हन्ना एरेन्ट का राजनीतिक दर्शन

लिरॉय ए. कपूर : हाल के वर्षों में सहभागी सरकारों की संभाव्यता एवं महत्व पर लगातार बहसें हो रहीं हैं. हन्ना एरेन्ट के राजनीतिक दर्शन में सहभागिता एक महत्वपूर्ण सामाजिक विषय के रूप में सामने आता है. एरेन्ट का राजनीतिक दर्शन तीन विषयों पर केन्द्रित है-

  1. ‘सहभागिता का सिद्धान्त’ एवं राजनीतिक स्वतन्त्रता की अवधारणा;
  2. मानव अस्तित्व के न केवल राजनीतिक, वरन् प्रत्येक आयाम को उचित महत्व देना और उसे उसके प्रयोग, चिन्ताओं, सिद्धान्तों और वैश्विक संदर्भ में देखना अर्थात् ‘मानवीय क्रियाओं का बहुलवादी सिद्धान्त’;
  3. मानवीय विषयों में परिवर्तन एवं स्थायित्व सम्बन्धी विचार.

एरेन्ट का राजनीतिक दर्शन, दार्शनिक मानव विज्ञान पर आधारित है जिसका यह दावा है कि कुछ निश्चित प्राकृतिक सत्तामूलक संरचनाएं मानवीय अस्तित्व जैसे जन्म, मृत्यु, सांसारिक, बहुलता तथा मानव शरीर की जैव-वैज्ञानिक जीवन प्रक्रिया को अनुकूलित करती हैं. एरेन्ट ने बड़ी कुशलता के साथ इन्हें परिवर्तन एवं स्थायित्व, अनिश्चितता एवं स्थिरता तथा नवीनता एवं व्यवस्था से सम्बन्द्ध किया. उनका विचार है कि यदि हमें अवांछित परिवर्तन अथवा यथास्थितिवाद से बचना हो तो इन युग्मों के मध्य एक सन्तुलन बना रहना चाहिये. बदलाव या यथास्थिति की मनुष्य की क्षमता असीमित नहीं है. इसलिये मनुष्य की परिवर्तन एवं स्थायित्व सम्बन्धी इच्छा हमेशा एक दूसरे से सन्तुलित व नियन्त्रित होती है.

मनुष्य के कार्य करने की क्षमता एवं राजनीतिक स्वतंत्रता तथा यह विश्वास कि मनुष्य लोक-क्षेत्र में ही अपने आपको पूर्णत: विकसित कर सकता है, एरेन्ट के लेखों की आधार शिला है. ‘बिटविन पास्ट एवं फ्यूचर’ में एरेन्ट कहती हैं कि ‘राजनीति का उद्देश्य स्वतंत्रता तथा उसके अनुभव का क्षेत्र कर्म है.’ सर्वाधिकारवाद की वह इस आधार पर निन्दा करती हैं कि ‘आतंक’ (जो इस प्रकार के सत्ता की आत्मा होती है) मनुष्य के कार्य में सहजता एवं क्षमता को समाप्त कर देता है. ‘ऑन रिवोल्यूशन’ में एरेन्ट ने अमेरिकी एवं फ्रांसीसी क्रांति के विश्लेषण के क्रम में बताया कि यूनानी एवं रोमन समय के बाद लोगों ने स्वतंत्रता का ऐसा स्वाद चखा था. ‘ऑन वायलेन्स’ में एरेन्ट कहती हैं कि ‘’समकालीन छात्र आन्दोलन, घेट्टो उपद्रव एवं हिंसा के वर्तमान महिमा मंडन का मुख्य कारण कार्य न कर पाने की कुण्ठा है.’’

एरेन्ट राजनीति एवं स्वतंत्रता को जोड़ते हुए स्वतंत्रता को सहभागिता एवं सामूहिक कार्य के रूप में देखती हैं. वह ऐसे शासन का परित्याग करती हैं जिसके अन्तर्गत शासक एवं शासित के मध्य विभेद हो. इस प्रकार की स्थिति में जनता का अधिकांश भाग लोक-क्षेत्र से कट जाता है. एरेन्ट का तो यह प्रयास है कि लोक-क्षेत्र की महत्ता एवं सम्मान को कैसे सुरक्षित रखा जा सके- एक ऐसा क्षेत्र जहां बोलने एवं कार्य करने की स्वतंत्रता हो. राजनीतिक संस्थाओं को वह केवल ऐसे उपक्रमों के तौर पर नहीं देखतीं जिसका मुख्य कार्य विशिष्ट लक्ष्यों की प्राप्ति से है, वरन् मूल्यात्मक बोध की प्राप्ति से है. उन्होंने राजनीति की उस उदारवादी व्याख्या का विरोध किया जिसके अन्तर्गत परस्पर विरोधी आर्थिक संघर्षों के समाधान का प्रयास किया जाता है तथा निजी कल्याण एवं हितों का रक्षण किया जाता है. राजनीतिक क्षेत्र तो ऐसा होना चाहिये जिसमें प्रत्येक नागरिक को राजनीतिक शक्ति में हिस्सा लेने के लिये पर्याप्त अवसर प्राप्त हो सके.

