हेना अरेंट : सर्वाधिकारवाद का उद्भव

एलफान्स सोलनर : हेना अरेंट की रचना ‘’द ओरिजिन्स ऑफ टोटालिटेरियनिज्म’’ (सर्वाधिकारवाद का उद्भव) 1951 में प्रकाशित हुई. पर वह 20वीं शताब्दी के सबसे महत्वपूर्ण बौद्धिक लेखों में से एक है. रूसी साम्यवाद के अवसान के बाद भी हेना अरेंट पर बहस जारी है. उत्तर साम्यवादी राज्यों की संक्रमणकालीन समस्याएं बनी हुई हैं. उन राज्यों की ये समस्याएं यूरोपीय प्रजातांत्रिक देशों की जमात में शामिल होने मात्र से खत्म होने वाली नहीं. इन समस्याओं की संरचना व स्वरूप ही अरेंट के लेख का प्रमुख विषय है. ‘’द ओरिजिन्स आफ टोटालिटेरियनिज्म’’ वास्तव में राजनीतिक चिंतन पर एक अनुपम पुस्तक के रूप में उभरी है.

हेना अरेंट की इस पुस्तक को समकालीन विवादों के परिप्रेक्ष्य में रखने का क्या तात्पर्य है ? अगर हम अरेंट की किताब प्रकाशित होने के बाद, अमेरिका में इस पर हुई प्रतिक्रिया को ध्यान में रखें तो हम ‘’परिप्रेक्ष्य’’ का बहुत ही विस्तृत अर्थ निकालने लगते हैं.

‘सर्वाधिकारवाद’ पर हेना अरेंट की किताब सही तरह से तभी समझी जा सकती है जब हम इसके लिखे जाने के परिप्रेक्ष्य में तीन बातें ध्यान में रखें; (1) लेखक का नाज़ी जर्मनी से पलायन, (2) पुस्तक का जर्मनी में एक विशिष्ट और महत्वपूर्ण स्थान, तथा (3) द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के बाद के राजनीतिक विचारों के लिए इसकी प्रेरणात्मक भूमिक. प्रथम विश्व युद्ध के बाद, नाज़ी जर्मनी से यहूदी-विद्वानों का एक समूह पलायन करने को विवश हुआ. यह एक ऐसी पीढ़ी थी जिसने प्रथम विश्व युद्ध के भयानक मनोवैज्ञानिक व राजनीतिक परिणाम देखे थे. इसके प्रमुख अनुभवों में एक और ‘नाज़ी जर्मनी से पलायन’ था (जिसमें वे हिटलर के भयानक नरसंहार से बच निकले) तो दूसरी तरफ, एक अन्य देश में प्रवेश पाना निर्वाण जैसा था (जिसने पहले सुरक्षा दी, फिर इस पीढ़ी के राजनीतिक – बौद्धिक अनुभवों के आत्मसात् कर लिया). लेकिन इसके परिणाम स्वरूप जर्मनी और यूरोप से उनके सारे सामाजिक व बौद्धिक सम्बन्ध टूट गए. सामाजिक विज्ञान एवं मानविकी में तो इसका प्रभाव है ही उन देशों पर भी इसका प्रभाव दिखायी देता है जहां से इन्होंने पलायन किया. इसके लिए हम 1930 और 1940 के दशक में फासीवाद तथा राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद(नाजीवाद) तथा 1950 के दशक में सर्वाधिकारवादी सिद्धान्त के विमर्श पर ध्यान देंगे. विचारों के इतिहास की इस रूप रेखा में हेना अरेंट की पुस्तक को रखने हेतु मैं कुछ उदाहरणों का सहारा लूंगा. इसके लिए चार पुस्तकें – एर्नस्ट फ्रैंकेल की ‘डूअल स्टेट’ (1941), फ्रैंज न्यूमैन की ‘बेहेमॉथ’ (1942), सिंग्मंड न्यूमैन की ‘पर्मानेन्ट रिवोल्यूशन’ (1942), तथा फ्रेडरिक और ब्रिझेजिन्सकी की ‘टोटालिटेरियन डिक्टेटरशिप एण्ड आटोक्रेसी’ (1956), का संदर्भ ठीक रहेगा.

Hannah

ये पुस्तकें एक तरफ ‘राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद’ व ‘फासीवाद’ तो दूसरी ओर सर्वाधिकारवादी सिद्धान्त के विकास पर प्रकाश डालती हैं. इन पुस्तकों के लेखकों ने एक-दूसरे को संदर्भित अवश्य किया है, पर उसमें उनके आपसी वैचारिक मतभेदों, राजनीतिक अवरोधों और व्यक्तिगत् वैमनस्य दिखाई देते हैं. फिर भी उनके बीच एक गहन समानता नज़र आती है. तो हेना अरेंट की सर्वाधिकारवाद पर किताब को कित प्रकार स्वदेश त्यागी राजनीतिक वैज्ञानिकों के  संवादिक ढांचे में स्थित किया जा सकता है? अरेंट की किताब के तीसरे हिस्से तक ही मैं अपने आप को सीमित रखूंगा. इस भाग के बारे में अरेंट ने जर्मन संस्करण में लिखा कि यह (तीसरा भाग) ‘सर्वाधिकारवाद का शुद्ध रूप’ था जिसे उन्होंने सर्वाधिकारवादी सत्ता के उद्भव और तत्वों से अलग बताया. हेना अरेंट पर समकालीन साहित्य इस तथ्य की उपेक्षा करता है.

राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद (नाज़ीवाद) पर अर्नेस्ट फ्रैंकेल एवं  फ्रैंज न्यूमैन

फासीवाद की तरह ही राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद पर उसकी स्थापना के समय से ही अध्ययन व शोध प्रारम्भ हो गया. इस पर आरम्भिक साहित्य का सम्बन्ध मुसोलिनी और हिटलर के विरुद्ध संघर्ष से था, बाद में पूरे यूरोप में यह फासीवाद के खिलाफ एक अभियान बन गया. फासीवाद व नाज़ीवादी अधिनायकों द्वारा वामपंथियों की हत्या की जा रही थी. अत: वामपंथियों द्वारा सर्वाधिकारवाद के विरुद्ध एक विमर्श आरम्भ हुआ. राजनीतिक निष्कासितों के मध्य विमर्श का भी यही स्वरूप था, पर वे इस विमर्श को एक सैद्धान्तिक स्वरूप देना चाहते थे. इसे फासीवाद और राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद की व्याख्या का क्रांतिकारी काल कहा जा सकता है जिसमें ‘हिटलर की सत्ता’ को मानवता का प्रथम शत्रु माना गया है. फ्रैंकल और न्यूमैन की किताबें इसी काल का प्रतिनिधित्व करती हैं तथा निर्वासित लेखकों द्वारा सभी सीमाओं और अवरोधों के बावजूद हासिल की गई ऊंचाइयों को दर्शाती हैं. अर्नेस्ट फैंकेल ने ‘डूअल स्टेट’ पुस्तक जर्मन प्रवास के दौरान लिखी और स्वयं 1938 में जर्मनी छोड़ने के पहले ही उसने पुस्तक की पांडुलिपि को जर्मनी से बाहर चोरी छुपे भेज दिया. फ्रैंकल के अनुसार जर्मनी में 1933 के बाद दो परस्पर विरोधी कानूनी व्यवस्थाएं चल रहीं थीं; एक तरफ ‘विशेषाधिकारवादी राज्य’ पुरानी कानूनी व्यवस्था और अधिकारों को धीरे-धीरे खत्म कर रहा था, तो दूसरी ओर ‘कानूनी राज्य’ था जो पतन की ओर अग्रसर था, जो केवल पूंजीवादी उत्पादन द्वारा हथियार निर्माण में लिप्त था. राष्ट्रीय समाजवादी आंदोलन ने स्वयं को संगठित कर राजनीतिक सत्ता हथिया ली. इसने संवैधानिक व वैधानिक अवरोध हटा कर पुलिस, न्यायालय और अन्य संस्थाओं को अपने अधीन कर लिया. इसने शत्रुओं पर नियंत्रण कर लिया. सामाजिक समूहों की स्वायत्तता समाप्त कर दी. तथा समाज में जबरदस्ती समन्वय कायम कर दिया. इसने नस्लवाद के सिद्धान्त को वास्तविकता में बदल मताधिकारविहीन अल्पसंख्यकों विशेषकर यहूदियों को उनके वैधानिक और सामाजिक अस्तित्व से वंचित कर दिया, पर सर्वाधिक चिंता पैदा करने वाली वह परिकल्पना थी जिसमें फ्रैंकल ने बताया कि वे विधिवेत्ता जो कानून व न्याय की परम्परा में पले पढ़े थे, न केवल बड़ी आसानी से उन्होंने नाज़ी जर्मनी के सामने समर्पण कर दिया, बल्कि उसका साथ भी देने लगे. फ्रैंकल ने इसका प्रमुख उदाहरण संवैधानिक अधिवक्ता कार्लश्मिट को बताया जिसने राष्ट्रीय समाजवादियों को सत्ता में लाने, उन्हें राजनीतिक विचारधारा देने तथा नाज़ी राज्य की नस्लवादी नीति बनाने का काम किया.

न्यूमैन की पुस्तक ‘’बेहेमॉथ’’ में विश्लेषण ‘द डूअल स्टेट’ से आगे जाता है. वीमर गणराज्य के बाद के वर्षों में फ्रैंकल के वैधानिक साथी-सहयोगी न्यूमैन थे लेकिन 1933 में ही उन्हें जर्मनी छोड़ने पर मजबूर कर दिया गया था. उन्होंने इंग्लैण्ड में हैराल्ड लास्की और कार्ल मानहाइम के निर्देशन में राजनीति विज्ञान में एक लघु शोध किया. न्यूमैन की ‘बेहेमॉथ’ राजनीतिक दृष्टि से अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण पुस्तक थी क्योंकि इसने राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद के आंतरिक ढांचे का विस्तृत विश्लेषण उस समय किया जब अमेरिका ध्रुवीय शक्तियों के विरुद्ध युद्ध में उतरने वाला था और जब सब कुछ इस बात पर निर्भर करता था कि जिस शत्रु को वह हराना चाहता था उसकी विनाशक क्षमता को पूरी तरह से सामने लाया जाए. न्यूमैन ने अपना विश्लेषण राजनीतिक, आर्थिक एवम् समाजशास्त्रीय आधार पर दिया. राजनीतिक दृष्टि से राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद आंदोलन उदारवाद और प्रजातंत्र के विरुद्ध संघर्ष था, और यद्यपि इस पर निरंकुश राज्य का जामा चढ़ा हुआ था पर इसमें राज्य सत्ता व दलीय सत्ता का समन्वय दिखाई देता था जिसमें दोनों अपने वर्चस्व केलिए संघर्षरत् थे. परिणाम स्वरूप, सामाजिक व राजनीतिक जीवन में एक समन्वय हो गया, और इस समन्वित व्यवस्था में वेबर के ‘करिश्माई नेतृत्व’ द्वारा राष्ट्रीय समाजवादी विचारधारा और उसके व्यवहारिक दृष्टिकोण का सहारा लेकर दैनिक जीवन में शक्ति का प्रयोग किया गया. न्यूमैन के अनुसार, इसी का सहारा लेकर ‘नस्लवाद और यहूदी विरोध’ की नीतियां तैयार हुईं जिसने न केवल अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय कानून को नष्ट किया बल्कि द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के दौरान वह एक भयावह सच्चाई भी बनी.

