भारत-पाक सम्बन्धों में ट्रैक-II का योगदान

परवेज़ इकबाल चीमा : दक्षिण एशिया में अनेक विवादों मुख्यत: कश्मीर विवाद के कारण राजनीतिक एवं आर्थिक व्यवस्था परस्पर जुड़ी रही है. मोहम्मद अली जिन्ना एवं महात्मा गांधी सरीखे नेताओं ने न केवल दक्षिण एशिया में शान्ति स्थापना की आकांक्षा की अपितु इस उद्देश्य के लिए अनेक प्रयास किये. किन्तु शान्ति का प्रयास छलावा ही सिद्ध हुआ. वास्तव में विकासशील देशों में शान्ति का प्रश्न औपनिवेशिक काल तथा शीत-युद्ध काल में वाह्य शक्तियों की सक्रिय संलिप्तता का परिणाम है. शीत-युद्ध के अन्त ने विश्व के अनेक भागों में आर्थिक शक्ति के वर्चस्व को स्थापित किया. बाज़ारवादी शक्तियों ने राष्ट्रों के मध्य सम्बन्धों को निर्धारित करने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका का निर्वाह करना प्रारम्भ किया. दक्षिण एशिया में भी क्षेत्रीय संगठन ‘सार्क’ को आर्थिक सहयोग के आधार पर सुदृढ़ करने के प्रयास किये गये. ‘सार्क’ की स्थापना ने दक्षिण-एशियाई देशों के मध्य विवादों को सुलझाने के लिए कूटनीतिक अन्तर्राज्यीय व आर्थिक गठबन्धनों के निर्माण पर बल दिया.

दक्षिण-एशिया क्षेत्र में जिस विवाद ने सर्वाधिक ध्यान आकर्षित किया वह है भारत व पाकिस्तान के मध्य कश्मीर विवाद. इस विवाद को सुलझाने के लिए आधिकारिक एवं गैर-आधिकारिक स्तर पर द्विपक्षीय व बहुपक्षीय स्तर पर अनेक प्रयास किये गये. इन्हीं प्रयासों में से एक महत्वपूर्ण प्रयास है ट्रैक-II.

ट्रैक-II वार्ता को प्राय: दोनों विवादित पक्षों के मध्य गैर-आधिकारिक प्रतिनिधियों द्वारा गैर-आधिकारिक वार्ताओं के रूप में परिभाषित किया जाता है. इन गैर-आधिकारिक समूहों में शासन से सम्बन्धित व समाज के प्रभावशाली व्यक्ति सम्मिलित होते हैं. इन समूहों के समस्त सदस्य विवादों को शीघ्रातिशीघ्र सुलझाने के लिए जागरूक होते हैं तथा उनमें विवादों के सकारात्मक समाधान की योग्यता होती है ट्रैक-II वार्ता में सम्मिलित समूह या तो किसी स्थानीय प्रभावशाली व्यक्ति या संस्था के प्रयास से बनाये जाते हैं, या किसी बाहरी प्रयास द्वारा बनाये जाते हैं जिससे विवादित मुद्दों पर वाह्य हस्तक्षेप को दरकिनार किया जा सके.

pakistan-india

ट्रैक-II वार्ताओं के तीन प्रारम्भिक उद्देश्य होते हैं – प्रथम, चल रहे विवादों को सुलझाने के प्रयास करना; द्वितीय, नवीन विवादों के उदय को बाधित करना; तथा तृतीय, दोनों संघर्षरत देशों व समाजों को विश्वास-निर्माण-कारकों द्वारा एक-दूसरे के निकट लाने का प्रयास करना. विश्वास-निर्माण-कारक तनावों को कम करने तथा एक दूसरे के दृष्टिकोण को अधिक अच्छे प्रकार से समझने में सहायक हो सकते हैं.

विश्वास-निर्माण दक्षिण एशिया मुख्यत: भारत व पाकिस्तान के मध्य कोई नवीन परिघटना नहीं है. दक्षिण एशिया से अंग्रेजों के प्रस्थान तथा भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप के विभाजन के पश्चात् से हो दोनों देशों के मध्य विश्वास-निर्माण तथा तनावों को न्यून करने के लिए अनेक समझौतों पर हस्ताक्षर किये गये.