एरेन्ट राजनीति को नागरिकों की सहभागिता के पर्याय के रूप में देखने के चार प्रमुख आधार मानीत हैं-

  • कथनी एवं करनी के द्वारा स्व की अभिव्यक्ति;
  • समकक्षों के साथ कार्य करने में आनंद की अनुभूति एवं कुछ करने की चाहत;
  • अपनी पहचान की अभिपुष्टि तथा सांसारिकता के प्रति विश्वास; तथा
  • – श्रेष्ठता एवं महानता का प्रदर्शन.

क – एरेन्ट के अनुसार प्रत्येक व्यक्ति में एक सुसंगत विशिष्टता होती है जिसे उन्होंने ‘ कौन’ की संज्ञा दी. हम सभी इस निहायत व्यक्तिगत तत्व के साथ पैदा होते हैं. ‘कौन’ स्वयं का एक ऐसा अभिन्न हिस्सा होता है जो कभी भी प्रत्यक्ष रूप से प्रकट नहीं होता है, परन्तु इसकी पूर्णरूपेक्ष अभिव्यक्ति तब होती है जब हम लोक-क्षेत्र में अपनी वाणी एवं कर्मों के साथ आते हैं. इसकी अभिव्यक्ति में हमारी इच्छा व नियन्त्रण की कोई भूमिका नहीं होती और प्राय: हम उसकी अभिव्यक्ति से वाक़फि भी नहीं होते. इसके विपरीत ‘क्या’ प्रकट अथवा अप्रकट हो सकता है; यह हम सभी में पाये जाने वाली योग्यताओं, गुणों एवं दोषों, जो हम सभी में होता है, से युक्त होता है.

लोग दूसरों के सामने अपनी वाणी एवं कर्मों (कथनी एवं करनी) के द्वारा ‘कौन’(स्वयं) को प्रकट करते हैं. वाणी एवं कर्मों का यही हस्योद्घाटित पहलू मानवीय औचित्य कहलाता है. उस संसार में जहां सभी मनुष्य समरूप हों, वाणी एवं कर्मों की आवश्यकता ही नहीं होगी. सम्प्रेषण हेतु चिन्ह एवं ध्वनि ही काफी होते. और न ही वाणी की आवश्यकता होती, यदि मनुष्यों में कोई समानता न होती. यदि ऐसा होता तो सम्प्रेषण भी असंभव हो जाता. स्वयं के उद्घाटन हेतु कर्म से ज्यादा वाणी महत्वपूर्ण हो जाती है क्योंकि कर्म अपने आप में दुरूह होता है. वाणी के द्वारा कर्ता अपने आपको प्रकट करता है तथा अपने कार्य का औचित्य व्यक्त करता है. इसलिए एरेन्ट के अनुसार हम लोग प्लेटो एवं अरस्तू के मुकाबले सुकरात को बेहतर समझते हैं.

सुकरात ने लोक-क्षेत्र के अन्तर्गत ही अपने भाषण सम्प्रेषित किये. ठीक इसी प्रकार, वाणी एवं कर्मों के द्वारा हम लोग अपने ‘कौन’ को निजी-क्षेत्र की बजाए लोक-क्षेत्र में प्रकट करके दूसरों का सामना करते हैं. लोक-क्षेत्र के अन्तर्गत अपनी समान जरूरतों की पूर्ति हेतु एरेन्ट राजनीतिक स्वतंत्रता की अवधारणा एवं नाट्य-कला, नृत्य, ड्रामा एवं संगीत कला के मध्य निकट का सम्बन्ध देखती हैं. अपनी प्रवीणता को प्रदर्शित करने हेतु कलाकार को एक मंच तथा श्रोता चाहिये. इसी प्रकार, स्वतन्त्रता की प्राप्ति हेतु लोक-क्षेत्र में लोग एक दूसरे के समक्ष पारस्परिक रूप से सामने आते हैं. हांलाकि एरेन्ट ने राजनीतिक कार्यों हेतु राजनीतिक संस्थाओं एवं अभिव्यक्ति के स्थान की अनिवार्यता को गैर जरूरी बताया. यह स्थान तो हर उस स्थिति में बन जाता है जहां लोग समान कार्य हेतु समान प्राकृतिक वाणी के तौर पर नहीं वरन् अपनी वाणी एवं कर्मों के द्वारा आते हैं. इस प्रकार के लोक-क्षेत्र का उदय अचानक (क्रान्ति) अथवा विकास(संगठित समूह) का परिणाम हो सकता है.

