और कार्य के अनुसार वितरण का एक पैटर्न होता है. इस पैटर्न को बनाये रखने के लिये या तो हमें लोगों द्वारा अपने संसाधनों के स्वतंत्र हस्तान्तरण पर नियन्त्रण करना होगा अथवा उन लोगों के संसाधनों को अधिग्रहीत करना होगा जिसे अन्य लोगों ने उन्हें स्वेच्छा से हस्तान्तरित किया होगा. इस प्रकार, बिना लोगों की स्वतन्त्रता पर ग्रहण लगाये आर्थिक समानता की स्थापना नहीं की जा सकती. इसलिये नॉज़िक ऐतिहासिक सिद्धान्त पर ध्यान आकृष्ट करता है जो यह बताता है कि संसाधनों का स्वामित्व आया कैसे ? उसका ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ संसाधनों के ‘स्वामित्व में न्याय’ पर आधारित है. और यदि मूल स्वामित्व ही अन्याय पर आधारित हो तो आज उन लोगों को मुआवज़ा कौन दे जो उस अन्याय के शिकार हुये? क्या कुछ राज्य वह मुआवज़ा दें या पश्चिमी समाज या उन लोगों के वंशज मुआवजा दें जिन्होंने शुरू में अन्याय किया? नॉज़िक के अनुसार निर्णय काफी कठिन होगा.

लॉक की तरह ही नॉज़िक भी मानता है कि किसी भी संसाधन का स्वामित्व अधिग्रहण करने से यदि सम्पूर्ण समाज पर संकट छा जाये तो उसे नियन्त्रित करना पड़ेगा. लेकिन सम्पत्ति के ऐसे अधिकारों के अतिक्रमण तभी वैध माने जायेंगे जब उससे समाज के जीवन-मरण का प्रश्न जुड़ा हो. अत: किसी भी व्यक्ति द्वारा अधिक सम्पत्ति का स्वामित्व व उस पर नियन्त्रण तब तक अन्यायपूर्ण नहीं माना जायेगा जब तक उससे समाज के अन्य व्यक्तियों के जीवन पर ही प्रश्न चिन्ह न लग जाये.

पर, नॉज़िक के सिद्धान्त में कई कमज़ोरियां हैं. प्रथम, वह यह नहीं स्पष्ट कर पाया कि ‘मूल न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व’ क्या है (उसका प्रथम सिद्धान्त न्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व का है) ? मूल स्वामित्व प्राप्त करने की प्रक्रिया के आधार पर ही स्वामित्व को न्यायपूर्ण या अन्यायपूर्ण माना जा सकेगा और तभी मुआवज़े का प्रश्न उचित होगा. इसी से जुड़ा हुआ ‘सम्पत्ति का सिद्धान्त’ है जो समानता और वितरणात्मक न्याय के लिये बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है. हालांकि नॉज़िक व्यक्ति के सम्पत्ति के प्राकृतिक अधिकार को राज्य में भी बनाये रखना चाहता है पर इसका उसने कोई सटीक व संतोषजनक तरीका नहीं बताया. नॉज़िक के अनुसार चूंकि वितरण करने योग्य प्रत्येक संसाधन पर लोगों का पहले से ही स्वामित्व होता है अत: समानता के लिये किसी पैटर्न युक्त वितरण से समानता की स्थापना स्वतन्त्रता की ही कीमत पर हो सकती है. अनेक स्वतन्त्रताएं परस्पर विरोधी होती हैं, अत: उन्हें पदसोपानीय क्रम से विन्यासित करना पड़ता है और उच्च श्रेणी की स्वतन्त्रताओं के लिये निचली श्रेणी की स्वतन्त्रताओं को त्यागना पड़ता है.

यही बात स्वतन्त्रता व समानता के सम्बन्धों पर लागू होती है. अनेक स्वतन्त्रताएं ऐसी होती हैं जिन्हें लागू करने में लोगों की ‘समान आवश्यकताएं’ प्रभावित हो सकती हैं. अत: वहां केवल स्वतन्त्रता व समानता में ही टकराहट नहीं होती, वरन् उनके विभिन्न प्रकारों में भी टकराहट होती है.

हम यह कह सकते हैं कि सभी लोगों को ‘जीवन का समान अधिकार’ प्राप्त है और इसके लिये जो न्यूनतम जरूरतें हैं (जैसे भोजन, आवास, वस्त्र, स्वास्थ्य सेवा आदि) उसके लिये सभी हकदार हैं. उसके आगे की आवश्यकताओं पर श्रेष्ठ व विवेकपूर्ण लोगों में मतभेद हो सकता है. पर मुझे लगता है कि श्रेष्ठ व विवेकीजन न केवल इस पर मतभेद रखेंगे, वरन् ‘न्यूनतम जरूरतों’ की अवधारणा पर भी मतभेद रखेंगे.