भारत एवं पाकिस्तान के मध्य संघर्ष का प्रमुख मुद्दा कश्मीर विवाद है. अनेक विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों के बावजूद सामान्यीकरण प्रक्रिया धूमिल ही प्रतीत होती है. 1971 के भारत-पाक युद्ध के पश्चात् सैन्य विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों को अपनाया गया है. 1971 में ही सैन्य अभियानों के महानिदेशकों के मध्य ‘हॉटलाइन’ वार्तायें स्थापित की गयीं. वर्तमान समय में क्रियाशील विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों को चार श्रेणियों में विभक्त किया जा सकता है –  संचारपरक, पारदर्शक, सलाहपरक एवं साख सम्बन्धी.

विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों की विशाल एवं आकर्षक सूची के बावजूद दोनों देशों के मध्य विवादों का अर्थपूर्ण समाधान अभी तक नहीं हुआ है. क्या इसका अभिप्राय यह है कि विश्वास-निर्माण कारक आशातीत रूप से सफल नहीं हुये हैं ? इस सम्बन्ध में विभिन्न मत प्रस्तुत किये गये हैं. वे लोग, जिन्हें आशा थी कि विश्वास-निर्माण कारक दक्षिण-एशिया की जटिल समस्याओं का समाधान खोजेंगे, निराश हुये हैं. वे लोग जो विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों को वातावरण सुधारने के मात्र संचार-साधनों की दृष्टि से देखते हैं, विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों की भूमिका से संतुन्ष्ट हैं.

दक्षिण-एशिया में शान्ति स्थापना के लिए विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों की अयोग्यता के अनेक कारण हैं. प्रथम एवं सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण कारण है – कश्मीर विवाद. अनेक पाकिस्तानी कश्मीर को विभाजन का एक अपूर्ण एजेण्डा तथा भारतीयों की चतुराई व कपट मानते हैं. कश्मीर के विषय में भारत ने वहां के शासक की सम्मति के सिद्धान्त का अनुपालन किया, विलम्बकारी नीतियों के क्रियान्वयन द्वारा भारत को विवाद को जटिल बनाने का पर्याप्त समय प्राप्त हुआ तथा भारत ने कश्मीर पर अपने आधिपत्य को विभिन्न व्यवस्थित तर्कों द्वारा न्यायोचित सिद्ध किया. द्वितीय, दक्षिण एशिया में सौहार्द्रपूर्ण भावनाओं का सर्वथा अभाव है जो कि समझौता एवं आपसी समझ के विधिवत् क्रियान्वयन के लिए आवश्यक है. तृतीय, भारत तथा पाकिस्तान के मध्य परस्पर नकारात्मक दृष्टिकोण गहराई तक व्याप्त हैं.

13 दिसम्बर 2001 में भारतीय संसद पर कुछ अज्ञात समूहों द्वारा आक्रमण किया गया. भारत ने इसका आरोप पाकिस्तान पर लगाया किन्तु भारत कोई साक्ष्य प्रस्तुत नहीं कर सका. अनेक पाकिस्तानियों का विश्वास है कि किसी भारतीय संगठन ने ही यह समस्त षड़यन्त्र किया था.

11 सितम्बर से पूर्व यद्यपि दोनों देशों की सरकारों ने अपने विवादों को निपटाने के लिए सकारात्मक प्रयास किये, पर उसके बाद का समय कठिन था. दोनों देशों के मध्य सम्बन्धों के सामान्यीकरण की प्रक्रिया पुन: 18 अप्रैल 2003 में प्रारम्भ हुयी. वर्ष 2004 कुछ सकारात्मक प्रगति के रूप में प्रस्तुत हुआ. इस्लामाबाद में 12वां सार्क शिखर सम्मेलन सफलता-पूर्वक सम्पन्न हुआ तथा राष्ट्रपति परवेज़ मुशर्रफ व प्रधानमंत्री वाजपेयी द्वारा संयुक्त वक्तव्य प्रस्तुत किया गया. दोनों सरकारों के प्रधानों ने सामाजिक चार्टर, दक्षिण एशिया मुक्त व्यापार क्षेत्र एवं आतंकवाद के प्रसार को बाधित करने के लिए अतिरिक्त प्रोटोकॉल पर हस्ताक्षर के लिए सहमति व्यक्त की. फरवरी 2004 में वे परस्पर वार्ताओं के लिए सहमत हुये जो बाद में दोनों देशों के विदेश मन्त्रियों द्वारा आगे बढ़ाई जानी थी; किन्तु भारतीय आम चुनावों में सरकार परिवर्तन के कारण इस वार्ता में विलम्ब हुआ.