ख – मनुष्यों की एक साथ कार्य करने की योग्यता को ही एरेन्ट ने शक्ति के रूप में रेखांकित किया है. उन्होंने समकालीन राजनीति से हटकर शक्ति को समझने की कोशिश की है अन्य चिन्तकों के अनुसार शक्ति आदेश देने (बल प्रयोग), हिंसा अथवा दूसरे पर प्रभाव स्थापित करने का नाम है, जबकि एरेन्ट के अनुसार शक्ति एवं बल-प्रयोग एक दूसरे के विपरीत हैं. दूसरी ओर, बल-प्रयोग (हिंसा) साधनों पर आधारित होती है तथा एक हद तक बिना संख्या के भी कार्य कर सकती है. बहुत ज्यादा शस्त्रों एवं विध्वसंक सामग्री की प्राप्ति नहीं कर सकती; जहां शक्ति समाप्त हो जाती है, वहां हिंसा प्रकट हो जाती है. इसी आधार पर एरेन्ट ने अत्याचारी शासन को कमजोर एवं दुर्बल कहा. चूंकि शक्ति की भौतिक साधनों से सापेक्षिक स्वतंत्रता होती है, इसीलिए सुसंगठित छोटे समूह अपने से कहीं बड़े एवं साधन सम्पन्न लोगों पर वर्चस्व स्थापित कर लेते हैं.

शक्ति की उपरोक्त अवधारणा के साथ ही एरेन्ट ने ‘क्रिया’ सम्बन्धी विचार प्रस्तुत किया. ‘’अपने कार्यों के द्वारा ही व्यक्ति राजनीतिक एवं सामाजिक अस्तित्व को प्राप्त करता है. यह उसे अपने समकक्षों के साथ कार्य करने के योग्य बनाता है तथा उन उद्देश्यों की पूर्ति हेतु प्रयत्नशील बनाता है’ एरेन्ट कहती हैं कि नवीनता एवं पहल करने सम्बन्धी योग्यता का मूलाधार मानवीय जन्म के साथ ही जुड़ा होता है क्योंकि जन्म सम्बन्धी मानवीय स्थिति का मानवीय प्रत्युत्तर कर्म ही होता है. मनुष्य अपने जन्म के साथ ही एक नवीन एवं स्वत: स्फूर्त शुरुआत के योग्य हो जाते हैं. किसी नये कार्य के प्रारंभ करने की खुशी, समकक्षों के साथ उस विषय पर वाद-विवाद, विमर्श एवं क्रिया ही सही अर्थों में एरेन्ट के अनुसार ‘लोक-सुख’ कहलाता है.

ग. एरेन्ट ‘लोक-क्षेत्र’ के निर्माण पर कहती हैं – ‘’प्रथम, लोक-क्षेत्र में आने वाली प्रत्येक चीज़ सभी के द्वारा देखी एवं सुनी जाती है तथा व्यापक रूप से प्रचारित होती है. हमारे लिए दूसरों व अपने द्वारा दिखाई व सुनाई देने वाली चीजें ही वास्तविकता हैं. इस प्रकार की वास्तविकता की तुलना जब बेहद आत्मीय तत्वों यथा हृदय के मनोभावों, मस्तिष्क के विचारों, इंद्रियों के आनन्दों के साथ किया जाता है तब इनकी वास्वकिता बेहद आन्नदों के साथ किया जाता है तब इनकी वास्तविकता बेहद अनिश्तित एवं संदिग्ध लगती है (जब तक कि इन्हें सामाजिक दर्शन के लिये परिवर्तित, गैर-वैयक्तिक एवं अगोपनीय न बना दिया जाए .)’’ केवल व्यक्तिगत अनुभव यथा असहनीय पीड़ा आदि लोक-क्षेत्र  में नहीं आता. हमारे भाव दूसरों के साथ इस हद तक जुड़े होते हैं कि हम केवल अपने अनुभव के आधार पर किसी चीज़ के बारे में निश्चित नहीं हो सकते. इसके लिए दूसरों के समान अनुभव का होना परम आवश्यक है. इसके अलावा हम अपनी पहचान को लेकर तभी आश्वस्त हो सकते हैं जब हम अपने आपको दूसरों के समक्ष प्रकट करें. यहां पर एरेन्ट हीगल के समकक्ष नज़र आती है.

घ . एरेन्ट लोक-क्षेत्र को भी उतना ही महत्व देती हैं जितना अन्य तत्वों को, क्योंकि यह एकमात्र ऐसा स्थान है जहां मानवीय महानता एवं श्रेष्ठता का प्रदर्शन होता है एरेन्ट ने यूनानी पोलिस की इसी आधार पर तारीफ करते हुये कहा कि यूनानी नागरिकों का जुड़ाव इससे काफी गहरा था. उनके अपने कार्यों में श्रेष्ठता एवं महानता प्राप्ति हेतु पोलिस लोक-क्षेत्र के तौर पर मदद करते थे. पोलिस उनको आश्वस्त करता था कि उनके भाषण एवं कार्यों को संरक्षित कर हमेशा सम्मान के साथ याद रखा जाएगा.

एरेन्ट ने श्रेष्ठता प्राप्ति की तारीफ करते हुये कहीं भी चरम व्यक्तिवाद के पुनर्वापसी की बात नहीं कही. फिर भी एरेन्ट की आलोचना की जाती है कि उन्होंने यूनानी पोलिस में अभिजन एवं वीरोचित व्यक्तिवाद पर ज्यादा जोर दिया. जबकि आलोचकों ने शायद इस बात पर ध्यान नहीं दिया कि एरेन्ट ने ऐसा करने में तात्कालिक यूनानी मूल्यों एवं राजनीतिक चिन्तन को स्पष्ट करने का प्रयास किया.