आर्थिक क्षेत्र में राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद, न्यूमैन के अनुसार, अर्थव्यवस्था के वर्चस्व तथा पूंजीवाद के बीत करता है. लेकिन वह 1930 व 1940 के दशकों में आये परिवर्तनों की भी अनदेखी नहीं करता. एक ओर एकाधिकारवादी प्रकृति से परिपूर्ण निजी क्षेत्र की शक्तियों में अभिवृद्धि थी जो राज्य के समर्थन से फल-फूल रही थी, वहीं दूसरी ओर राज्य का ‘बाध्यकारी’ स्वरूप था जो यद्यपि ‘नियोजित अर्थव्यवस्था’ तो नहीं, पर ‘आदेशात्मक अर्थव्यवस्था’ तक पहुंच रहा था. पर न्यूमैन की थीसिस का सबसे अहम् वह पहलू था जिसमें उन्होंने बताया कि राज्य यहूदी सम्पत्ति के आर्थिकरण तथा विदेशी उद्योगों के जर्मनीकरण द्वारा पूंजीवाद के दिग्गजों को फायदा पहुंचाने का काम कर रहा था. इस प्रकार सामूहिक अपराध में राजनीति व अर्थव्यवस्था की मिली-जुली भागीदारी हो रही थी.

‘बेहेमॉथ’ का तृतीय खण्ड राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद का समाजशास्त्रीय अर्थ बताता है. न्यूमैन के अनुसार जर्मनी में वर्गों और विशिष्टजनों द्वारा सत्ता का एक नया प्रभावी ढांचा विकसित हुआ जो कि प्रत्यक्ष हिंसा से स्थापित किया गया और जिसे स्थापित रखने में आतंक व प्रचार का सहारा लिया गया. तो भी सत्ता वर्ग इसमें एकजुट न होकर राजनीतिक, सामाजिक और आर्थिक शक्ति पुंजों की भांति थे जिनके पारस्परिक हितों में संघर्ष को विचारधारा द्वारा छुपाया जाता था. देश या विदेश में केवल नग्न हिंसा के प्रयोग में ही ये शक्तियां एक साथ थीं.

राष्ट्रीय समाजवादी व्यवस्था में राजनीतिक दल, नौकरशाही, सेना व उद्योगपतियों के अतिरिक्त आम जनता बिल्कुल शक्तिहीन व लाचार थी. मज़दूर वर्ग भी अन्य स्वायत्त संस्थाओं की भांति पूंजी व तानाशाही राज्य की दया पर निर्भर हो गया. न्यूमैन द्वारा राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद की सामाजिक व्यवस्था का महत्वाकांक्षी संरचनात्मक विश्लेषण राज्य के वैधानिक और राजनीतिक सिद्धान्त में एक बड़ा रास्ता खोलता है और बताता है कि न्यूमैन किस हद तक आम मामलों के एक अधिवक्ता से एक राजनीतिक वैज्ञानिक बन गए. समाजवाद का आधार वैधानिक अधिकारों के ह्रास तथा उससे उत्पन्न भय के शून्य को प्रचार व आतंक से भरना था जो स्वयं एक राजनीतिक सिद्धान्त है.

राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद पर सिगमंड न्यूमैन तथा कार्ल फ्रेडरिक

फासीवाद पर अभी तक अपर्याप्त विमर्श के विपरीत सर्वाधिकारवाद की अवधारणा पर हम उसके प्रारम्भ के इतिहास के बारे में काफी जानते हैं जो मुसोलिनी (फासीवाद) के उदारवादी विरोधियों के मध्य 1920  के दशक में शुरू हुआ. 1930 का दशक कई स्वदेशत्यागी, ज्यादातर रूढ़िवादियों का रहा जैसे कि वाल्डेमर गुरियन व एरिक बोगेलिन. सिगमंड न्यूमैन की 1942 में प्रकाशित पुस्तक ‘परमानेन्ट रिवोल्यूशन’ अधिनायकवादी अवधारणा के विकास में महत्वपूर्ण स्थान रखती है. इस पुस्तक ने न केवल सर्वाधिकारवाद द्वारा उठायी गई पद्धति सम्बन्धी समस्यायें सामने रखी, बल्कि काफी प्रशंसनीय ढंग से उन्हें हल भी किया. सिगमंड न्यूमैन यह जानना चाहता था कि विभिन्न समाजिक व्यवस्थाओं का एक समग्रता के रूप में तुलनात्कम विश्लेषण कैसे किया जा सकता है. उसका मानना था कि इटली का फासीवाद, जर्मनी का राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद(नाज़ीवाद) तथा रूसी बोल्शेविकवाद एक समान नहीं है. इन्हीं तीनों अध्ययनों (इटली, जर्मनी, रूस) के आधार पर यह उन पांच स्रोतों को रेखांकित करते हैं जिनके प्रति सर्वाधिकारवादी समान दृष्टि रखते हैं. यह क्षेत्र है – ‘स्थायित्व की मान्यता’, ‘कार्यक्रम की जगह कदम’, ‘राजनीति का अर्द्ध-प्रजातांत्रिक आधार’, ‘युद्ध-मनोविज्ञान’ और ‘नेतृत्व सिद्धान्त’. इसे कार्यान्वित करने में न्यूमैन तुलनात्मक पद्धति का अनुसरण करते हैं. न्यूमैन इससे ‘सर्वाधिकारवादी शासनों’ की अवधारणा तक पहुंचते हैं. सर्वाधिकार की आंतरिक संरचना के लिए निम्न बिन्दु महत्वपूर्ण हैं, एक, समूह समर्थित नेतृत्व : अर्थात् एकल नेतृत्व के पीछे एक प्रतिबद्ध समूह का अस्तित्व; दो, इस नेतृत्व के पीछे एक भीड़ का समर्थन (जो बुर्जुआ समाज का अवशेष है); तीन, अधिनायकवादी सत्ता का केन्द्रीय संस्थान ‘एक दलीय राज्य’ है जो नेतृत्व व भीड़ के बीच तथा राज्य व समाज के बीच एक सेतु का काम करता है. यद्यपि ये सत्ता चुनाव, नौकरशाही का प्रयोग, सैन्यीकरण व शिक्षा पर नियंत्रण जैसे परम्परागत् तरीकों का सहारा लेता है, पर यह प्रचार और युद्ध प्रोपगेण्डा द्वारा उत्पन्न भय  को ‘राजनीतिक अस्त्र’ के रूप में प्रयोग करता है.

