ग्राम्शी : प्राधान्य का सिद्धान्त

थामस आर. बेट्स : एन्टोनियो ग्राम्शी 20वीं सदी के पूर्वाद्ध का एक महत्वपूर्ण मार्क्सवादी विचारक था. ग्राम्शी के देश इटली में उस समय मुसोलिनी के नेतृत्व में फासीवादी राज्य अपने उत्कर्ष की ओर उन्मुख था. ग्राम्शी इतालवी साम्यवादी दल का महासचिव भी था. नवम्बर 1926 में गिरफ्तार कर उसे 20 वर्ष के लिये कारागार में डाल दिया गया, जहां 1937 में उसकी मृत्यु हो गयी. 1971 में उसके विभिन्न लेख ‘प्रिजन नोट बुक्स’ के रूप में प्रकाशित किये गये.

वास्तव में ग्राम्शी ने कार्ल मार्क्स के कुछ सिद्धान्तों का पुनर्निरूपण किया है. उसका ‘प्राधान्य का सिद्धान्त’ मार्क्सवाद को एक अनुपम योगदान है. ग्राम्शी के अनुसार मनुष्य केवल ‘शक्ति’ के द्वारा ही नहीं बल्कि ‘विचारों’ के द्वारा भी शासित होता है. इसी प्रकार, मार्क्स का भी मानना था कि सदा से प्रत्येक युग में शासक वर्ग के विचार ही जन-मानस में प्रभावी होते हैं. ग्राम्शी का मत था कि विचारों का एक आवश्यक कार्य है- विचारधारा के स्तर पर समाज की एकता को संरक्षित करना, ऐसा नहीं कि विचार इतने शक्तिशाली  हैं कि वे वर्ग संघर्ष को समाप्त कर सकते हैं. लेकिन हां, वे वर्ग-आधारित समाज को चलायमान रखने में सहायक होते हैं. पश्चिमी सभ्यता का स्थायित्व इसी विचारधारा के तत्व के कारण विद्ममान है.

वैसे तो अन्तत: प्रत्येक राज्य एक तानाशाही है और बाह्य या आन्तरिक किसी प्रकार की चुनौती मिलने पर उसका मुकाबला करता है, लेकिन तानाशाही राजनीतिक शासन का एक मात्र अकेला प्रकार नहीं. एक अन्य प्रकार है- ‘प्राधान्य’ जिसका तात्पर्य है- राजनीतिक नेतृत्व को जनता की सहमति पर आधारित होना चाहिये; इस सहमति को प्राप्त करने के लिये शासक वर्ग की विश्व दृष्टि को लोगं में प्रचारित व प्रसारित किया जाता है ताकि वे इसे अपना सकें और उस शासक वर्ग के विरुद्ध आवाज़ न उठायें.

‘प्रधान्य’ शब्द का प्रयोग पहली बार रूसी क्रान्तिकारियों प्लेखनोव, एक्सेलराड, लेनिन आदि के द्वारा किया गया. प्लेखनेव व उसके सहयोगियों ने सर्वहारा वर्ग की कृषकों पर तथा दल की सर्वहारा वर्ग पर प्रधानता को स्वीकार किया. कुल मिलाकर इस सिद्धान्त के द्वारा विशाल कृषक समाज का समर्थन लघु सर्वहारा वर्ग के क्रान्तिकारी कार्यक्रमों हेतु प्राप्त करने का प्रयास किया गया. ग्राम्शी ने प्राधान्य शब्द का प्रयोग शुरू-शुरू में नेतृत्व के अर्थ में किया जब वह साम्यवादी दल का महासचिव था, पर जेल जाने के बाद उसने इस शब्द को वृहद् एवं व्यापक अर्थ प्रदान किया.

मार्क्स के विपरीत, ग्राम्शी ने ‘प्राधान्य’ के सिद्धान्त के द्वारा अधिरचना के महत्व को स्वीकार किया है. उसने पूंजीवादी समाज की अधिरचना के दो स्तरों का उल्लेख किया (और इसी आधार पर समाज में बौद्धिक लोगों की भूमिका को दो वर्गों में विभाजित किया) – नागरिक समाज और राजनीतिक समाज. नागरिक समाज में वे समस्त निजी संस्थायें शामिल हैं जो बल प्रयोग न करके सहज प्रयास द्वारा सामाजिक व राजनीतिक चेतना का निर्माण करती हैं- जैसे – चर्च, क्लब, स्कूल, पत्रिकायें आदि. इसके विपरीत राजनीतिक समाज में वे सरकारी संस्थाएं आती हैं जो सीधे प्रभुत्व द्वारा अधिपत्य स्थापित करने का प्रयास करती हैं जैसे – सरकार, न्यायालय, पुलिस बल, सेना आदि. ये संस्थाएं राज्य के पर्यायवाची के रूप में देखी जाती हैं.