एरेन्ट द्वारा अपने समकक्षों के साथ लोक सेवा के कार्य करना, स्वैच्छिक संगठनों के वर्तमान एवं भूतकालीन महत्व पर जोर देना तथा मानवीय व्यवहार में स्थायित्व की जरूरत को स्वीकार करना- ये सभी साम्प्रदायिक एकता एवं उदारता की ओर इशारा करते हुये चरम व्यक्तिवाद से दूर रहने का संदेश देते हैं. विशेषकर उसके राजनीतिक दर्शन में यह विचार कि सामाजिक समझौते के प्रति स्वैच्छिक प्रतिबद्धता ही राजनीतिक वैधता प्रदान करती है, उल्लेखनीय है. यह विचार प्राचीन राजनीतिक विचारकों में नहीं मिलता.

एरेन्ट के राजनीतिक विचारों की सम्पूर्ण विवेचना में ऐसा महसूस होता है कि उन्होंने लोक-क्षेत्र की महत्ता पर कुछ ज्यादा ही जोर दिया है. तो क्या यह मान लिया जाये कि उनके लिये निजी जीवन तथा उसके मूल्यों व उद्देश्यों का महत्व नहीं ? गहन एवं सूक्ष्म विश्लेषण के पश्चात यह बात खंडित होती है. एरेन्ट के अनुसार ऐसा जीवन जो पूरे समय केवल निजी रूपों में ही जिया गया हो, व्यर्थ एवं अमानवीय है परन्तु विभिन्न जगहों पर उन्होंने निजी जीवन एवं निजी संपत्ति के महत्व को रेखांकित करने का भी प्रयास किया. वह कहती हैं कि लोक-आनन्द तो सम्पूर्ण आनन्द का एक हिस्सा भर है. राजनीति का क्षेत्र, चाहे कितना भी महान क्यों न हो, सीमित एवं मर्यादित ही होता है. वह मनुष्य एवं विश्व के सम्पूर्ण अस्तित्व का परिचायक नहीं. इस प्रकार, लोक एवं निजी जीवन दोनों की महत्वपूर्ण भूमिकाएं हैं तथा दोनों के बीच तीन अन्तर स्पष्टत: परिलक्षित होते हैं.

  1. निजी जीवन विभिन्न मानवीय भावनाओं यथा – प्रेम एवं करुणा हेतु स्थान प्रदान करता है. लोक-क्षेत्र में इनका सहारा लेने पर या तो खंडित हो जाते हैं अथवा विकृत हो जाते हैं. निजता हेतु निजी मकान एक अपरिहार्य तत्व है जिसकी चहारदीवारी के अन्तर्गत बच्चों का लालन-पालन एवं दीक्षा होती है. वे बड़े एवं परिपक्व बनते हैं. दुनिया की चकाचौंध से उनको सुरक्षित रखा जाता है तथा मकान की निजता में उनके गुणों को पल्लवित किया जाता है. इसका महत्व न सिर्फ बचपन के जीवन से है, वरन् सामान्यत: मानव जीवन से ही है. जहां कहीं भी मानव जीवन में निजता एवं सुरक्षा के तत्वों का अभाव पाया जाता है, वहां इसकी गुणवत्ता टूटने लगती है.
  2. औद्योगिक युग में लगातार हो रहे विकास, संग्रहण एवं परिवर्तन पर निजी जीवन क्षेत्र एक सकारात्मक अंकुश लगाता है. दरअसल एरेन्ट निजी जीवन क्षेत्र के लगातार संकुचन व साथ ही निजी संपत्ति में हो रहे लोप से चिंतित हैं.
  3. राजनीतिक क्षेत्र की सक्षमता हेतु निजी जीवन क्षेत्र एवं संपत्ति अपरिहार्य है. निजी सम्पत्ति का यह भाव नहीं कि उसका स्वामित्व केवल व्यक्ति मूलक है, वरन् यह कि वह एक ‘साझा-विश्व’ में वैयक्तिक अंशधारिता के रूप में है.

इस प्रकार, राजनीतिक क्षेत्र महत्वपूर्ण होने के बावजूद सब कुछ नहीं होता. एरेन्ट राजनीति को महज एक यांत्रिक क्रिया नहीं मानती, वे मानव के अन्य क्रिया कलापों को राजनीति के अधीन भी नहीं मानती. इसी संदर्भ में मैंने एरेन्ट के विचारों को बहुलवादी माना है. एरेन्ट ने आधुनिक युग में लोक-क्षेत्र के गिरावट पर गहरी चिन्ता प्रकट की तथा इसे ‘मानवीय अनुभव के लोप’ की संज्ञा दी. एरेन्ट का दृष्टिकोण इसलिये भी बहुलवादी है क्योंकि उसके अनुसार प्रत्येक क्रिया जैसे श्रम, कार्य, क्रिया, चिन्तन व प्रेम आदि की सम्पूर्ण मानवीय क्रियाओं के सन्दर्भ में एक विशेष स्थिति व महत्व होती है. वे जीवन की प्रत्येक क्रिया को अन्य क्रियाओं के समान ही आदर व महत्व देती हैं. वे प्लेटो व मार्क्स की इसीलिए आलोचना करती हैं क्योंकि ये दोनों सभी मानवीय क्रियाओं को राजनीति के द्वारा निर्धारित उद्देश्यों को प्राप्त करने का साधन मात्र बना देते हैं जिससे राजनीतिक क्रियाओं की अन्य क्रियाओं पर प्रधानता स्थापित हो जाती है और मानवीय विमर्श व उस पर आधारित निर्णय का महत्व समाप्त हो जाता है.