1942 में सिगमंड न्यूमैन के पुस्तक लोकतान्त्रिक व सर्वाधिकारवादी सिद्धान्तों के ध्रुवीकरण पर खत्म होती है. पर यह ध्रुवीकरण तत्कालीन सैन्य ध्रुवीकरण के अनुकूल नहीं था क्योंकि विश्वयुद्ध में जहां एक ओर फासीवादी शक्तियां थीं, वहीं दूसरी ओर लोकतांत्रिक शक्तियों के साथ सोवियत संघ(सर्वाधिकारवादी  शक्ति) भी था. 1942 में लिखी इस पुस्तक के बाद यदि 1950 के दशक के मध्य में लिखी फ्रेडरिक व ब्रिझेजिन्सकी की किताब पढ़ी जाए तो राजनीति विज्ञान के क्षेत्र में सर्वाधिकारवाद के विश्लेषण सम्बन्धी अनेक प्रश्नों के समाधान मिल सकते हैं जैसे पद्धति सम्बन्धी प्रश्न जिससे सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्थाओं के बीच तुलना की जा सके, ऐसा करने में कौन से बदलाव सामने आयेंगे, उनको किस तरीके से जोड़ा जाए जिससे विषय वैज्ञानिक बने आदि. एक स्तर पर इन प्रयोगों का अंतर स्पष्ट है – इसके लिए हमें और अधिक ऐतिहासिक तथा अनुभवमूलक सामग्री पर ध्यान देना होगा जो कि 1950 के दशक के लेखकों (फ्रेडरिक और ब्रिझेजिन्सकी) के हाथ में थी. इन लेखकों की पुस्तक ‘टोटालिटेरियन डिकटेटरशिप एण्ड आटोक्रेसी’ (1956) की तीन प्रमुख विशेषताओं की ओर ध्यान आकृष्ट करना चाहता हूं;  (1) पुस्तक में सर्वाधिकारवादी प्रणाली की 6 विशेषताएं बतायी गई हैं, लेकिन यह स्पष्ट नहीं है कि वे किस तरह एक विशेष प्रकार के सर्वाधिकारवाद को जन्म देती हैं क्योंकि पुस्तक में यह थीसिस भी प्रतिपादित की गई है कि प्रत्येक सर्वाधिकारी सत्ता अपने में स्वयं एक प्रकार है जो एक ऐतिहासिक नवीनता को व्यक्त करती है;  (2) पुस्तक में सत्ता के एकाधिपत्य को सैद्धान्तिक एवम् अनुभवात्मक आधार पर न्यायसंगत ठहराया गया है (सत्ता का एकाधिपत्य एकदलीय वर्चस्व, तथा संचार, सेना और आर्थिक मामलों पर एकाधिकार में व्यक्त होता है) क्या यह राजनीति विज्ञान में ‘राज्य-केन्द्रिकता’ के सिद्धान्त का प्रतिपादन नहीं ? और फिर यह उस थीसिस के भी प्रतिकूल है जिसमें प्रत्येक सर्वाधिकारवादी सत्ता को ऐतिहासिक नवीनता माना गया है, और क्या बोल्शेविकवाद और राष्ट्रीय समाजवाद को एक ही सैद्धान्तिक मॉडल से समझा जा सकता है; (3) पुस्तक में सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्थाओं की ‘शासन पद्धतियों’ पर ज्यादा ध्यान दिया गया है अर्थात् इन व्यवस्थाओं की ‘प्रौद्योगिक व्याख्याएं’ की गई हैं.

