माइकल फूको की शक्ति सम्बन्धी अवधारणा

मंगेष कुलकर्णी : समकालीन राजनीतिक सिद्धान्त में शक्ति एक महत्वपूर्ण अवधारणा है पर यह अवधारणा काफी विवादास्पद है. शक्ति की व्याख्या के अन्तर्गत मूल्य एवं दृष्टिकोण, संरचना एवं एजेन्सी जैसे संवेदनशील मुद्दे जुड़े होते हैं. राजनीति विज्ञान में शक्ति के अध्ययन हेतु तीन दृष्टिकोण मुख्यत: प्रभावी रहे हैं – मार्क्सवादी, वेबरवादी एवं बहुलवादी. मार्क्स शक्ति को मुख्यत:  एक वर्ग की दूसरे के विरुद्ध अपने हितों को संरक्षित करने की क्षमता मानते हैं. वेबरवादी शक्ति को एक ऐसी सम्भाव्यता के रूप में देखता है जिसमें सामाजिक सम्बन्धों के परिवेश में एक व्यक्ति निश्चित लक्ष्य की प्राप्ति हेतु विरोध के बावजूद अपनी इच्छा लागू कर सके. यह अवधारणा मार्क्सवादियों की ही तरह शक्ति को एक ‘संघर्ष मूलक अवधारणा’ के रूप में देखती है. पर बहुलवादियों के विपरीत यह ‘एजेन्सी’ और भावना पर बल देती है. बहुलवादी संघर्ष के तत्व को महत्व नहीं देते तथा शक्ति व प्रभाव के सहअस्तित्व को स्वीकार करते हैं जिसमें अनेक व्यक्तियों की आवश्यकतायें, इच्छायें, प्राथमिकतायें तथा भावनायें दूसरों के कार्यों या निर्णयों को प्रभावित करती हैं.

मार्क्सवादी शक्ति को शासक वर्ग में तथा वेबरवादी राज्य में निहित मानते हैं;  वहीं बहुलवादी उसे पूरे समाज में वितरित मानते हैं. फिर भी तीनों में से कोई भी दृष्टिकोण समकालीन विश्व में शक्ति की जटिल एवं बहुरूपी प्रकृति को पूरी तरह से समझने में सफल नहीं हो पाया है. बहुलवादी वर्ग आधारित समाज की विषमताओं को नहीं समझते, तथा मार्क्सवादियों को शक्ति और गैर-वर्गीय स्वरूप की कोई समझ नहीं.

Foucault

1970 के दशक में फ्रांस के विद्वान माइकल फूको(1926-1984) ने शक्ति का एक सर्वथा नूतन एवं क्रांतिकारी विचार प्रस्तुत किया. इनके बेहद मौलिक एवं विविध विचार को ज्ञान की किसी एक शाखा के साथ जोड़ना अथवा किसी एक वैचारिक ढांचे में बांधना उपयुक्त नहीं होगा. इनके विचार आधुनिक पश्चिमी समाज के मानसिक-विक्षिप्तता-उपचार, मानवीय विज्ञान, दण्ड एवं लैंगिकता के विमर्श से सम्बन्धित सिद्धान्तों से जुड़ा हुआ है. दरअसल फूको पश्चिमी सभ्यता की संपूर्ण एवं ऐतिहासिक-दार्शनिक आलोचना करते हैं और इस प्रक्रिया में वे विभिन्न सूक्ष्मदृष्टि एवं प्रस्थापनाओं का निर्माण करते चले जाते हैं, जिनका एक व्यापक अर्थ होता है. इस प्रकार एक बिल्कुल नया एवं फलदायक क्षितिज खुलता है. शक्ति व ज्ञान समीकरण का निर्माण इसका एक अच्छा उदाहरण है. वर्तमान लेख फूको की शक्ति सम्बन्धी अवधारणा का एक लेखा-जोखा है. दरअसल फूको की अवधारणा नीत्से के शक्ति सम्बन्धी उस विचार का विस्तार है जिसके द्वारा पश्चिमी संस्कृति के अन्तर्गत लोगों को अधीन बनाया जाता है.

फूको ने इस प्रकार की तीन विधियों एवं प्रथाओं का पता लगाया है जिसके द्वारा एक व्यक्ति दूसरे व्यक्ति को अपने अधीन करने में सक्षम होता है.