एरेन्ट ने आधुनिक समाज की विभिन्न समस्याओं हेतु ‘श्रमिक मानसिकता’ को उत्तरदायी ठहराया है. श्रम को उसने एक प्रकार की दासता से संबोधित किया है क्योंकि श्रम एक अन्तहीन, बार-बार एवं चक्रीय क्रिया है जो जीवन-प्रक्रिया हेतु जरूरी होती है. इसके उत्पादन तुरंत ही उपभोग कर लिये जाते हैं तथा कुछ भी शेष नहीं बचता. एरेन्ट ने इस प्रकार के जीवन को व्यर्थ का जीवन कहा है. इस प्रकार के श्रमिक दुनिया से भागते नहीं वरन् उन्हें दुनिया से बाहर कर दिया जाता है तथा वे स्वयं की दुनिया में अपने रोजमर्रा की जरूरतों को पूरा करने के लिये लगातार श्रम करते रहते हैं.

आधुनिक समाज ने अपरंपार दौलत एवं समृद्धि होने के बावजूद स्थायित्व का त्याग कर दिया है. नागरिक अपने एवं परिवार हेतु जीवन की सुविधाओं को जुटाने में व्यस्त हैं. न सिर्फ चिन्तन वरन् कार्य एवं व्यवहार भी अपनी महत्ता खो चुके हैं. हमारे समाज का लक्ष्य असीमित संवृद्धि एवं अन्तहीन उपभोग है, न कि स्थायित्व. एरेन्ट ने इसके लिये हमारी संस्कृति के कुछ घटकों को जिम्मेदार माना है. उद्योगों के उत्पादों को उपयोग वस्तुओं के तौर पर नहीं बल्कि उपभोग करने वाली वस्तुओं के तौर पर देखा जाने लगा है. उसका भी उपभोक्ता वस्तु की तरह प्रयोग हो रहा है. स्थिति इस स्तर तक खतरनाक हो चुकी है कि श्रम की थकान व दर्द के एहसास का लगभग समापन हो गया है. श्रम एवं उपभोग के बीच का संतुलन बिगड़ गया है. ऊर्जा का प्रयोग श्रम में लगाने के बजाय उपभोग करने में किया जा रहा है.

श्रम एवं उपभोग के सम्बन्ध में आलोचनात्मक दृष्टिकोण रखने के बावजूद भी एरेन्ट के विचारों को इस संदर्भ में समझना चाहिये, जिसके अन्तर्गत वे मानती हैं कि उपरोक्त क्रियायें अपने-अपने क्षेत्र का अतिक्रमण कर चुकी हैं. जहां एक ओर श्रम अन्तिम रूप से व्यर्थ की प्रक्रिया होती जा रही है, वहीं दूसरी ओर इसमें तात्विक सुख एवं जीवन्तता का भी आभास होता है. सबसे बड़ा सुख तो यही होता है कि मानव अपने आपको दूसरों के साथ श्रम आधारित जीवन-क्रम में थकान एवं पुनर्निमाण की प्रक्रिया जारी रहे, दर्द एवं दर्द के मिटने का एहसास होता रहे तथा इनके बीच एक उचित सन्तुलन बना रहे क्योंकि ‘अन्तिम रूप से सुख दर्दीले थकान एवं आनन्दमय पुनर्निर्माण के चक्र में  ही समाहित है’.

एरेन्ट के अनुसार मनुष्य के जीवन में नूतनता व पहल तथा निरन्तरता व स्थायित्व में एक सन्तुलन होना चाहिये. फिर भी राजनीतिक कार्यों की दोहरी संरचना की कुछ समस्याएं भी हैं. नौसिखियों द्वारा शुरू किए गए कार्यों पर अनिश्चितता, अपरिमितता एवं अपरिवर्तनीयता का साया हमेशा मंडराता रहता है. पर, कानून, संविधान व आपसी वादे जीवन एवं कार्यों को आंशिक रूप से निरन्तरता एवं स्थायित्व प्रदान करते हैं.

निरन्तरता एवं स्थायित्व के अन्तर्गत एरेन्ट ने लोक को ‘सार्वजनिक स्थान’ के अलावा एक दूसरा अर्थ भी प्रदान किया है. लोक को उसने स्वयं विश्व माना है क्योंकि यह हम सभी का साझा स्थान है और हमारे निजी स्थान (इसी के अन्तर्गत) से भिन्न भी हैं.