हेना अरेन्ट द्वारा सर्वाधिकारवाद की दार्शनिक व्याख्या

हेना अरेन्ट की पुस्तक द्वितीय विश्वयुद्ध के बाद प्रकट हुई, और इसने सर्वाधिकारवाद पर विमर्श को एक नया आयाम दिया. इसमें विज्ञान और राजनीतिक सिद्धान्तों का अनुपम मेल किया गया है. उस समय एक ओर फासीवाद और नाजीवाद की व्यवस्थाएं थीं, जिन पर युद्ध और विध्वंस की छाप थी तो दूसरी ओर सर्वाधिकारवाद पर विचारधारामूलक विमर्श था जिसे राजनीति विज्ञान के विकास के रूप में भी देखा जाता रहा है. हेना अरेन्ट की पुस्तक द्वारा राजनीतिक रूप से संवेदनशील और सैद्धान्तिक दृष्टि से उलझाऊ ‘सर्वाधिकारवाद’ विषय पर विमर्श में सशक्त हस्तक्षेप किया गया है. उनके हस्तक्षेप के तीन बिन्दु विशेष महत्व के हैं. प्रथम, हेना अरेंट के अनुसार मानवता के इतिहास में ‘सर्वाधिकारवाद का अभ्युदय एक पूर्णत: नवीन तथा भंयकर व दहलाने वाली घटना थी. पुस्तक में दो ऐसी बातें थीं जिन्होंने पूरे विमर्श में उत्तेजना पैदा कर दी तथा इतिहास और समाज विज्ञान की आधारशिला पर कुठाराघात किया. एक, अरेंट ने वैज्ञानिक शोध की दो मूलभूत मान्यताओं ऐतिहासिक तथा सामाजिक प्रक्रियाओं में निरन्तरता एवं कारण-परिणाम सम्बन्ध – पर प्रश्नवाचक लगाया; दो, उसने गैर-यहूदी और साम्राज्यवाद को प्रागैतिहास की संज्ञा दी जिसने सर्वाधिकारवाद को जन्म दिया. यद्यपि सर्वाधिकारवादी विमर्श साहित्य की गुणवत्ता को अरेन्ट ने नई ऊंचाइयों तक पहुंचाया, पर इस सम्बन्ध में अपना दार्शनिक सिद्धान्त प्रतिपादित करने में उसने कुछ बातों की अनदेखी भी कर दी. एक तो उसने विभिन्न सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्थाओं की आन्तरकि सहायता एवं कार्यात्मक भिन्नता को स्पष्ट करने हेतु उपलब्ध नवीन समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तों की उपेक्षा की, वहीं दूसरी ओर, उसने तुलनात्मक सामाजिक एवं राजनीतिक शोध की उन्नत विधियों की भी उपेक्षा की.

द्वितीय, हेना अरेंट की पुस्तक ने पूर्ववर्ती रचनाओं को जैसे पछाड़ दिया. उनका सर्वाधिकारवाद का विश्लेषण् इतना पैना क्यों था ? उन्होंने यही नहीं कहा कि हमें इसके बारे में खुली चर्चा करनी चाहिये, वरन् यह भी कि इसे चिन्तन और अभिव्यक्ति के एक नये सार्वभौमिक रूप में भी देखना चाहिये. अरेंट के विश्लेषण की प्रभावशीलता के कारणों को जानने के लिये उनके जीवन वृत्त से काफी कुछ पता चलता है. अरेंट के विचारों पर (वीमर रिपब्लिक में) जर्मन अस्तित्ववाद का प्रभाव है, विशेषकर मार्टिन हेडेगर और कार्ल जेस्पर्स के विचारों का. इन विचारों को उन्होंने अपने अध्ययन व अनुभवों के आधार पर संसोधित किया. विश्व में मानव के एकाकीपन तथा घटते सामाजिक सम्बन्धों के कारण भी सर्वाधिकारवाद में राज्य व सेना को दरकिनार कर गुप्तचर – पुलिस, विचारधारा और भय का वर्चस्व स्थापित हो जाता है. अरेंट के अनुसार अन्तत: ‘कन्सन्ट्रेशन कैम्पस’ सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्थाओं की सबसे शक्तिशाली संस्था हो जाती है जिससे विरोधियों का सफाया किया जाता है. वास्तव में सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्था ‘मनुष्य के अस्तित्व’ को ही नकार देती है.

तृतीय, हेना अरेंट ने केवल जर्मन नाज़ीवाद तथा रूसी स्टालिनवाद को ही सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्थआ माना; फासीवाद (इटली)  या स्टालिन के बाद की साम्यवादी व्यवस्था को नहीं. बहुत लोगों का मानना है कि संभवत: अरेंट को इस संबंध में पूरा ज्ञान न था पर इतना अवश्य है कि उनकी पुस्तक ने सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्थाओंके सम्बन्ध में ऐतिहासिक एवम् समाज-वैज्ञानिक शोध को काफी प्रभावित किया.

(पुनर्लेखन : चेतना मिश्रा, प्रवक्ता राजनीति विज्ञान विभाग, एच.के. एम. कॉलेज, सीतापुर, उ. प्र., एवं शोधार्थी शोध-मण्डल)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘यूरोपियन जर्नल ऑफ पोलिटिकल थियरी’ अंक 3(2), 2007 पृष्ठ 219-238 से साभार उद्धत. मूल लेख ‘हेना अरेंट्स द ओरिजिन ऑफ टोटालिटेरियनिज्म इन इट्स ओरिजनल कन्टेक्स्ट’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

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  47. I am just writing to let you know what a cool encounter my friend’s child undergone visiting yuor web blog. She realized numerous issues, not to mention what it is like to have an ideal coaching character to get the mediocre ones without problems fully grasp a variety of complicated topics. You truly surpassed people’s desires. I appreciate you for offering these warm and helpful, safe, informative not to mention unique tips about the topic to Ethel.

  48. A lot of thanks for each of your effort on this site. My daughter really loves getting into investigation and it is easy to understand why. My spouse and i hear all of the compelling tactic you provide very useful secrets via your blog and in addition recommend response from people about this idea and my simple princess has been discovering a great deal. Enjoy the rest of the year. You’re performing a glorious job.

  49. I together with my buddies have been looking through the excellent pointers on your web site then instantly I had an awful suspicion I had not expressed respect to the site owner for those techniques. All of the boys ended up certainly stimulated to read through them and have in effect unquestionably been taking pleasure in those things. I appreciate you for being very thoughtful and for considering this sort of superb subject areas most people are really eager to learn about. Our honest regret for not saying thanks to you earlier.