नॉज़िक के अनुसार, न्यूनतम जरूरतों जैसे भोजन, आवास, वस्त्र, स्वास्थ्य सेवाएं आदि कोई आकाशीय वस्तुएं नहीं हैं, वरन् उन पर कुछ लोगों का स्वामित्व है और वे उस पर अपना हक मान सकते हैं. कुछ लोग ऐसा कह सकते हैं कि ऐसे लोगों के हक छीनने का किसी को अधिकार नहीं है. लेकिन नॉज़िक ऐसा नहीं मानता.

नॉज़िक का मत है कि आज जिन लोगों के पास सम्पत्ति व संसाधनों का स्वामित्व है वह स्वामित्व मूल रूप में अधिग्रहण के न्यायपूर्ण सिद्धान्त के अनुरूप नहीं था, इसलिये उनके द्वारा उनका हस्तान्तरण भी न्यायपूर्ण नहीं कहा जा सकता. इस प्रकार, नॉज़िक के अनुसार न्याय के प्रथम व द्वितीय सिद्धान्तों (सम्पत्ति का न्यायपूर्ण अधिग्रहण, व सम्पत्ति का न्यायपूर्ण हस्तान्तरण) की अवहेलना से वर्तमान स्वामित्व का स्वरूप अन्यायपूर्ण है, अत:  तीसरे सिद्धान्त (अन्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व का समाधान) की आवश्यकता पड़ती है. नॉज़िक के अनुसार, अन्यायपूर्ण स्वामित्व का अन्त करने की प्रक्रिया में कुछ लोगों को लग सकता है कि उनकी स्वतन्त्रता का हनन हो रहा है, पर यदि उन्होंने उस सम्पत्ति को अधिग्रहण व हस्तान्तरण के न्यायपूर्ण सिद्धान्त के अनुरूप नहीं प्राप्त किया, तो उन्हें उस सम्पत्ति पर कोई अधिकार नहीं है और उस सम्पत्ति पर हस्तक्षेप कोई अन्याय नहीं. पर ऐसा हस्तक्षेप चाहे जितना जरूरी व न्यायपूर्ण हो, उससे यह उम्मीद लगाना ठीक नहीं कि वह सम्पत्ति व संसाधनों का समतापूर्ण वितरण करेगा.

अन्य अनुदारवादियों के विपरीत, नॉज़िक का ‘एन्टाइटिलमेन्ट सिद्धान्त’ सम्पत्ति के आमूल-चूल पुनर्वितरण का समर्थन करता है, जब तक कि यह प्रमाणित न किया जाये कि मूलरूप में सम्पत्ति को न्यायपूर्ण तरीके से प्राप्त किया गया था. पर इससे कुछ मूलभूत प्रश्न उठते हैं : कैसे पता लगे कि लोगों की सम्पत्तियां न्यायपूर्ण तरीके से प्राप्त की गई? यदि उनके द्वारा अन्यायपूर्ण तरीके से स्वामित्व प्राप्त किया गया, तो उसका समाधान कैसे हो? किन-किन क्षेत्रों (जैसे – सम्पत्ति, आवास, स्वास्थ्य सेवा या अन्य) में समाधान लागू होगा? और कौन इस समाधान को लागू करेगा? यदि इसकी जिम्मेदारी राज्य को दी जाये तो हमें वर्तमान राज्य की अपेक्षा एक सक्रिय व व्यापक उत्तरदायित्व निभाने वाला राज्य मिल जायेगा. जिसमें रहना शायद हम लोग पसन्द न करें. ये सभी प्रश्न वास्तव में ‘समाधान के सिद्धान्त’ की जरूरतों की ओर इशारा करते हैं. इस दृष्टि से नॉज़िक की पुस्तक एक महत्वपूर्ण संकेत देती है.

पुनर्लेखन – संपादक एवं शोधार्थी शोध मण्डल

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘थ्योरी एण्ड सोसाइटी’ वाल्यूम 3, संख्या 3 (ऑटम 1976),पृष्ठ 437-458 से साभार उद्धृत. मूल लेख ‘रॉबर्ट्स नॉज़िक्स एनार्की, स्टेट एण्ड यूटोपिया’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

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