शासक वर्ग दोनों ही स्तरों पर अपनी शक्ति का प्रयोग समाज पर करता है ताकि वह अपने विचारों एवं मूल्यों को जन-मानस में स्वीकार करा सके. लेकिन अलग-अलग पद्धति के द्वारा नागरिक समाज विचारों का एक खुला बाज़ार है जहां बौद्धिक-जन प्रतिस्पर्धी संस्कृतियों के विक्रेता के रूप में कार्य करते हैं. बौद्धिक वर्ग उस सीमा तक प्राधान्य स्थापित करने में सफल होते हैं जिस सीमा तक वे शासक वर्ग की विश्व दृष्टि को शासित वर्ग के मध्य स्थापित कर पाते हैं. इस प्रकार, वे आम-जन की देश के कानून व व्यवस्था के प्रति स्वीकृति प्राप्त कर लेते हैं. इस कार्य में बौद्धिक वर्ग जिस सीमा तक असफल सिद्ध हो जाते हैं उस सीमा तक वे राज्य के बाध्यकारी तंत्र का सहारा लेते हैं. दूसरे शब्दों में – नागरिक समाज अपने सदस्यों में सत्ता के प्रति निष्ठा एवं सम्मान का बोध जागृत करती है ताकि बुर्जुआ समाज को कोई चुनौती न दी जा सके एवं बुर्जुआ समाज के मूल्यों को वैधता मिल सके. जब कभी नागरिक समाज अपने सदस्यों की स्वीकृति प्राप्त करने में असफल हो जाता है तब राजनीतिक समाज बल प्रयोग का सहारा लेता है.

अत: ग्राम्शी के अनुसार साम्यवाद का ध्येय पूंजीवादी समाज को समाप्त करने तक सीमित न होकर उसके मूल्यों, आदर्शों, सिद्धान्तों को भी नष्ट करने का होना चाहिये अर्थात् उस प्राधान्य को भी समाप्त करना चाहिये जो वैचारिक स्तर पर जन-मानस में स्थापित की जाती है.

ग्राम्शी के प्राधान्य के सिद्धान्त में ही बुद्धिजीवी की परिभाषा निहित है. उसके अनुसार बौद्धिक लोगों का एक स्वतंत्र समूह नहीं होता है बल्कि प्रत्येक सामाजिक समूह का अपना एक बौद्धिक वर्ग होता है. ऐतिहासिक रूप से प्रगतिशील बौद्धिक वर्ग के पास आकर्षण की शक्ति होती है जिसके द्वारा वे समाज के अन्य बौद्धिक समूहों पर प्रधानता स्थापित कर सभी बौद्धिक लोगों में एकजुटता प्राप्त करते हैं. इटली के शासक वर्ग के बौद्धिक लोग उदारवादी थे जिन्होंने आकर्षण की इस सहज शक्ति का प्रयोग अन्य बौद्धिक वर्गों पर किया, विशेष रूप से मोज़िनी की ‘पार्टी ऑफ एक्शन’ पर. ये लोग व्यक्तियों का नेतृत्व नहीं ब्लकि हितों का आधिपत्य चाहते थे, एक्शन पार्टी लोगों का विश्वास पाने में सफल नहीं रही. ये लोग उदारवादियों के ‘सरकार के रूढ़िवादी’ कार्यक्रम का विकल्प प्रस्तुत नहीं कर सके. फलस्वरूप, वे स्वयं उदारवादियों की ‘प्राधान्यता’ का शिकार हो गये.