  50. Thanks for your entire work on this web page. My mom really likes participating in investigations and it’s obvious why. We all notice all concerning the dynamic mode you make very useful guidance on your website and strongly encourage contribution from other ones on this subject while our favorite girl has been becoming educated a great deal. Take pleasure in the rest of the year. You have been performing a wonderful job.

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  52. I together with my pals appeared to be checking out the good tips and hints found on the website and so at once came up with an awful feeling I never expressed respect to the blog owner for those techniques. These boys had been for this reason warmed to read all of them and have in effect really been loving them. Thanks for actually being well helpful and also for choosing varieties of remarkable areas most people are really eager to be informed on. Our own sincere apologies for not expressing gratitude to earlier.

  53. My husband and i felt quite comfortable when Emmanuel managed to deal with his analysis via the ideas he grabbed using your web page. It’s not at all simplistic to simply happen to be giving out facts which usually the others have been making money from. So we consider we now have the writer to give thanks to for this. Those explanations you have made, the straightforward site menu, the friendships you can make it easier to engender – it is many awesome, and it is leading our son in addition to us consider that the subject matter is interesting, which is certainly incredibly vital. Thanks for the whole thing!

  54. I want to show my appreciation to this writer for rescuing me from this particular challenge. Just after checking throughout the the net and finding methods that were not pleasant, I believed my life was done. Being alive without the presence of answers to the problems you’ve solved by means of your write-up is a crucial case, and the kind which might have negatively damaged my entire career if I hadn’t discovered your site. Your main mastery and kindness in dealing with a lot of stuff was precious. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t come across such a step like this. I can also at this point look ahead to my future. Thank you so much for this impressive and effective guide. I will not hesitate to refer your site to any individual who needs to have recommendations about this situation.

  55. A lot of thanks for your whole efforts on this web page. Gloria delights in managing investigations and it’s really easy to understand why. A lot of people notice all regarding the dynamic manner you produce precious ideas via your website and even inspire response from website visitors about this subject while my princess is truly understanding a whole lot. Have fun with the rest of the year. You’re the one conducting a glorious job.

  56. Needed to draft you this very small word to thank you again on your fantastic views you have contributed on this page. This has been really strangely generous with people like you to present unhampered exactly what a number of people would have supplied as an e-book to generate some bucks for themselves, most notably since you could possibly have tried it if you decided. Those solutions in addition acted like a fantastic way to know that most people have a similar fervor just as mine to find out a lot more pertaining to this issue. I believe there are numerous more pleasant times up front for individuals that examine your blog.

  57. Needed to draft you that bit of word so as to give many thanks the moment again for all the awesome tips you have shown in this article. It was quite pretty open-handed of you giving without restraint all that most people might have marketed as an e-book in making some money on their own, chiefly since you could possibly have done it if you ever decided. The solutions also worked to be the good way to fully grasp that some people have the same interest the same as my own to see way more on the topic of this matter. I’m sure there are several more enjoyable instances ahead for people who start reading your blog.

  58. Needed to compose you this little remark so as to say thanks as before for all the incredible ideas you have documented at this time. It is simply strangely open-handed of you to make unhampered all a lot of people would have offered for an e-book in order to make some money on their own, and in particular now that you might well have tried it if you ever considered necessary. Those concepts also acted to become fantastic way to recognize that someone else have a similar dream really like my personal own to know lots more when considering this problem. I believe there are numerous more pleasant situations ahead for people who examine your blog.

  59. My wife and i ended up being quite comfortable when Edward managed to finish off his studies from the precious recommendations he had from your web page. It is now and again perplexing to simply happen to be offering tips and hints which often people could have been making money from. We already know we have got you to give thanks to for that. The explanations you have made, the simple blog menu, the friendships you give support to create – it’s got everything awesome, and it’s making our son and the family believe that this topic is excellent, which is incredibly important. Many thanks for all the pieces!

  60. I wish to express some thanks to this writer just for rescuing me from such a setting. Because of scouting throughout the the net and meeting concepts that were not pleasant, I figured my entire life was well over. Existing without the answers to the problems you have sorted out as a result of your write-up is a critical case, and ones that would have adversely affected my career if I had not discovered your web site. Your primary talents and kindness in touching everything was precious. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t come upon such a stuff like this. I’m able to at this time look forward to my future. Thank you so much for this impressive and results-oriented help. I will not be reluctant to endorse the blog to any individual who will need guidelines on this topic.

  61. I have to express thanks to you for rescuing me from this situation. Just after surfing around through the world-wide-web and obtaining views which were not powerful, I figured my life was done. Being alive without the strategies to the problems you have resolved by means of the guideline is a serious case, as well as the ones that could have in a negative way damaged my entire career if I had not encountered your web blog. Your own knowledge and kindness in touching every part was priceless. I don’t know what I would have done if I had not come across such a point like this. I’m able to at this time look ahead to my future. Thanks for your time very much for your reliable and sensible help. I will not think twice to recommend the blog to any individual who needs counselling on this area.

  62. My wife and i were peaceful that Ervin could round up his basic research from your ideas he received out of your web site. It’s not at all simplistic just to continually be giving away strategies people might have been selling. And we all realize we have you to thank for this. The most important illustrations you have made, the simple blog navigation, the friendships you can assist to promote – it is mostly overwhelming, and it’s really facilitating our son in addition to us recognize that the subject is fun, which is incredibly important. Thank you for all!