वर्ष 2004 भारत-पाक सम्बन्धों में सकारात्मक अनुभवों तथा मैत्रीपूर्ण का रहा. दोनों देशों के विदेश-सचिवों के मध्य 27-28 जून, 2004 में नई दिल्ली में कश्मीर विवाद के स्थायी व गम्भीर समाधान के लिए वार्ताओं को शुरू करने पर सहमति हुई. भारतीयों ने नियन्त्रण रेखा को शान्ति रेखा के रूप में परिवर्तित करने का सुझाव रखा. वुलर बैराज के मुद्दे पर पाकिस्तान का विचार था यह सिन्धु-जल-सन्धि का अतिक्रमण है. भारत चाहता था कि पाकिस्तान को बैराज से जल शीत ऋतु  में प्रदान किया जाय किन्तु पाकिस्तान प्रतिदिन जलापूर्ति का इच्छुक है. अत: दोनों देशों के मध्य कोई समझौता नहीं हुआ तथा वार्ता इस निष्कर्ष पर पहुंची कि आगे की वार्तायें अधिक मित्रतापूर्ण व सकारात्मक वातावरण में सम्पन्न होंगी. सिन्धु-जल-सन्धि पर सौहार्द्रपूर्ण वातावरण के लिए दोनों देशों के सांस्कृतिक सचिवों ने दोनों देशों के जनमानस को परस्पर निकट लाने के प्रयास किये. शिथिल वीज़ा नीतियों, सांस्कृतिक आदान-प्रदान, सामान्य कैदियों की मुक्ति, धार्मिक स्थलों पर पर्यटन को बढ़ावा, टी. वी. चैनलों के प्रतिबन्ध को समाप्त करना, पुस्तकालयों व पुस्तक मेलों में सहभागिता इत्यादि से सम्बन्धित अनेक सकारात्मक प्रस्तावों पर विचार-विमर्श किया गया. 5-6 अगस्त, 2004 को सियाचीन तथा  सर क्रीक क्षेत्र से सम्बन्धित वार्ता दोनों देशों के रक्षा सचिवों के मध्य सम्पन्न हुयी. तथा कहा गया कि दोनों देशों के सैन्य विशेषज्ञ इस्लामाबाद के सियाचीन-ग्लेशियर से सम्बन्धित विवाद में सेनाओं के पुन: विस्तार तथा मतभेदों को समाप्त करने पर विचार करेंगे. सर क्रीक क्षेत्र से सम्बन्धित वार्ता किसी ठोस परिणाम पर नहीं पहुंच सकी. 10-11 अगस्त 2004 को आतंकवाद एवं नशीली दवाओं के प्रचार-प्रसार को प्रतिबन्धित करने के लिए दोनों देशों के मध्य वार्ता हुयी जो सकारात्मक दिशा की ओर उन्मुख थी. 11-12 अगस्त, 2004 को व्यापार सम्बन्धी वार्ता सम्पन्न हुयी, दोनों राष्ट्रों के मध्य द्विपक्षीय व्यापार, आर्थिक व वाणिज्यिक सहयोग के लिए प्रस्तावों की विशाल श्रृंखला प्रस्तुत की गयी. दोनों पक्ष प्रभावी व व्यवहारिक समाधानों के लिए प्रयत्नशील रहे. इस प्रकार 5-6 अगस्त, 2004 को दोनों देशों के विदेश मन्त्रियों का संयुक्त वक्तव्य जारी किया गया जिसमें नौ महत्वपूर्ण बिन्दुओं पर सहमति हुयी.

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  • 25 नवम्बर, 2003 से युद्ध विराम पर सहमति.
  • ऊर्जा क्षेत्र में सहयोग : दोनों देशों के पेट्रोलियम मन्त्रियों के मध्य पाइपलाइन मुद्दे पर विचार विमर्श

58वें संयुक्त राष्ट्र महाधिवेशन को सम्बोधित करते हुये पाकिस्तानी राष्ट्रपति मुशर्फ ने स्वीकार किया कि दक्षिण एशिया में शान्ति एवं सुरक्षा के मार्ग में सबसे बड़ी बाधा कश्मीर विवाद है तथा कहा कि भारत कश्मीर विवाद के हल के लिए किसी वार्ता के लिए सहमत नहीं है. इसके प्रत्युत्तर में भारतीय प्रधानमंत्री वाजपेयी ने पाकिस्तान पर सीमा पर आतंकवाद का आरोप लगाते हुये कहा कि आतंकवाद की समाप्ति पर ही भारत-पाकिस्तान से अन्य मुद्दों पर वार्ता करेगा.