ग्राम्शी के सिद्धान्त के अनुसार- प्राधान्य व तानाशाही परस्पर आधारित तत्व हैं. रूस व इटली दोनों ही प्राधिकारवादी थे क्योंकि दोनों ही जगहों पर नागरिक समाज की सहज सहमति की कमी ने राज्य को ‘शक्ति’ अपनाने पर विवश कर दिया. ग्राम्शी ने शक्ति द्वारा संचालित समाज को ‘इकोनोमिको-कारपोरेटिव’ की संज्ञा दी है- अर्थात् ऐसा समाज जहां इस बात पर कोई आम सहमति न हो कि कैसे समाज को गठित किया जाये. ऐसे समाज के पास सामाजिक व आर्थिक यथार्थ से समांजस्य स्थापित करने की विश्व दृष्टि का भी अभाव होता है. ऐसी दशा में राजनीति आर्थिक क्षेत्र की तानाशाही की प्रत्यक्ष, सीधी एवं मौलिक अभिव्यक्ति होती है. ग्राम्शी का मत था कि कोई सामाजिक वर्ग अपनी विश्व दृष्टि की वैधता से अन्यों को तब तक संतुष्ट नहीं कर सकता जब तक कि वह स्वयं पूरी तरह से संतुष्ट न हो. ऐसी स्थिति प्राप्त होने पर ही समाज में शान्ति की स्थापना ही है और तभी प्रधान्य, न कि तानाशाही, शासक के स्वरूप के रूप में उभरता है.

ग्राम्शी ने ऐतिहासिक विकास में आर्थिक कारकों की तुलना में सांस्कृतिक एवं बौद्धिक कारकों पर बहुत बल दिया. इन कारकों की नागरिक समाज और राज्य में सर्वानुमति व प्राधान्य स्थापित करने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका होती है.

ग्राम्शी अपने नागरिक व राजनीतिक समाज सम्बन्धी विचारों में क्रोस से प्रभावित था. क्रोस की तरह ग्राम्शी का भी मत था कि बिना बाध्यता के सर्वानुमति नहीं होती, और प्राधिकार के बिना स्वतंत्रता नहीं होती.

ग्राम्शी और क्रोस दोनों के अनुसार- चर्च अथवा नागरिक समाज के क्षेत्र में बौद्धिक लोग कार्यरत रहते हैं चाहे वे राज्य के साथ सहयोग करें या राज्य का विरोध करें. दोनों के अनुसार – राज्य का नैतिक आयाम इसी क्षेत्र में स्थित होता है, राज्य के अपने मौलिक क्षेत्र में नहीं.

जेन्टाइल (जो फासीवादी राज्य का समर्थक था) नैतिक-राज्य का विरोध करने के लिये ग्राम्शी ने क्रोस का साथ दिया. जेन्टाइल के राज्य में नागरिक व राजनीतिक समाज और सरकारी नैतिकता की अवधारणा को मिश्रित कर दिया गया. जेन्टाइल ने फासीवाद को राष्ट्रीय सहमति और विवेक सम्मत होने के आधार पर न्यायोचित ठहराया, वह इसका उद्भव हिंसा में नहीं देखता. उसने मुसोलिनी को भी निरंकुश न मानकर जनता का शिक्षक बताया. ग्राम्शी के अनुसार – फासीवाद युद्धोत्तर संकट के दौरान कोई नवीन नैतिकता नहीं प्रस्तुत कर सका क्योंकि यह स्वयं एक सतत संकट की देन था. ग्राम्शी इस बात से चिन्तित नहीं था कि फासीवादियों का तरीका ‘कैसा’ था, बल्कि इस बात से चिन्तित था कि उन्होंने विजय प्राप्त कर ली थी. वह निरंकुशतंत्र का विरोधी था.

ग्राम्शी का यह भी मानना था कि कतिपय ऐतिहासिक परिस्थितियों में (जैसे 1917 की रूसी क्रान्ति) मात्र तानाशाही द्वारा ही प्राधान्य की स्थापना की जा सकती है. पर, इस प्रकार स्थापित राज्य अतिशय मजबूत होगा. अत: वह राज्य को स्वयं को विधि न मानने के लिये सावधान भी करता है. ग्राम्शी मानता था कि वह सामाजिक समूह जो राज्य की समाप्ति व स्वयं की समाप्ति का लक्ष्य निर्धारित करता है, वही नैतिक राज्य की स्थापना कर सकता है.

ग्राम्शी ने क्रान्तिकारियों की अपील के प्रति आम जन-मानस की उदासीनता एवं उपेक्षा के भाव का विश्लेषण किया. उसके अनुसार आम-जन केवल राज्य की शक्ति के अधीन नहीं थे बल्कि शासक वर्ग की विश्व दृष्टि के भी अधीन थे. अत: क्रान्तिकारी परिप्रेक्ष्य की प्राप्ति हेतु आवश्यक है कि श्रमिक वर्ग को शासक वर्ग के सांस्कृतिक संगठनों की वैचारिक गुलामी की जंजीरों से मुक्त कराया जाये. अत: क्रान्तिकारियों को सर्वप्रथम पूंजीवादी समाज द्वारा स्थापित प्राधान्य को समाप्त करने के लिये जन-चेतना को बदलना होगा. इसे प्राप्त करने में बौद्धिक वर्ग का योगदान अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण एवं आवश्यक होगा.