एरेन्ट ने अपनी विश्व सम्बन्धी अवधारणा को दो विपरीत दिशाओं में विकसित किया है. प्रथम, सांसारिकता एवं दूसरा गैर-सांसारिकता की अवधारणा. सांसारिकता के प्रमुख लक्षण हैं- स्थायित्व, निरन्तरता एवं दृढ़ता. व्यक्ति का मूल प्रकृति में स्थित है तथा वह अपने अस्तित्व हेतु जैवीय जरूरत को पूरा करने से भाग नहीं सकता. फिर भी मानव-जीवन इस चक्रीय जीवन-क्रम से कुछ हटकर भी है. इस आवश्यक व्यर्थ के जीवन को एक स्थायी विश्व की अवधारणा से जीता जा सकता है. मनुष्य द्वारा बनाई वस्तुओं व संस्थाओं की यही प्रवृत्तियां उन्हें सांसारिकता प्रदान करती हैं.

हमारा विश्व निश्चित तौर पर बदलता रहता है परन्तु यह बदलाव लगातार बदलती हुई स्थितियों के अनुरूप होना चाहिये. यह बदलाव क्रमिक एवं शनै:-शनै: होना चाहिये. एरेन्ट ने कुछ कार्यों को बेहद जरूरी माना है- जो लोग वर्तमान व्यवस्था को संतोषप्रद मानते हैं वे भूल जाते हैं कि यदि हम कुछ नया करने के लिये या परिवर्तन करने हेतु हस्तक्षेप नहीं करेंगे तो विश्व समय के साथ नष्ट हो जायेगा. एरेन्ट के अनुसार कर्म ‘मानवीय संबंधों के संजाल’ में जन्म लेता है तथा जिसके अंतिम परिणाम पर कोई नियंत्रण नहीं कर सकता. जैसे ही कोई कार्य शुरू करता है, वैसे ही यह दूसरे मनुष्यों को प्रभावित करना शुरू कर देता है. दूसरे मनुष्य भी उसी समय अलग लक्ष्यों एवं योजनाओं पर कार्य कर रहे होते हैं. फलस्वरूप, प्रतिक्रिया शुरू हो जाती है, और इस प्रकार व्यक्ति का मूल उद्देश्य बदल जाता तथा अन्तिम परिणाम वह नहीं रह जाता है जिसकी उसने अपेक्षा की थी. मानवीय व्यवहार का यह एक अपरिहार्य पहलू होता है कि जब एक बार कार्य शुरू हो जाता है तो इसे पुन: वापस नहीं लाया जा सकता सिवाय इसके कि इसे रद्द कर दिया जाए. परन्तु यह बात राजनीतिक कार्यों पर लागू नहीं होती.

राजनीतिक क्षेत्र में लोगों की पहल व सक्रियता से विश्व में परिवर्तन हो रहा है जो मानवीय संस्थाओं की कमजोरी को व्यक्त करता है. समस्या का समाधान यही हो सकता है कि इन स्थितियों से निपटने के लिए निरन्तर एवं स्थायी संस्थाओं को स्थापित किया जाय. समझौते एवं वादे ‘विश्व-निर्माण प्रक्रिया’ का हिस्सा हैं. वे एक प्रकार से इस अनिश्चित विश्व में ‘स्पष्टता के टापू’ तथा ‘विश्वसनीयता के पथ-निर्देशक स्थल’ के तौर पर कार्य करते हैं. आपसी वादे एवं संविदा लोगों को एक दूसरे से बांध कर रखते हैं तथा सामूहिक लक्ष्य की प्राप्ति की दिशा में कार्य करते हैं. ‘ऑन रिवोल्यूशन’ में एरेन्ट ने इसकी वकालत की है. इसके अलावा कानून भी मानवीय कार्यों को स्थिरता प्रदान करते हैं. कानून, जन्म, परिवर्तन एवं स्थायित्व के बीच के सम्बन्ध को एरेन्ट ने अपनी पुस्तक ‘दि ओरिजिन्स ऑफ टोटालिटेरियनिज्म’ में निम्न प्रकार से व्यक्त किया है-

‘’संवैधानिक सरकार के अन्तर्गत सकारात्मक कानून का उद्देश्य एक चौहद्दी खड़ा करना है तथा लोगों के बीच संप्रेषण के माध्यम को स्थापित करना है जिसके अन्तर्गत उनका समुदाय लगातार जन्म ले रहे नए लोगों के द्वारा संकट की स्थिति में रहता है और संभवत: एक नया विश्व जन्म लेता है. कानून के स्थायित्व का अर्थ लगातार हो रहे मानवीय कर्मों में परिवर्तन के साथ सामंजस्य बिठाना है; एक ऐसा परिवर्तन जो कभी समाप्त नहीं होता, जब तक जन्म एवं मृत्यु की प्रक्रिया चलती रहती है.’’

स्थायित्व के स्रोत के तौर पर कानून कभी-कभी परम्पराओं एवं प्रथाओं से भी ज्यादा स्थायी हो सकता है. ऐसा नहीं कि कानून एवं परिवर्तन एक दूसरे के विरोधी हैं. वरन् कानून परिवर्तन की दिशा को निर्धारित कर सकता है तथा साथ ही घटित परिवर्तन को स्थापित एवं कानूनी रूप प्रदान कर सकता है.