  1. विभाजक प्रथायें एवं व्यवहार-जिनके आधार पर कुछ निश्चित लोगों को विज्ञान के आधार पर वर्गीकृत करके समाजिक एवं स्थानिक रूप से अलग कर दिया जाता है. आधुनिक मनोचिकित्सा का उदय एवं पागलखाने में पागलों को कैद करना इसके स्पष्ट उदाहरण हैं.
  2. वैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण – मानव विज्ञान के विमर्शों पर यह अवधारित होता है. उदाहरण स्वरूप भाषा-विज्ञान के अन्तर्गत बोली, अर्थशास्त्र में उत्पादक वर्ग तथा जीव विज्ञान में जीवन के आधार पर ‘वस्तुनिष्ठ’ वर्गीकरण किया जाता है.
  3. आत्मनिष्ठकरण किस प्रकार कोई व्यक्ति स्वयं को प्राप्त करता है; और किस विधि व ज्ञान से वह ऐसा करता है- यह अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण है.

‘स्व’ का निर्माण ज्ञान के रूपों के सामर्थ्य के आधार पर होता है. दूसरे अर्थों में ज्ञान का ताना-बाना हमेशा से ही शक्ति के सम्बन्धों में होता है जबकि शक्ति को ज्ञान के निर्माण एवं प्रयोग से अलग नहीं किया जा सकता है, और इस प्रकार फूको ने शक्ति व ज्ञान जैसे दो विचारों को एक अवधारणात्मक सांचे में ढालने की कोशिश की. शक्ति की इस अवधारणा की यदि अन्य अवधारणाओं से तुलना की जाये तो स्थिति और भी स्पष्ट हो जाती है. ये हैं- उदारवादी, मार्क्सवादी, रिचीवादी एवं नीत्सेवादी अवधारणायें. उदारवादी अवधारणा विधिक होती है. शक्ति को एक अधिकार मानते हुये इसे एक वस्तु की तरह रखा एवं हस्तान्तरित किया जा सकता है. सम्प्रभुता की स्थापना में शक्ति का मौलिक अधिकार के रूप में समर्पण तथा राजनीतिक शक्ति के सांचे हेतु बनाई गई संविदा इसके प्रमुख फलक हैं. फूको ने इस अवधारणा की आलोचना यह कहकर की है कि शक्ति न तो प्रदान की जा सकती है और नही इसका आदान-प्रदान किया जा सकता है. इसका केवल प्रयोग किया जा सकता है. इसका केवल व्यवहार में ही अस्तित्व होता है.

मार्क्सवादी अवधारणा के अन्तर्गत शक्ति को एक वर्ग-विशेष के आधिपत्य को स्थापित एवं बनाये रखने का औजार माना जाता है, जिसका प्रादुर्भाव एक विशेष उत्पादन-सम्बन्ध के कारण होता है. फूको यह तो स्वीकार करते हैं कि शक्ति-सम्बन्ध आर्थिक सम्बन्ध के साथ एक परिधि में कार्य करते हैं परन्तु शक्ति मुख्यत:  केवल आर्थिक सम्बन्धों की स्थापना एवं उत्पादन ही नहीं होता है वरन् यह सबसे ऊपर बल का सम्बन्ध होता है.

रिचीवादी अवधारणा (विल्हेम रिच 1897-1957 आस्ट्रियन/अमेरिकन मनोविश्लेषक एंव यौन-मुक्ति का प्रणेता) जिसकी जड़ें हीगेल एवं फॉयड में समाहित हैं, के अनुसार शक्ति आवश्यक रूप से दमनात्मक होती है, यह स्वभाव, सहजवृत्ति, वर्गों एवं व्यक्तियों का दमन करता है, और इस प्रकार शक्ति की व्याख्या एक तरह से दमन के रचनातन्त्र की व्याख्या बन जाती है.

नीत्सेवादी अवधारणा रिचीवादी अवधारणा को विस्तार देती है. यह शक्ति का अध्ययन संघर्ष एवं युद्ध के संदर्भ में करती है. फूको कहता है कि शक्ति को दमन की तरह नहीं देखा जाना चाहिये क्योंकि शक्ति मुख्यत:  उत्पादक होती है- यह सत्य के कर्म काण्ड एवं पात्रों के प्रभाव-क्षेत्र का उत्पादन करती है.

किसी भी समाज में शक्ति-सम्बन्धों के विभिन्न स्वरूप होते हैं जिसके द्वारा व्यक्ति एवं समाज का निर्माण होता है. इन शक्ति-सम्बन्धों की स्थापना, मजबूती एवं क्रियान्वयन केवल सत्य-विमर्श के निर्माण, संग्रह एंव प्रसार के द्वारा ही हो सकता है. इस प्रकार फूको राजनीतिक सिद्धान्त के परम्परागत प्रश्न को उलट देता है. किस प्रकार दर्शनशास्त्र (सत्य को विमर्श के रूप में) शक्ति के अधिकारों को सीमित कर सकता है? वह स्वयं पूछता है: सत्य-मीमांसा हेतु शक्ति-सम्बन्धों द्वारा अधिकार के किन नियमों का क्रियान्वन किया जाता है? फूको इसे पता करने के लिये पांच सुझाव देता है.