ग्राम्शी ने ‘पीढ़ी’ – अन्तराल’ (जेनरेशन गैप) के विषय पर भी विचार किया है. उसके अनुसार पुरानी पीढ़ी हमेशा नयी पीढ़ी को शिक्षित करती है. लेकिन बुर्जुआ वर्ग के युवाओं का सर्वहारा वर्ग की तरफ विचलन यह संकेत देता है कि बुर्जुआ वर्ग अपने युवाओं को सम्यक् रूप से शिक्षित नहीं कर पाता है और न उन्हें उत्तराधिकार हेतु तैयार कर पाता है. अत: बुर्जुआ युवा-वर्ग मार्ग-दर्शन हेतु सर्वहारा वर्ग के बुर्जुर्गों की तरफ उन्मुख होता है. पर इसे बुर्जुआ वर्ग स्वीकार नहीं कर पाता है. जब यह घटना बड़े पैमाने पर राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर घटती है तब बुर्जुआ वर्ग राजनीतिक व सैन्य हस्तक्षेप द्वारा प्रगतिशील तत्वों व अपने युवाओं के मध्य के संवाद को तोड़ने का प्रयास करता है. पर उनका यह प्रयास निष्फल सिद्ध होता है. ग्राम्शी के विचार में शासक वर्ग में पीढ़ी-अन्तराल के कारण बड़ी संख्या में बुर्जुआ युवा जन-आन्दोलनों से जुड़ गये, विशेष रूप से 1890 के अस्थिर दशक में. लेकिन 19 वीं सदी के प्रारम्भ में युद्ध के उपरान्त इटली राज्य के समक्ष अपने संकट के कारण ये युवा पुन: बुर्जुआ राज्य की तरफ वापस चले गये.

ग्राम्शी का यह भी मत था कि कोई भी परम्परागत संस्कृति जब किसी नयी संस्कृति से संघर्ष के कारण लड़खड़ाने लगती है तब वह नयी संस्कृति के उन्नायकों को बांधने का प्रयास करती है ताकि वह स्वयं को बचा सके. उसका यह भी मानना था कि ‘सेकेण्ड इन्टरनेशनल’ के दौरान केवल ‘आर्थिक नियतिवाद’ पर ध्यान केन्द्रित किया गया और वैचारिक कारकों के महत्व  को अनदेखा कर दिया गया. बुर्जुआ बौद्धिक वर्ग ने  एक बहुत बड़ा ‘वैचारिक झूठ’ फैलाया कि वास्तविक लोकतंत्र व सामाजिक समता केवल वयस्क मताधिकार एवं संसद द्वारा ही सम्भव है. इस झूठे भ्रम को ‘सेकेण्ड इन्टरनेशनल’ में एक प्रकार से मान लिया गया. ग्राम्शी का विश्वास था कि संसद और मतदान केन्द्र मात्र बाह्य आकृतियां एवं ढांचे हैं, वास्तविक और प्रभावशाली नियंत्रण तो सांस्कृतिक संगठनों  के पास है जो नागरिक समाज में संवाद कार्य करते हैं. ग्राम्शी के अनुसार – ट्राट्स्की द्वारा सुझाया गया स्थायी क्रान्ति का विचार यूरोप में लागू नहीं किया जा सकता क्योंकि वहां की परिस्थितियां परम्परायें, वर्ग की रचना, औद्योगिक व सांस्कृतिक स्तर रूस से भिन्न है. साम्यवाद को प्राप्त करने का कोई पूर्वनिर्धारित सर्वव्यापक सूत्र नहीं हो सकता. पूंजीवाद का वर्तमान स्वरूप संसदात्मक लोकतंत्र की आड़ में मानवीय शोषण को बढ़ावा देता है. लोकतंत्र व्यवस्था के रूप में ग्राह्य है पर इस पर पूंजीपतियों का नियंत्रण त्याज्य है.