  63. I precisely had to say thanks once again. I do not know the things I would have tried in the absence of those pointers revealed by you over such a industry. Completely was a intimidating crisis in my opinion, but spending time with a well-written approach you dealt with that made me to jump with delight. I am just happier for the service and in addition trust you recognize what a powerful job that you are getting into teaching other individuals all through a blog. I’m certain you haven’t encountered any of us.

  64. I needed to write you the little bit of word to finally say thanks yet again with the beautiful basics you’ve discussed above. It is quite remarkably open-handed with you to present without restraint all a few people would’ve offered as an ebook to generate some cash on their own, notably considering that you might have done it in case you decided. These inspiring ideas in addition served like the good way to be sure that other people online have a similar zeal the same as my own to know the truth a lot more in terms of this problem. I am sure there are numerous more fun periods in the future for people who start reading your website.

  65. My wife and i have been contented Albert managed to round up his basic research from the precious recommendations he acquired when using the web page. It is now and again perplexing just to find yourself giving freely techniques that many others may have been making money from. Therefore we recognize we’ve got the writer to thank for this. All the explanations you have made, the straightforward site navigation, the relationships your site aid to create – it’s got everything amazing, and it is assisting our son in addition to us recognize that the idea is awesome, which is particularly essential. Many thanks for everything!

  66. I have to express appreciation to you for rescuing me from this particular incident. Because of exploring through the internet and coming across tricks which are not productive, I was thinking my life was well over. Living without the solutions to the problems you’ve solved by means of your main article is a serious case, and the ones that would have adversely affected my career if I had not come across your blog post. Your own personal capability and kindness in maneuvering every aspect was crucial. I don’t know what I would have done if I had not come across such a stuff like this. I can at this time relish my future. Thank you so much for your specialized and result oriented help. I will not be reluctant to recommend the sites to any person who needs recommendations on this subject matter.

  67. I and also my guys happened to be examining the good guidelines on your web site and then immediately I had an awful feeling I never expressed respect to the web blog owner for those secrets. The boys appeared to be absolutely very interested to learn them and have simply been taking pleasure in them. Thanks for genuinely considerably thoughtful and then for settling on this kind of brilliant things millions of individuals are really eager to learn about. Our own sincere apologies for not expressing gratitude to you earlier.

  68. I enjoy you because of all your work on this web site. Ellie really loves getting into investigations and it’s really easy to see why. Most of us hear all of the compelling way you present great secrets through this website and therefore inspire response from the others on that subject matter then our own princess is without a doubt being taught a whole lot. Have fun with the remaining portion of the year. You are always conducting a powerful job.

  69. I intended to put you one bit of word to help give thanks the moment again just for the spectacular strategies you’ve contributed at this time. It was simply incredibly generous of you to deliver publicly exactly what a few individuals would’ve marketed for an electronic book to help with making some profit for their own end, and in particular now that you might have tried it if you ever considered necessary. These techniques also worked like a great way to recognize that someone else have the identical eagerness the same as my personal own to learn good deal more around this condition. Certainly there are lots of more enjoyable occasions ahead for folks who read carefully your site.

  70. I have to show some thanks to this writer just for bailing me out of this trouble. As a result of researching throughout the the net and meeting opinions that were not pleasant, I figured my entire life was over. Living without the answers to the problems you have solved through the article is a crucial case, as well as those that might have adversely affected my career if I hadn’t discovered your web page. That competence and kindness in dealing with a lot of stuff was important. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t encountered such a solution like this. I’m able to at this point relish my future. Thanks for your time so much for the specialized and amazing help. I won’t hesitate to propose your blog post to any individual who desires guidelines on this subject.

  71. Needed to post you a very little word just to say thank you again for these unique techniques you have documented in this case. It was so incredibly open-handed with people like you to convey extensively just what a few individuals would’ve offered for sale for an e-book to generate some dough for their own end, particularly considering the fact that you could possibly have done it if you desired. The suggestions in addition served to be the good way to recognize that other individuals have the same eagerness really like my personal own to see more around this condition. I’m certain there are thousands of more fun instances up front for individuals that view your blog post.

  72. My spouse and i felt so fortunate Raymond could carry out his investigations from the precious recommendations he discovered out of the web pages. It’s not at all simplistic to simply choose to be giving for free tactics most people may have been trying to sell. We keep in mind we now have the blog owner to be grateful to for this. The most important illustrations you made, the easy web site navigation, the relationships your site make it possible to promote – it is all fantastic, and it’s facilitating our son and us understand the content is entertaining, and that’s very fundamental. Thanks for the whole thing!

  73. I needed to write you the very small word to say thank you the moment again for your personal marvelous opinions you have contributed on this page. It’s so wonderfully open-handed of people like you to provide without restraint all that many people could have distributed for an ebook to generate some cash on their own, and in particular given that you might have done it in case you desired. Those things in addition served like a fantastic way to be sure that many people have the same dream the same as my own to grasp a great deal more regarding this condition. I’m certain there are some more enjoyable instances ahead for folks who find out your blog.

  74. I am also writing to let you understand of the useful discovery my cousin’s girl had checking your blog. She learned a lot of details, with the inclusion of how it is like to possess a marvelous teaching spirit to have a number of people without difficulty know some multifaceted subject matter. You truly exceeded my expected results. Thanks for distributing the warm and helpful, trusted, edifying and also easy guidance on that topic to Evelyn.

  75. I precisely wished to appreciate you once again. I’m not certain the things I would have used without the thoughts documented by you about such a area. Entirely was a real frustrating difficulty in my opinion, but being able to view the very professional manner you dealt with that forced me to cry for happiness. I am just happy for your assistance and trust you comprehend what a powerful job that you are getting into educating the others through a blog. More than likely you have never encountered any of us.