  1. शक्ति के केन्द्रीकृत एवं वैध स्वरूप के बजाय स्थानीय एवं क्षेत्रीय स्वरूप पर ध्यान दिया जाना चाहिये. इस प्रकार दण्ड की राजनीति के अध्ययन में हमें उसके विधिक स्वरूप में नहीं उलझना चाहिये वरन्, स्थानीय एवं क्षेत्रीय संगठनों द्वारा दण्ड हेतु अपनाये गये विभिन्न तरीकों पर ध्यान देना चाहिये. 1977 में प्रकाशित फूको की पुस्तक ‘डिसिप्लिन एवं पनिश’ में इसका विवरण है.
  2. शक्ति का अध्ययन प्रयोगकर्ता की पहचान और भावना पर केन्द्रित न होकर उस बिन्दु पर केन्द्रित होना चाहिये जहां पर अपने लक्ष्य के साथ प्रत्यक्ष रूप से जुड़ा होता है तथा प्रभाव पैदा करता है. अध्ययन इस बात का होना चाहिये कि किस प्रकार अधीनता कार्य करती है. 19वीं सदी में फ्रांस में बड़े कारखानों में मजदूरों के स्थापना को लेकर फूको का अध्ययन इसका अच्छा उदाहरण है.
  3. शक्ति को एक व्यक्ति या समूह द्वारा दूसरों पर एक सुदृढ़ एवं एक रूपीय नियंत्रण के तौर पर नहीं देखा जाना चाहिये वरन् इसका स्वरूप तो चक्रीय है. इसका प्रयोग करने वाले संगठन की प्रकृति ‘जाल’ की तरह होती है. व्यक्ति तो शक्ति के संवाहक मात्र होते हैं. आधुनिक सेक्स – राजनीति का अध्ययन फूको ने इसी संदर्भ में किया है. उन्मादी महिला, पतित युवा एवं मालथ्यूसियन युगल इसके उदाहरण हैं.
  4. शक्ति के सम्भाव्य केन्द्र से अध्ययन की शुरुआत करने के बजाय इसके अति सूक्ष्म रचनातन्त्र का चढ़ते हुये क्रम में अध्ययन किया जाना चाहिये जिससे यह जाना जा सके कि किस प्रकार सामान्य रचानतन्त्र एंव वैश्विक प्रभुत्व इसे अपने अधीन करते हैं. पागलों की नजरबंदी एवं कैद की अवधारणा का विवेचन बुर्जुआवादी दृष्टिकोण से नहीं किया जा सकता है, हालांकि वह इसके अनुरूप है; बल्कि उनके माता-पिता एंव डॉक्टर वास्तविक कारक होते हैं.
  5. शक्ति का सार किसी विचारधारा के साथ बंधा नहीं होता है वरन् ज्ञान के निर्माण एवं संग्रह हेतु प्रभावकारी साधनों के उत्पादन के साथ होता है.

संक्षेप में, शक्ति किसी राज्य के अन्तर्गत संस्थाओं का समूह नहीं है और न ही किसी वर्ग का आधिपत्य है. न तो यह कोई संरचना है, न किसी व्यक्ति की विशेषता. यह किसी बिन्दु से अवतरित या विस्तारित नहीं होती. शक्ति तो वस्तुत:  बल सम्बन्धों की बहुलता होती है. यह सभी जगह व्याप्त है इसलिये नहीं कि इसके अन्दर सबकुछ सारी वस्तुयें एवं स्थितियां समाहित होती हैं वरन् इसलिये कि यह सभी जगह से आती है.