59वें संयुक्त राष्ट्र महाधिवेशन में पाकिस्तान के राष्ट्रपति मुशर्रफ तथा भारतीय प्रधानमंत्री मनमोहन सिंह द्विपक्षीय वार्ताओं तथा विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों को क्रियान्वित करने पर सहमत हुये तथा साथ ही कश्मीर विवाद के प्रत्येक सम्भव हल पर विचार-विमर्श किया. ईरान से पाकिस्तान से गुज़रकर भारत आने वाली ईरान गैस पाइपलाइन के मुद्दे पर भी चर्चा हुयी. इस वार्ता को दोनों देशों के मध्य सम्बन्धों में शुभ संकेत की संज्ञा प्रदान की गयी.

अक्टूबर, 2004 में राष्ट्रपति परवेज़ मुशर्रफ ने कश्मीर मुद्दे के समाधान के लिए एक प्रस्ताव प्रस्तुत किया तथा कहा कि एक स्वीकार्य हल के लिए दोनों पक्षों को अपनी जटिल व कठोर स्थिति को त्यागकर लचीली नीति को अंगीकृत करना होगा. मुशर्रफ का प्रस्ताव कश्मीरी जनता की कठिनाइयों के अन्त की इच्छा तथा विवाद के हल की प्रक्रिया की राजनीतिक इच्छा को प्रतिबिम्बित करता है. उनका प्रस्ताव है कि कश्मीर में सात क्षेत्र हैं जिनमें से दो पाकिस्तान में हैं तथा पांच भारत में हैं. उनका सूत्र है कि इन क्षेत्रों की पहचान की जाये, उसे विसैन्यीकृत किया जाये तथा उसकी स्थिति में परिवर्तन किया जाये. इस क्षेत्र की पहचान जातीय, भाषायी, धार्मिक, भौगोलिक साम्यता के आधार पर की जायेगी. इस क्षेत्र का विसैन्यीकरण सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण एवं जटिल चरण है. बिना विसैन्यीकरण के अगले चरण को पूर्ण नहीं किया जा सकता.

इस प्रस्ताव पर प्रारम्भिक प्रतिक्रियायें अत्यन्त सकारात्मक थीं, अनेक कश्मीरी नेताओं तथा ऑल पार्टीज़ हुर्रियत कॉन्फ्रेंस के नेताओं, मीरवेज़ उमर फारूक, जावेद अहमद मीर, सैय्यद अली शाह गिलानी इत्यादि नेताओं ने इसका समर्थन किया. किन्तु भारत का इस प्रस्ताव पर उत्तर अत्यन्त ढीला था. भारत का कहना था कि कश्मीर विवाद पर चर्चा आधिकारिक माध्यमों तथा द्विपक्षीय वार्ता द्वारा ही होगी. खुली चर्चा के लिए भारत सहमत नहीं हुआ जबकि खुली चर्चा व पारदर्शिता में दोनों देशों की जनता को समस्त प्रतिक्रिया के परीक्षण का अवसर प्राप्त होता है तथा अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय समुदाय सम्पूर्ण स्थिति से अवगत होता है. द्विपक्षीय वार्ताओं के द्वितीय दौर में सर्वप्रथम नाभिकीय नीति से सम्बन्धित मिसाइल-परीक्षण समझौते पर कोई स्पष्ट हल नहीं निकला तथा दोनों पक्ष अपने व्यक्तव्य पर स्थिर रहे.