सामान्यतया किसी तन्त्र में प्राधान्य स्थापित करने के लिये ‘शक्ति’ एवं ‘सहमति’ दोनों के समिश्रण को आधार बनाया जाता है. शक्ति का इस प्रकार प्रयोग किया जाता है कि यह सहमति को क्षति न पहुंचाये और ऐसा प्रतीत हो कि शक्ति का प्रयोग भी ‘बहुमत’ की अनुमति से किया जा रहा है. इसी प्रकार, संसद के माध्यम से लोक-सम्प्रभुता के भ्रम को पैदान किया जाता है. प्राधान्य स्थापित करने के संघर्ष मे राज्य बड़ा प्रभावी होता है क्योंकि इसके पास पार्याप्त तन्त्र व बल होता है. राज्य के पास श्रेष्ठ संगठन, सूचना तंत्र, संचार के माध्यम आदि होते हैं जो प्राधान्य की स्थापना में सहायक होते हैं. ग्राम्शी का मानना था कि राज्य के पास संसद के अतिरिक्त आधुनिक जनमत का भी तंत्र होता है जो प्राधान्य स्थापित करने का सशक्त माध्यम है. यह राजनीतिक व नागरिक समाज एवं शक्ति व सहमति के मध्य कड़ी का कार्य करता है. जब राज्य को कोई अप्रिय कदम या कार्यक्रम शुरू करना होता है तो यह तदनुसार प्रतिरोध का जनमत तैयार कर लेता है अर्थात् नागरिक समाज के कुछ लोगों को संगठित व प्रशिक्षित कर राज्य द्वारा स्वयं के अनुकूल जनमत तैयार किया जाता है. अत: प्राधान्य स्थापित करने के संघर्ष में राज्य सर्वोपरि है.

ग्राम्शी के अनुसार आधुनिक राष्ट्र राज्य ने इस प्रकार की अधिरचना उत्पन्न की है कि वह हर संकट का मुकाबला कर सकता है- जैसे 1929 की भीषण आर्थिक त्रासदी. इसलिए ग्राम्शी रोज़ा लक्ज़ेमबर्ग की वह मान्यता ठुकरा देता हैं जिसमें वह बाजार के अत्यधिक विस्तार को पूंजीवाद के पराभव के रूप में देखती हैं. ग्राम्शी ने इन सांस्कृतिक संगठनों की तुलना सेना के ‘ट्रेंच-सिस्टम’ से की है. इसके अन्तर्गत सैनिक शत्रु आक्रमण से छिपने व बचने के लिये जमीन में लम्बा व गहरा खंदक बना लेते हैं हालांकि जरूरत पड़ने पर पुन: प्रतिरोध करने में भी सक्षम होते हैं.

ग्राम्शी का मत था कि संघर्ष के दौरान क्रान्तिकारियों के सावयवी संकट व इसके विभिन्न चरणों की पहचान होनी चाहिये. सावयवी संकट में समाज की अधिरचना व आधार दोनों शामिल होते हैं. सावयवी संकट को प्राधान्य के संकट में प्रस्तुत किया जाता है जिसमें राष्ट्रीय नेतृत्व से जनता का विश्वास उठ जाता है और वह परम्परागत दलों से दूर होने लगती है. यह संकट लम्बा चल सकता है क्योंकि कोई भी सामाजिक व्यवस्था सरलता से हार स्वीकार नहीं करती. संकट समाधान हेतु शासक वर्ग के बुद्धिजीवी सभी प्रकार के हथकंडे अपनाते हैं जैसे राज्य की विफलता का दोष विरोधी दलों, नस्लीय या नृजातीय अल्पसंख्यकों पर लगाना या राष्ट्रभक्ति के भाव जागृत करने सम्बन्धी अभियान चलाना. लेकिन नागरिक जीवन का यह बहुत खतरनाक समय होता है क्योंकि यदि प्रगतिशील शक्तियां इस संकट का समाधान करने में विफल होती हैं तो शासक वर्ग किसी दैवी नेतृत्व को स्वीकार कर लेता है. अत: क्रान्तिकारियों को सावधान रहने की आवश्यकता है.

ग्राम्शी ने 1920 में इतालवी साम्यवादी दल की फासीवाद के प्रति अपनाये गये दृष्टिकोणों को स्वीकार किया था पर बाद में इससे दूरी बना ली. लेकिन 1934 में ‘कम्युनिस्ट इन्टरनेशनल’ ने पुन: हिटलर की जर्मनी विजय का समर्थन इस आधार पर किया कि इसेस जन-मानस में लोकतंत्र के भ्रम को दूर किया जा सकेगा और सामाजिक लोकतंत्र के प्रभाव को कम किया जा सकेगा.

