एडवर्ड बर्नस्टीन और संशोधनवाद

डेविड डब्लू. मार्गन : बर्नस्टीन ‘संशोधनवाद के जनक’ के रूप में विख्यात है. उसे सन् 1890 के दशक के अन्त तक अपनी रचनाओं के लिये मार्क्सवादी श्रमिक आन्दोलन में ‘संशोधनवादी विवाद’ के प्रणेता के रूप में स्वीकार कर लिया गया जिससे उसकी छवि संकीर्णता का शिकार हो गयी.

समाजवादी आन्दोलन में जॉर्ज सोरेल या बेनेदेत्तो क्रास द्वारा 1890 के दशक में मार्क्सवादी विचारों की आलोचना शुरू हो गई थी. परन्तु इसके विपरीत बर्नस्टीन ने लोकप्रिय मार्क्सवाद के प्रचार-प्रसार व निर्माण में पन्द्रह वर्षों तक सक्रिय भूमिक निभायी. बर्नस्टीन ने अपने दल की मार्क्सवाद की परंपरागत समझ को संशोधित करने का प्रयास किया. इसका उद्देश्य पार्टी के व्यवहार को वास्तविकता के करीब लाना तथा मार्क्सवाद के अंतर्निहित सिद्धान्तों के अनुरूप प्रेरित करना था. परन्तु इस प्रयास में उसने कभी यह विश्वास नहीं किया कि उन्होंने मार्क्सवाद को त्याग दिया है या इसके परे चले गये हैं. उन्होंने अपने सैद्धान्तिक मतभेदों को कभी भी अपने व पार्टी के मध्य सम्बन्धों में अनबन आने का कारण नहीं बनने दिया, जबकि पार्टी रूढ़िवादी मार्क्सवाद को समर्थन देती थी और वे रूढ़िवादी सिद्धान्तों का विरोध करते थे.

बर्नस्टीन नहीं मानते थे कि उनकी आलोचनाएं मार्क्सवाद की नींव को कमजोर करती है. इसके बावजूद बर्नस्टीन के मित्र व आलोचक मानते हैं कि बर्नस्टीन का संसोधनवाद मार्क्सवाद का पूर्ण रूपान्तरण है तथा बर्नस्टीन ने मार्क्सवाद के सिद्धान्तों को एक-एक करके त्याग दिया और उदारवादी विचारधारा को श्रमिक वर्ग के आन्दोलन के लिये स्वीकार कर लिया. यह भी कहा गया कि बर्नस्टीन द्वारा रूढ़िवादी मार्क्सवाद की बात करना अपवाद था; वास्तव में वे एक उदारवादी-शांतिवादी दृष्टिकोण के समर्थक थे. इसके बावजूद बर्नस्टीन द्वारा बार-बार मार्क्सवादी विचारधारा, पार्टी तथा श्रमिक आन्दोलन को समर्थन देना या तो बेईमानी थी या कोरी भावुकता.

हमारे पास यह भी जानकारी नहीं है कि बर्नस्टीन ने संशोधनवाद की तरफ कैसे रुख किया. उनके लेखों में इस पर विस्तार से कुछ नहीं मिलता, परन्तु एक प्रमुख कारण यह था कि मार्क्स की पूंजीवाद के अन्त की भविष्यवाणी और 1890 के  दशक में विद्यमान सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्थिति में एक विरोधाभास था. पूंजीवाद सम्पन्न व मजबूत था, श्रमिकों की आर्थिक स्थिति बेहतर थी एवं समाज के मध्य वर्ग की निरंतरता एवं प्रभाव विद्यमान था. निश्चित तौर पर यह अनुभवमूलक तथ्यों की सैद्धान्तिक विश्वासों पर विजय थी परन्तु यह बर्नस्टीन जैसे विद्वान के वैचारिक प्रतिबद्धता पर प्रश्न चिन्ह लगाती है.

बर्नस्टीन की मुखर आलोचक रोज़ा लग्ज़ेमबर्ग ने इस बात पर जोर दिया कि बर्नस्टीन के हाथों मार्क्सवादी सिद्धान्त एक कूड़े का ढेर बन गया है जिसके अन्दर महान व साधारण सभी बौद्धिक प्रवृत्तियों को एक स्थान मिल गया है. इस दृष्टिकोण को बर्नस्टीन के राजनीतिक उत्तराधिकारियों के द्वारा भी सही मान लिया गया. यह निश्चित रूप से सत्य है कि बर्नस्टीन ने व्यवस्था निर्माण के सिद्धान्त में कोई रूचि नहीं दिखायी. यह उनकी प्रमुख पुस्तक ‘इवोल्यूशनरी सोशलिज्म’ (1899) के अध्ययन से पता चलता है. हालांकि वह अपने तर्क में विभिन्न स्रोतों का संदर्भ देते हैं फिर भी उनके सकारात्मक योगदान के पुनर्मूल्याकंन की आवश्यकता है.