1999 में चिनाब नदी पर प्रारम्भ हुये बगलिहर बांध परियोजना को शीघ्र पूर्ण करने के मुद्दे पर कोई हल न होने के कारण पाकिस्तान ने यह विषय विश्वबैंक को सौंप दिया तथा एक तटस्थ विशेषज्ञ की नियुक्ति की याचिका प्रस्तुत की. विश्व बैंक ने स्विट्जरलैण्ड के प्रो. रेमण्ड लैफिटी को तटस्थ विशेषज्ञ नियुक्त किया तथा दो अन्य विशेषज्ञों, छ: पाकिस्तानियों एवं चार भारतीयों ने अक्टूबर, 2005 में क्षेत्र का निरीक्षण किया व सभी पक्षों ने सिन्धु-जल-सन्धि के अनुरूप बगलिहर बांध का स्वरूप स्वीकार किया.

दिसम्बर, 2004 में भारत तथा पाकिस्तान के विदेश सचिवों के मध्य मिसाइल परीक्षण के विषय में चर्चा हुयी तथा अग्रिम वार्ता के एजेण्डे पर सहमति बनी. दोनों विदेश सचिव पुन: जुलाई-अगस्त, 2005 में स्थिति के पुनर्मूल्यांकन के लिए सहमत हुये.

फरवरी, 2005 में विदेश मन्त्रियों की बैठक अत्यन्त उत्साहवर्धक थी. दोनों विदेश मन्त्रियों ने सीमा पार श्रीनगर व मुज़फ्फराबाद के मध्य बस सेवा पर सहमति प्रदान की. 7 अप्रैल, 2005 को यह बस सेवा प्रारम्भ हो गयी. जिन यात्रियों की सूची दोनों देशों ने आपस में एक दूसरे को प्रदान की उनमें अधिकांश परस्पर पृथक् हुये परिवारों के व्यक्ति थे. इस बस सेवा ने समस्त वातावरण को सुधारने की दिशा में पहल की.

ईरान से एक गैस पाइपलाइन के विचार को भारत, पाकिस्तान व ईरान द्वारा गंभीरता से लिया जा रहा है. बढ़ती ऊर्जा आवश्यकताओं के कारण भारत व पाकिस्तान दोनों ऊर्जा के अधिक से अधिक स्रोत प्राप्त करने में संलग्न हैं जिससे यह योजना वर्ष 2011 तक पूर्ण हो जायेगी. चूंकि पाइपलाइन पाकिस्तान से होकर गुजरनी है अत: भारत सुरक्षा एवं गैस के निर्बाध बहाव के विषय में चिन्तित है. सुरक्षा व निर्बाध बहाव को सुनिश्चित करने के लिए भारत ने सुझाव दिया है कि वह पाकिस्तान को तरल प्राकृतिक गैस उपलब्ध  करायेगा. भारत व पाकिस्तान ऊर्जा चार्टर सन्धि पर हस्ताक्षर करने के लिए सहमत हो गये हैं.

संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका ने भारत व पाकिस्तान के समक्ष ईरानी पाइप के विषय में स्पष्ट किया कि ईरान नाभिकीय कार्यक्रम से अमेरिका अनेक कठिनाइयों का सामना कर रहा है तथा वह इस पाइपलाइन के पक्ष में नहीं है. तथापि भारतीय नेतृत्व इस परियोजना को क्रियान्वित करने के लिए दृढ़ है. तीनों राष्ट्र इस परियोजना से लाभान्वित होंगे. दो अन्य पाइप लाइनों यथा तुर्केमेनिस्तान, अफगानिस्तान तथा पाकिस्तान व कतर पाइपलाइनों पर गम्भीर विचार-विमर्श हुआ.

अनेक शान्ति प्रक्रियाओं व सुधरे हुये वातावरण के बावजूद व्यापार वार्तायें अप्रभावी रहीं. वाशिंगटन द्वारा पाकिस्तान को एफ-16 विमानों के विक्रय के मुद्दे पर भारत ने निराशा व्यक्त की जबकि अमेरिका ने भारत को भी एफ-1 विमान बेचने की घोषणा की.

भारत-पाक की प्रत्येक वार्ता में द्विपक्षीय वातावरण निरन्तर सुधर रहा है तथा सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण तथ्य है कि दोनों देशों के लोगों ने उत्साहपूर्वक वार्ता को आगे बढ़ाने, विवादों पर समझौते तथा विश्वास निर्माण कारकों को बनाये रखने की आकांक्षा व्यक्त की.