मानवीय कर्मों में सम्पत्ति भी एक स्थायी तत्व के तौर पर कार्य कर सकता है. एरेन्ट कहती हैं कि परिवर्तन के दौर में मनुष्य ‘विश्व-अलगाव’ भी महसूस करते हैं. विश्व-अलगाव का सामान्य  अर्थ एक स्थिर विश्व का लोप हो जाना है. अर्थात् दूसरे शब्दों में ‘अभिव्यक्ति के स्थान का क्षीण हो जाना तथा सामान्य समझ का लोप हो जाना’ है. मार्क्स तथा अन्य सभी विचारकों से हटकर एरेन्ट ने विश्व-अलगाव को आधुनिक युग का प्रमाण चिन्ह माना है, न कि स्व-अलगाव को. एरेन्ट कहती हैं कि आधुनिक विश्व-अलगाव की स्थिति 16वीं सदी से ही शुरू हो गई थी, जब कुछ लोगों के सम्पत्ति हरण की प्रक्रिया शुरू की गई तथा जिसे पूंजीवादी धारणा में उचित भी माना गया.

20वीं सदी में भी इसका प्रभाव सामाजिक-आर्थिक संरचनाओं तथा परम्परागत मूल्यों पर पड़ा. धीरे-धीरे इनमें टूटन शुरू हो गयी. ‘ओरिजिन्स ऑफ टोटालिटेरियनिज्म’ में एरेन्ट कहती हैं कि व्यापक उथल-पुथल एवं परिवर्तन को सहने में अक्षम होने के कारण जनता ने विचारधारा की शरण लेनी शुरू कर दी- चाहे वह प्रजाति सम्बन्धी नाज़ी विचारधारा हो अथवा वर्ग-संघर्ष सम्बन्धी वोल्शेविक विचारधारा. ये विचारधाराएं इस बात का दावा करती हैं कि सामाजिक परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी मूल नियमों की पहचान उन्होंने कर ली है तथा जिसके आधार पर एक नवीन विश्व की स्थापना का लक्ष्य वे पूरा कर लेंगी और इस प्रकार एक सामान्य एवं स्थिर विश्व के लोप हो जाने से हमारी उस भावना का लोप हो जाता है जिसमें हम वास्तविक और अवास्तविक के अंतर को नहीं पहचान पाते. जो नज़र आता है उसको खारिज़ कर देते हैं तथा जो प्रचारित होता है उस पर विश्वास कर लेते हैं.

नवीनता और मत-वैभिन्न को एरेन्ट मानव स्थिति की बहुलता के परिणाम के रूप में देखती हैं. कानून, संविधान और वादे इस बहुलता को स्थायित्व प्रदान करके ‘सार्वजनिक-क्षेत्र’ को बनाये रखते हैं. यही ‘सार्वजनिक-क्षेत्र’ कुछ सीमाओं के साथ नूतनता को जन्म देता है. कुछ लोग एरेन्ट को रूसो का अनुगामी मानते हैं, पर इस बिन्दु पर दोनों में कई अन्तर हैं –

  1. एरेन्ट संविधान को बहुत ज्यादा महत्व देती हैं. रूसो सामान्य इच्छा को संप्रभु मानता है तथा उसने कहीं भी बहुमत के अत्याचार को समाप्त करने हेतु किसी प्रकार का उल्लेख नहीं किया है. वहीं एरेन्ट मानती हैं कि बहुमत का निर्णय व हमारा जीवन एक ऐसे संविधान से नियंत्रित होता है जो बहुमत की अभिव्यक्ति मात्र नहीं होता.
  2. एरेन्ट के अनुसार शक्ति एवं कानून अलग-अलग हैं. शक्ति जनता में तथा कानून संविधान में निहित हैं. इसके विपरीत रूसो के लिए संप्रभुता का प्रमुख चरित्र ही कानून बनाना है.
  3. एरेन्ट बहुमत के शासन एवं बहुमत के निर्णय में अंतर मानती हैं तथा जन-शक्ति पर आधारित सरकार को विधिक सरकार का पर्याय नहीं मानतीं. वह रूसो की उस अवधारणा का विरोध करती हैं जिसके अन्तर्गत जनता के शासन को गणतन्त्र का पर्याय माना गया है.
  4. रूसो के ‘सामान्य इच्छा’ सम्बन्धी विचार की एरेन्ट ने आलोचना की है. सामान्य इच्छा निरंकुश बहुमत से रक्षा के उपाय नहीं बताती. सामान्य इच्छा के सर्वसम्मति में छिपी एकता को स्थायित्व के साथ नहीं रखा जा सकता. वस्तुत: सामान्य इच्छा के उद्देश्य हेतु स्थायित्व का परित्याग कर दिया जाता है क्योंकि रूसो के अनुसार पूर्व निर्णय तथा भविष्य के वादे बाध्यकारी नहीं होते.
  5. एरेन्ट ने रूसो के इस प्रयास की भी आलोचना की है जिसके अन्तर्गत सामान्य इच्छा को वास्तविक इच्छा का रूप बताया गया है क्योंकि ऐसा तभी संभव है जब मतों की भिन्नता की कीमत पर सामान्य इच्छा की एकता एवं अखण्डता स्थापित की जाती. अक्सर ऐसे उद्देश्यों की प्राप्ति का साधन हिंसा बनती है. यदि सच्ची स्वतंत्रता सामान्य इच्छा के अनुरूप कार्य करती है तो स्वतंत्रता सामान्य इच्छा के अनुरूप कार्य करती है तो स्वतंत्र होने के लिए लोगों को बाध्य किया जा सकता है. राजनीतिक तौर पर देखा जाय तो रूसो की वास्तविक इच्छा बेहद खतरनाक है.
  6. एरेन्ट ने रूसो के इस विचार की भी आलोचना की, कि शक्ति अखण्डित एवं अहस्तांतरणीय होती है और यह, कि राज्य से छोटे संघ एवं संगठनों को समाप्त कर दिया जाना चाहिए. रूसो के अनुसार राज्य एवं नागरिकों के बीच किसी अन्य की जरूरत नहीं क्योंकि जनता जब स्वयं सम्प्रभु है तो उसे किसी से क्या डरना? इसलिए नियंत्रण एवं सन्तुलन की कोई आवश्यकता नहीं. एरेन्ट इससे सहमत नहीं.