बर्नस्टीन के कार्यों के अध्ययन का प्रारम्भ बो. गुस्ताफसन के साथ शुरू हुआ. उनकी पुस्तक बर्नस्टीन के विचारों पर बाह्य प्रभावों को जानने का एक प्रयास है. गुस्ताफसन यह दिखाना चाहते हैं कि संशोधनवाद 1890 के दशक में मार्क्सवादी विचारकों के एक बड़े वर्ग की प्रवृत्ति बन गई और बर्नस्टीन उसका अपवाद न था.

बर्नस्टीन के लेखों में इतालवी, फ्रांसीसी, जर्मन व ब्रिटिश मार्क्सवादी आलोचनाओं का संदर्भ मिलता है. बर्नस्टीन का संशोधनवादी स्वरूप 1895-96 के आसपास तय हो गया था और अधिकतर मार्क्सवादी आलोचक (जिनका नाम ऊपर दिया गया) इसके बाद के हैं. अत: उन्होंने सिर्फ बर्नस्टीन की अवधारणाओं व तर्कों के स्वरूप मात्र को ही प्रभावित किया होगा. इसी प्रकार, फेबियनवादियों के प्रभाव को भी संशोधनवादी बर्नस्टीन के ऊपर नहीं थोपा जा सकता क्योंकि संशोधनवादी होने से काफी पहले (1888) से बर्नस्टीन को फेबियनवाद की जानकारी थी. बर्नस्टीन स्वयं संशोधनवादी होने में फेबियनवाद के प्रभाव को दृढ़ता से अस्वीकार करता है. कुछ विद्वानों ने उनकी इस अस्वीकृति को मान लिया था.

पश्चिम जर्मनी के समाजवादी विचारकों के द्वारा समाजवादी सिद्धान्तों के प्रति नवीन उत्साह के संचार होने के शुरुआती वर्षों में ही गुस्ताफसन की पुस्तक का प्रकाशन हुआ था, परन्तु इस दौरान बर्नस्टीन के मूल्यांकन से सम्बन्धित संदर्भ काफी प्रभावित हो चुके थे. अब तो सोशल डेमोक्रेटिक उदारवादियों ने भी बर्नस्टीन के विचारों को गंभीरता से लेना शुरू कर दिया था. हेल्गा ग्रेविंग ने अपनी ‘संशोधनवाद’ विषयक पुस्तक (1977) में बर्नस्टीन को एक सम्मानजनक स्थिति प्रदान किया. पुस्तक मार्क्सवाद में सृजनात्मक सैद्धान्तिक प्रवृत्तियों की परिस्थियों व संभावनाओं के विस्तृत ऐतिहासिक अध्ययन का प्रयास करती है. हालांकि संशोधनवाद की अवधारणा कुछ हद तक भ्रामक है क्योंकि मार्क्सवाद, मार्क्स या एंजेल्स के कार्यों की कोई वैधानिक, संदेहविहीन तथा निर्विवाद व्याख्या मौजूद नहीं. पुस्तक में अन्य संशोधनवादी विद्वानों जैसे आस्ट्रो-मार्क्सवादी, लेनिन, ल्यूकॉच तथा कॉर्ल कोर्स को भी सम्मिलित किया है.

गुस्ताफसन के बाद हेल्मट हिर्श तथा थॉमस मेयर (1975) ने बर्नस्टीन के फेबियनवादियों से संबंध पर अध्ययन किया. हिर्श बर्नस्टीन के ब्रिटिश वामपंथ के विभिन्न लेखकों (सभी फेबियनवादी नहीं) के साथ संबंधों का परीक्षण करता है. मेयर बर्नस्टीन के संशोधनवादी विचारों को व्यवस्थित ढंग से प्रस्तुत करता है. यह कार्य पूर्व के विद्वानों द्वारा संभव नहीं हो पाया था. पूर्व के सभी कार्यों में बर्नस्टीन के मार्क्सवाद की आलोचनाओं तथा उनके विचारों की मुख्य बातों को ही सिर्फ संदर्भित किया गया था.

मेयर की पुस्तक में संशोधनवादी विचारों को सकारात्मक व व्यवस्थित रूप से तथा स्पष्ट एवं विश्वसनीय रूप से प्रस्तुत करना एक उल्लेखनीय उपलब्धि है.

मेयर के अनुसार मार्क्स की परम्परा में दो परस्पर विरोधी धाराएं दिखाई देती हैं. एक में मार्क्स को निश्चयात्मक भविष्य, गैर-मानवीय शक्तियों और क्रांति के मसीहा के रूप में देखा जा सकता है, तो दूसरे में मजदूरों की बेड़ियों को तोड़ने वाले श्रमिक आन्दोलन के नायक के रूप में. मार्क्स के विचारों में दोनों धाराएं तो हैं पर उन्हें समन्वित करना संभव नहीं.