1-2 सितम्बर, 2005 की दोनों विदेश सचिवों की वार्ता में शान्ति, स्थायित्व, मुज़फ्फराबाद-श्रीनगर ट्रक सेवा, तकनीकी बैठकों, पुंछ-रावलकोट बस सेवा की घोषणा, नियन्त्रण रेखा पर बैठकों तथा जनवरी 2006 में कश्मीर एवं सुरक्षा  मुद्दों पर बल दिया गया. दोनों पक्षों ने 1998 के सांस्कृतिक आदान-प्रदान कार्यक्रम, समझौते तथा साथ ही 12 कैदियों को मुक्त करने, धार्मिक स्थलों की यात्रा तथा 1974 वीज़ा समझौते पर सहमति व्यक्त की.

निरन्तर अग्रसरित शान्ति प्रक्रिया ने कश्मीर विवाद के हल के लिए आशायें जाग्रत की हैं. ऐसा प्रतीत होता है कि पाकिस्तान अपने अतीत की नीति से पृथक हो रहा है किन्तु भारत अभी भी ‘ज़ीरो – सम गेम’ नीति से जुड़ा है.

जून, 2005 में ऑल पार्टीज़ हुर्यित कॉन्फ्रेंस के नेताओं ने आज़ाद जम्मू-कश्मीर तथा पाकिस्तान की यात्रा की. अपनी यात्रा के दौरान कश्मीरी प्रतिनिधि दल के नेताओं ने भारत-पाकिस्तान वार्ता में कश्मीरी जनता को न केवल सम्मिलित करने का विचार किया अपितु एक स्पष्ट रूपरेखा की मांग भी  की. राष्ट्रपति मुशर्रफ एवं प्रधानमंत्री शौक़त अली अज़ीज़ ने स्वीकार किया कि कश्मीर जनता की सहभागिता के बिना किसी भी कश्मीरी समस्या का हल नहीं निकाला जायेगा. हुर्रियत नेता मीरवेज़ उमर फारूक ने त्रिपक्षीय वार्ता का विचार दिया. भारत ने निरन्तर दावा किया है कि कश्मीर भारत-पाकिस्तान के मध्य एक द्विपक्षीय मुद्दा है तथा इस विवाद में कश्मीरी जनता को एक पक्ष के रूप में अस्वीकृत कर दिया क्योंकि कश्मीरी जनता को एक पक्ष का स्थान देने का तात्पर्य है कि कश्मीर को भारत का अभिन्न अंग होने के दावे को दुष्प्रभावित करेगा. भारत कश्मीरी जनता से भारतीय संविधान की रूपरेखा के अन्तर्गत वार्ता की इच्छुक है. इस यात्रा के दौरान हुर्रियत नेताओं ने तीन प्रस्ताव रखे – स्वतन्त्र कश्मीर की अवधारणा, कश्मीर का संयुक्त राज्य, तथा स्वायत्तशासी कश्मीर. स्वतन्त्र कश्मीर का जहां तक सम्बन्ध है, यह केवल कश्मीरियों के एक निश्चित भाग तक सीमित  है तथा भारत व पाकिस्तान दोनों में से कोई इसके पक्ष में नहीं है. ‘संयुक्त राज्य कश्मीर’ का विचार हुर्रियत नेता उमर फारूक द्वारा प्रस्तुत किया गया जिसमें विशिष्ट क्षेत्रों की पहचान की जानी है. पाकिस्तानी राष्ट्रपति ने कश्मीर के लिए ‘स्वायत्त शासन’ का विचार प्रस्तुत किया.

सितम्बर, 2005 के प्रारम्भ में नई दिल्ली में हुर्रियत नेताओं तथा भारतीय प्रधानमंत्री के मध्य उच्च स्तर पर वार्ता हुयी. यद्यपि वह बैठक अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण थी किन्तु अनेक कश्मीरी इसके परिणामों के प्रति आशान्वित नहीं थे. कश्मीरी युद्धविराम, सेनाओं की वापसी, राजनीतिक बन्दियों की मुक्ति तथा मानवाधिकारों के उल्लंघन का अन्त चाहते थे. किन्तु सुरक्षा अधिकारियों ने स्पष्ट किया कि युद्ध विराम सम्भव नहीं है. बैठक के पश्चात् प्रधानमंत्री के कार्यालय से एक वक्तव्य जारी किया गया कि यदि कश्मीर में हिंसा व घुसपैठ समाप्त हो जाती है तो भारत सैन्य स्तरों में कमी कर देगा, कश्मीर में निवारक निरोध के अन्तर्गत जितने भी मुकदमें हैं उनका पुनरीक्षण करेगा, एवं मानवाधिकारों के संरक्षण के ठोस कदम उठायेगा.