रूसो ने शक्ति के विभाजन का विरोध किया है. उसके अनुसार विभाजित शक्ति का अर्थ कम शक्ति है. इसके विपरीत एरेन्ट के अनुसार केन्द्रीकृत शक्ति का अर्थ है ज्यादा शक्तिशाली राज्य. शक्तियों का विभाजन न केवल शक्ति-केन्द्रीकरण की प्रक्रिया को रोकता है वरन् विभिन्न शक्तियों के मध्य आपसी मेल-जोल, सामंजस्य तथा संतुलन की भी स्थिति बनाता है.

निष्कर्षत: निम्नलिखित प्रमुख बातें एरेन्ट के दर्शन के बारे में कही जा सकती हैं-

  1. एरेन्ट के दर्शन में तीन प्रमुख तत्व हैं, सहभागिता, नवीनता व स्थायित्व
  2. एरेन्ट के बहुलवादी दृष्टिकोण तथा नवीनता एवं संरक्षण के मध्य संतुलन की आवश्यकता में भी सम्बन्ध है. यह संतुलन तब बिगड़ता है जब किसी एक कार्य के सिद्धान्त को अन्य कार्यों पर भी आरोपित कर दिया जाता है.
  3. एरेन्ट ने प्लेटो के लघुतर दर्शन की जगह बहुलवाद सम्बन्धी वृहतर दर्शन पर अपना विश्वास जताया है. हालांकि बहुलवादी मानवीय अस्तित्व को विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में बांट देता है परन्तु वह किसी भी परिस्थिति में इनको एक निश्चित एवं रूढ़ परिस्थितियों में नहीं रखना चाहता.
  4. राजनीति एवं अर्थशास्त्र का पृथक्करण एरेन्ट के क्रांति सम्बन्धी सिद्धान्त को समझने में मदद करता है. उसका विश्वास है कि क्रान्ति का अंतिम उद्देश्य राजनीतिक स्वतंत्रता की प्राप्ति है जो गणतंत्र की स्थापना के द्वारा होता है. दूसरा अर्थ हुआ कि सैनिक क्रांति, महल विद्रोह तथा नागरिक युद्ध सही अर्थों में क्रांति नहीं है. क्योंकि ऐसे परिवर्तन स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ति हेतु किसी संरचना का निर्माण नहीं करते. एरेन्ट के अनुसार क्रांति का उद्देश्य आर्थिक अन्याय अथवा गीरीब से मुक्ति दिलाना भी नहीं क्योंकि ये तो सामाजिक समस्याएं हैं. चाहत एवं भूख राजनीतिक समस्याएं नहीं हैं इसलिए राजनीतिक तरीकों से इन्हें नहीं सुलझाया जा सकता.

एरेन्ट के उपरोक्त दावे को पूरी तरह सही नहीं ठहराया जा सकता क्योंकि समय की कसौटी पर यह पूरी तरह खरा नहीं उतरता. उदाहरण स्वरूप, 1949 में माओवादी क्रांति के पश्चात ही चीन में अकाल एवं भुखमरी सम्बन्धी समस्या का अंत हुआ क्योंकि भुखमरी अनाज के कम उत्पादन से नहीं, वरन् खराब वितरण से थी. साम्यावदी सरकार ने तत्काल निर्णय लेकर इस स्थिति का अंत किया.

सवाल यह नहीं है कि समस्या का समाधान है अथवा नहीं, बल्कि समाधान के लिए प्रयास किया जा रहा है अथवा नहीं. इस प्रयास में हन्ना एरेन्ट हमारे समय की सबसे मौलिक प्रतिभा हैं.

पुनर्लेखन : डॉ. संजय कुमार, राजनीति विज्ञान विभाग, वाई. डी. कॉलेज, लखीमपुर(उ. प्र.)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘द रिव्यू ऑफ पॉलिटिक्स’, वाल्यूम 38, संख्या 2(अप्रैल 1976) पृष्ठ 145-176 से साभार उद्धृत. मूल लेख ‘हन्ना एरेन्ट्स पोलिटिकल फिलॉसफी: एन इन्टरप्रिटेशन’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

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