  76. Superb website you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any user discussion forums that cover the same topics talked about in this article? I’d really love to be a part of online community where I can get comments from other experienced people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Thanks!

  77. I wanted to write a word so as to thank you for these remarkable ideas you are writing here. My rather long internet look up has at the end of the day been paid with good knowledge to talk about with my family and friends. I ‘d claim that we website visitors are undoubtedly lucky to be in a really good website with many lovely people with valuable solutions. I feel truly fortunate to have used your entire weblog and look forward to some more awesome times reading here. Thanks a lot once more for a lot of things.

  78. Thanks for all your labor on this web page. Kim takes pleasure in participating in research and it’s really easy to see why. Almost all know all concerning the powerful mode you give powerful tactics through your web site and inspire response from other ones about this content plus our own girl is truly becoming educated a lot. Take pleasure in the rest of the year. You’re conducting a brilliant job.

  79. I together with my guys have already been taking note of the best information from your web blog and before long got a horrible suspicion I never expressed respect to the website owner for those strategies. All the young boys are actually totally stimulated to see all of them and already have in actuality been having fun with them. We appreciate you actually being so thoughtful and then for considering these kinds of helpful resources most people are really desirous to be aware of. Our own sincere regret for not expressing appreciation to earlier.

  80. I just wanted to type a brief comment so as to thank you for the lovely information you are giving out at this website. My incredibly long internet research has now been paid with really good ideas to write about with my co-workers. I would mention that many of us website visitors are very much blessed to dwell in a good network with very many special professionals with helpful techniques. I feel very privileged to have discovered your entire webpages and look forward to many more exciting times reading here. Thanks again for everything.

  81. I simply wanted to thank you so much once more. I am not sure the things I could possibly have sorted out in the absence of the type of smart ideas shown by you on that area of interest. It had become the challenging issue in my circumstances, nevertheless coming across this expert approach you dealt with the issue made me to cry for joy. I will be happy for the advice and even pray you recognize what a powerful job you have been providing training other individuals via your website. I am sure you haven’t encountered all of us.

  82. I want to show some thanks to the writer just for bailing me out of this setting. After exploring through the world wide web and seeing solutions which were not productive, I assumed my entire life was well over. Living without the presence of approaches to the issues you have sorted out as a result of your entire report is a critical case, and ones that could have adversely affected my career if I hadn’t encountered your web site. Your actual natural talent and kindness in maneuvering the whole lot was tremendous. I don’t know what I would have done if I hadn’t encountered such a thing like this. I’m able to at this point look forward to my future. Thank you very much for this specialized and amazing guide. I won’t hesitate to suggest your site to anybody who desires guide about this subject matter.

  83. Needed to write you that tiny remark to help give thanks over again just for the superb advice you have featured in this case. It is really pretty generous with people like you to supply freely what exactly most of us could possibly have offered for sale as an ebook to earn some money for themselves, particularly seeing that you could possibly have tried it in the event you wanted. The concepts additionally served like the easy way to recognize that someone else have a similar desire just as my personal own to learn a whole lot more in respect of this issue. I think there are many more fun situations up front for individuals that take a look at your site.

  84. I enjoy you because of your whole effort on this blog. My mum takes pleasure in doing investigation and it’s really simple to grasp why. Most people notice all about the lively way you convey very important solutions via this blog and as well as foster response from others on the article then our own child is really studying a lot. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You are always conducting a powerful job.

  85. Thank you so much for providing individuals with an exceptionally splendid possiblity to check tips from this web site. It is always very cool and also full of a good time for me personally and my office colleagues to visit your web site more than three times weekly to read through the newest items you will have. Not to mention, I’m so certainly fulfilled with your terrific tips you give. Certain 1 facts on this page are clearly the very best we have all ever had.

  86. I’m also writing to make you know of the helpful experience my friend’s girl encountered checking yuor web blog. She even learned numerous things, which include what it’s like to possess a great giving mood to make the others with ease grasp specific problematic issues. You really did more than visitors’ desires. I appreciate you for churning out the powerful, trustworthy, revealing and in addition easy guidance on your topic to Mary.

  87. I want to express my thanks to you just for bailing me out of this type of scenario. Right after looking out through the search engines and getting concepts that were not pleasant, I believed my entire life was over. Living minus the answers to the problems you have sorted out as a result of the report is a critical case, and the ones that would have in a negative way affected my career if I hadn’t come across your web blog. Your main natural talent and kindness in taking care of every part was valuable. I don’t know what I would have done if I had not discovered such a step like this. I can at this point look forward to my future. Thank you very much for this high quality and sensible help. I will not think twice to endorse your site to anybody who needs and wants tips about this matter.

  88. Thanks for all of the efforts on this site. Betty really likes engaging in investigations and it’s simple to grasp why. A number of us know all of the lively medium you present insightful strategies through this website and even strongly encourage participation from visitors on the article plus our own girl is really learning so much. Take advantage of the rest of the year. You are always conducting a splendid job.

  89. I together with my guys have already been reading through the great tactics from your site while immediately I had a horrible suspicion I never thanked the web blog owner for them. The ladies became so thrilled to read through them and have in effect in actuality been making the most of them. Thanks for simply being indeed thoughtful as well as for obtaining some brilliant resources most people are really desirous to understand about. Our own sincere apologies for not expressing gratitude to sooner.

  90. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  91. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  92. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  93. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  94. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  95. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  96. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  97. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  98. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  99. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  100. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  101. I simply want to say I’m all new to blogs and honestly loved this page. Probably I’m want to bookmark your blog . You absolutely have really good posts. Thanks a lot for sharing your blog site.

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