ग्राम्शी किसी भी प्रकार के सैन्य अभियान के भी विरूद्ध था क्योंकि इसके लिये बुर्जुआ वर्ग की तुलना में सर्वहारा वर्ग की तैयारी नगण्य थी. सैन्य अभियान एवं हिंसा से केवल प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को मदद मिलती है. अत: सैन्य गतिविधियों पर राजनीति को प्राथमिकता मिलनी चाहिये क्योंकि केवल राजनीति ही सामंजस्य व कुशल समन्वय की सम्भावना का सृजन करती है. अत: सत्ता अधिग्रहण शान्ति पूर्ण ढंग से भी सम्भव है जिसे विभिन्न लोकतंत्र समर्थक गैरपूंजीपति वर्ग के सहयोग से प्राप्त किया जा सकता है.

ग्राम्शी बल प्रयोग-मूलक राज्य के स्थान पर समस्त संस्थाओं का लोकतंत्रीकरण चाहता था जिसमें निर्णय लेने के लिये सर्वसम्मति को आधार बनाया जाता.

ग्राम्शी के प्राधान्य के सिद्धान्त से समकालीन वामपंथ को सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण शिक्षा यह मिलती है कि पुरानी व्यवस्था को मात्र उसकी कमियां गिनाकर समाप्त नहीं किया जा सकता, ठीक उसी प्रकार जैसे किसी नयी व्यवस्था को मात्र उसके गुणों का बखान करके स्थापित नहीं किया जा सकता. किसी व्यवस्था को चाहे वह कितनी ही शोषणपूर्ण व दमनकारी क्यों न हो केवल दुष्ट शाकों का षड़यन्त्र बताकर नहीं हटाया जा सकता. योग्य शासक समाज को चलायमान रखते हैं, लाखों लोगों को बिना कोड़े के भय के अपना कार्य करने के लिये प्रेरित करते हैं. श्रमिकों के लिये मात्र यह पर्याप्त नहीं है कि वे अपने मालिक की शिकायत करें. उन्हें स्वयं को मालिक से श्रेष्ठ बनाना चाहिये, केवल नैतिक दृष्टि से ही नहीं बल्कि तकनीकी ज्ञान की दृष्टि से भी.

ग्राम्शी ने उन वामपंथी बुद्धिजीवियों की कटु आलोचना की जो शोषित वर्ग के लघु अपराधों व अनैतिकता को न्यायोचित ठहराते हैं. ग्राम्शी निर्धारणवादियों का यह तर्क नहीं स्वीकार करता कि मनुष्य अपनी परिस्थिति की उपज होता है. उसके अनुसार परिस्थिति की उपज होता है. उसके अनुसार परिस्थितियां एवं परिवेश अपराध को न्यायोचित सिद्ध नहीं कर सकते; वे केवल व्यक्तियों के व्यवहार की व्याख्या करते हैं. अत: क्रान्तिकारी को दो प्रकार के मानव व्यवहारों में अंतर करना सीखना चाहिये- 1. क्रान्तिकारी व्यवहार 2. अपराधिक व्यवहार. सम्भव है कि अपराधिक कृत्य प्रचलित सामाजिक शोषण युक्त व्यवस्था के विरूद्ध विद्रोह हो परन्तु इसे नैतिक स्वीकृति प्रदान करने से शासक वर्ग और बुरा व्यवहार करने के लिये प्रेरित करेगा. जिससे मुकाबला करना बहुत दुरूह होगा.

अज्ञानी, मूर्ख, अनैतिक और कमजोर लोग एक नये समाज की रचना नहीं कर सकते चाहे उसकी बात कितनी ही उचित क्यों न हो. केवल स्वाभिमानी, मजबूत, नैतिक लोग जो नयी संस्कृति का सृजन करना चाहते हैं, वे ही पुराने समाज के स्थान पर नये समाज को गठित कर अपनी श्रेष्ठता सिद्ध कर सकते हैं.

पुनर्लेखन : डॉ. संजय बरनवाल रीजर(राजनीति शास्त्र) राजनकीय रज़ा(पी. जी.) कॉलेज, रामपुर(उ. प्र.)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘जर्नल ऑफ द हिस्ट्री ऑफ आइडिया’ वाल्यूम 36, सं. 2 (अप्रैल-जून, 1975), पृष्ठ 351-366  से साभार उद्धृत. मूल लेख ‘ग्राम्शी एण्ड द थ्योरी ऑफ हेजीमनी’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

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