सितम्बर, 2005 में नयी दिल्ली में वैश्विक मामलों की भारतीय परिषद् तथा पैन्थर पार्टी ने नियन्त्रण रेखा के दोनों ओर के कश्मीरी नेताओं को कश्मीर विवाद के हल के लिए बुलाया. दो दिवसीय सम्मेलन के पश्चात् एक संयुक्त वक्तव्य में कहा गया कि कश्मीरी बन्दियों के कारावास का पुनरीक्षण किया जायेगा, कश्मीर में सेनाओं के फैलाव को भारत व पाकिस्तान दोनों कम करेंगे. समस्त आधिकारिक व गैर-आधिकारिक संस्थाओं से अपील की गई कि वे आपसी समझ बढ़ाने तथा शान्ति प्रक्रिया बहाल करने में सहयोगी बनेंगी.

8 अक्टूबर, 2005 में दक्षिण एशिया में आये भूकम्प ने न केवल पाकिस्तानियों में मानवा का संचार किया अपितु भारत सहित दक्षिण एशिया के अन्य देशों ने भी मानवता का प्रदर्शन किया. लगभग समस्त देशों ने भूकम्प पीड़ित पाकिस्तानी व आज़ाद जम्मू कश्मीर क्षेत्रों में बचाव व राहत कार्यों में सहयोग दिया.

भारत व पाकिस्तान के मध्य चल रही शान्ति प्रक्रिया पर दृष्टिपात करें तो यह तनिक भी आश्चर्यजनक नहीं है कि जो भी मानवातपूर्ण प्रस्ताव रखे गये वे विशिष्टतया भूकम्प के कारण ही प्रस्तुत किये गये. वास्तव में दोनों पक्ष अपनी विचारधारा तथा पूर्ण व्यवहार से ही जुड़े रहे. इस भूकम्प ने दोनों देशों के मध्य सहयोग को दृढ़ करने का अवसर अवश्य प्रदान किया.

समस्त वार्ताओं के परिणामस्वरूप राष्ट्रपति मुशर्फ ने कश्मीर के विसैन्यीकरण का प्रस्ताव प्रस्तुत किया जिसका भारत ने उत्साहपूर्वक स्वागत नहीं किया. स्व-शासन का विचार, जिसमें कश्मीर की जनता को अधिकतम स्वायत्तता देना सम्मिलित था, भारत सरकार ने इस आधआर पर अस्वीकृत कर दिया कि कश्मीरी जनता पहले स ही स्वायत्त तथा प्रजातान्त्रिक अधिकारों का उपभोग कर रही है. भारतीय अधिकारियों की तुलना में कश्मीरी नेता इस विचार के समर्थन में अधिक हैं.

इस प्रकार द्विपक्षीय वार्ताओं के तीन प्रमुख परिणाम  दृष्टिगोचर होते हैं, प्रथम, दोनों देशों द्वारा परस्पर दृष्टिकोण व सीमाओं की समझ में वृद्धि; द्वितीय, सरल विकल्पों के प्रावधान तथा, तृतीय, विश्वास-निर्माण कारकों से सम्बन्धित सुझावों में वृद्धि. भारत व पाकिस्तान आधिकारिक द्विपक्षीय वार्ताओं में अपने जटिल विवादों व मुद्दों पर विचार-विमर्श करते रहे हैं. यह सत्य है कि इन वार्ताओं को जनता के विचारों के लिए खोला नहीं गया किन्तु इन विवादों की जटिल प्रकृति के कारण यह आवश्यक था कि इन्हें गोपनीय ही रखा जाये.

(पुनर्लेखन : प्रतिमा सक्सेना, प्रवक्ता, राजनीति विज्ञान, डी. ए. वी. कॉलेज, कानपुर एवं शोधार्थी शोध-मण्डल)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘साउथ एशियन सर्वे’, अंक 13(2), 2006 पृष्ठ 211-233 से साभार उद्धत. मूल लेख ‘द कन्ट्रीब्यूशन ऑफ ट्रैक II टुवर्ड्स इंडिया-पाकिस्तान रिलेशन्स’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित

79 comments

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