मेयर के अनुसार बर्नस्टीन को समझने की कुंजी इस तथ्य में मौजूद है कि उन्होंने औरों की तरह न केवल मार्क्सवाद के इस तनाव को महसूस किया वरन् उन दोनों धाराओं के अन्तर को महसूस कर एक का चयन भी कर लिया और उन्होंने मार्क्सवाद में क्रांति की अपरिहार्यता को अस्वीकृत करने के बाद भी स्वयं को सच्चा मार्क्सवादी कहना न छोड़ा. इस दृष्टिकोण से बर्नस्टीन का संशोधनवाद मार्क्सवाद में अन्तर्निहित प्रवृत्तियों का सुव्यवस्थित विकास कहा जा सकता है और इसी तरह ‘कौट्स्कीवाद’ को मार्क्सवाद की दूसरी पर विपरीत धारा के रूप में देखा जा सकता है.

मेयर द्वारा मार्क्सवादी परंपरा की धाराओं को अलग-अलग करने से बर्नस्टीन को समझने में काफी सहायता मिली. मेयर उस बिन्दु का भी उल्लेख करता है जहां से बर्नस्टीन के विचारों में हमें एक ‘पैराडाइम शिफ्ट’ दिखाई देता है : यह वह बिन्दु है जहां पर बर्नस्टीन न केवल मार्क्सवादी क्रान्ति की अपरिहार्यता या संभावना पर संशय करता है, वरन् उसके औचित्य पर भी शंका करता है बर्नस्टीन ने देखा कि तत्कालीन सामाजिक आर्थिक व्यवस्था और श्रमिक चेतना के परिप्रेक्ष्य में किसी भी प्रकार की हिंसात्मक क्रान्ति से एक न्यायपूर्ण व व्यावहारिक समाजवादी व्यवस्था का निर्माण संभव नहीं था.

यह मानने पर कि क्रान्ति समाजावदी लक्ष्यों को प्राप्त करने का गलत तरीका है, बर्नस्टीन समझ गये कि नए समाजवादी आन्दोलन को दिशा प्रदान करने हेतु उन्हें एक नई समाजावादी दृष्टि व एक नये सिद्धान्त का प्रतिपादन करना पड़ेगा. उन्होंने ऐसा सिर्फ मार्क्स के सिद्धान्त के मुख्य अवधारणाओं में विश्वास की वजह से किया. साथ ही साथ उन्होंने बिना किसी हिचक व भय के अपने गुरू के अन्य चिर-परिचित विचारों का परित्याग कर दिया जैसे द्वन्द्वात्मक सिद्धान्त, श्रम के मूल्य का सिद्धान्त तथा कठोर वर्ग विवेचना. पुनर्निर्माण के सिद्धान्त पर उन्होंने कोई कार्य नहीं किया. बर्नस्टीन के पास विचारों को व्यवस्थाबद्ध करके उन्हें अंतिम स्वरूप प्रदान करने की दक्षता नहीं थी तथा उन्होंने काफी पहले शुरूआती अवस्था में ही मार्क्सवाद के प्रचार अभियान से नाता तोड़ लिया था. बर्नस्टीन की उपलब्धि के बारे में मेयर ने यह धारणा प्रस्तुत की थी कि बर्नस्टीन मार्कस् की तरह बौद्धिक क्षमता के धनी नहीं थे और मार्क्स की तरह विद्धान भी नहीं थे फिर भी कुछ आधारभूत प्रश्नों पर बर्नस्टीन ने समाजवाद के सिद्धान्त को एक नवीन आधार प्रदान किया था. बर्नस्टीन ने तार्किक व व्यावहारिक पक्षों में सामन्जस्य बिठाने का प्रयास किया था तथा कभी-कभी मार्क्सवाद के संरचनात्मक तत्वों से बेहतर सामंजस्य बैठाया. बर्नस्टीन की पार्टी ने उनकी जिन अवधारणाओं को शुरू में नकार दिया था, कड़वे अनुभवों के बाद उन्हें स्वीकार कर लिया. आज भी पश्चिम यूरोप में सोशल डेमोक्रेटिक पार्टी के अधिकतर कार्यक्रमों की नींव बर्नस्टीन के समाजवाद की समझ पर ही आधारित है.

पुनर्लेखन – डॉ नवनीत कुमार वर्मा, प्रवक्ता (राजनीति विज्ञान) राजकीय पी. जी. कॉलेज, सिरोही(राजस्थान)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘द जर्नल ऑफ माडर्न हिस्ट्री, वाल्यूम 51, संख्या 3 (सितम्बर 1979), पृष्ठ 525-532 से साभार उद्धृत है. मूल लेख ‘द फादर ऑफ रिविज़निज्म रीविज़िटेड : एडवर्ड बर्नस्टीन’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित

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