आधुनिक पश्चिमी सभ्यता में शक्ति के सम्बन्ध में फूको ने 17वीं एंव 18वीं सदी में विकसित हुई अनुशासनिक शक्ति के बारे में भी गहरा अध्ययन किया है. बुर्जुआ समाज की रचना होने के नाते यह शक्ति एक गैर-क्षेत्रीय प्रशासन की संकल्पना करता है. अनुशासनिक शक्ति के तंत्र धन एंव वस्तुओं के बजाय समय एंव श्रम की खोज करता है. इसकी मौलिकता इस बात में है कि यह अधीनस्थ शक्तियों एंव उपकरणों दोनों के विकास पर बराबर ध्यान देता है. बेन्थम की पैनॉप्टिकन सम्बन्धी निरन्तर निगरानी सम्बन्धी अवधारणा समीचीन है. पैनॉप्टिकॉन(जेल) के अन्तर्गत एक बड़ा प्रांगण होता है, जिसके बीचों बीच एक टॉवर होता है जो चारों तरफ से भवनों से घिरा होता है. उन भवनों में विभिन्न कक्ष होते हैं, तथा प्रत्येक कक्ष में एक खिड़की होती है जो टॉवर के सामने होती है. उस टॉवर में निरीक्षण खिड़की होती है जो हरदम विभिन्न भवनों का निरीक्षण एवं निगरानी करती रहती है. भवन के अन्दर रहने वाले लोग अलग-अलग होते हैं तथा केवल निगरानी कर्ता के द्वारा ही देखे जा सकते हैं. पैनॉप्टिकन के अन्तर्गत शक्ति का प्रयोग लगातार एवं गुमनाम तरीके से होता रहता है. कोई भी व्यक्ति जो उस टॉवर को अपने अधीन रखने में समर्थ होता है, शक्ति एवं आदेश सम्बन्धी कार्य करता रहता है. यहां तक कि उसकी अनुपस्थिति में भी शक्ति सम्बन्धी क्रिया चलती रहती है, क्योंकि जेल के कमरों में रहने वाले लोगों को उसकी अनुपस्थिति सम्बन्धी जानकारी नहीं होती है. इसलिये भवनों में रहने वाले लोग हमेशा ही अनुशासनात्मक क्रिया में बने रहने की कोशिश करते हैं. यहां तक कि इस व्यवस्था में निगरानी कर्त्ताओं पर भी निगरानी की जाती है.

इस प्रकार की नई शक्ति ने बुर्जुआ सामाजिक स्थिति को बनाने में जबरदस्त मदद की. हालांकि अनुशासनिक शक्ति सम्प्रभुता के दायरे के बाहर होती है, परन्तु विरोधाभासी रूप से सम्प्रभुता का सिद्धान्त एंव कानूनी संहिता एक दोषनिवारक विचारधारा के तौर पर स्थापित होता है. ऐसा इसलिये होता है कि अधिकार का सिद्धान्त अनुशासन के रचना तन्त्र पर आरोपित कर दिया जाता है.

आधुनिक समाज में शक्ति दो स्थितियों के द्वारा कार्य करती है- सम्प्रभुता सम्बन्धी लोक-अधिकार एवं बहुरूपी अनुशासनिक –तंत्र. अनुशासन का विमर्श एंव अधिकार का विमर्श एक दूसरे के समरूप होते हैं. अनुशासन सम्बन्धी संहिता किसी कानून की व्याख्या नहीं करती है वरन् सामान्यीकरण की दिशा में कार्य करती है. अधिकार के बजाय मानव विज्ञान का क्षेत्र इसके अन्तर्गत आ जाता है. रोग-विषयक ज्ञान इसके विधिशास्त्र बनते हैं. सम्प्रभुता सम्बन्धी कानूनी अवधारणा एवं अनुशासनिक सामान्यीकरण का आगामी संघर्ष एक मध्यवर्ती विमर्श की स्थिति बनाने पर जोर देता है- एक ऐसी शक्ति एवं ज्ञान जो विज्ञान के सम्मान को तटस्थ बना देगा.

चिकित्साशास्त्र का विस्तार अनुशासन के साधनों को अधिकार के सिद्धान्त के साथ लगातार सम्बन्ध रखता है. अनुशासन एवं सम्प्रभुता के प्रतिच्छेदन बिन्दु पर जीवन का चिकित्सीय विस्तार होने लगता है. इसकी प्रमुख अभिव्यक्ति शरीर रचना राजनीति का जैव राजनीति के मुकाबले हमेशा महत्व की स्थित बनाये रखना है. परिणाम स्वरूप फूको आधुनिक मानव के प्राणि सम्बन्धी अस्तित्व पर राजनीति के महत्व के कारण प्रश्न उठाता है.

शक्ति सम्बन्धी फूको का अन्वेषण न केवल शैक्षिक उद्यम है वरन् इसके कुछ व्यवहारिक उद्देश्य भी हैं. अनुशासित समाज में प्रतिरोध एवं मुक्ति सम्बन्धी इसके निहितार्थ हैं. उसका मुख्य बिन्दु यह है कि शक्ति सम्बन्ध के बाहर किसी अनुकूल स्थितिसे प्रतिरोध सम्बन्धी कारवाई नहीं की जा सकती है. इस प्रकार मुक्ति इस बात में निहित है कि स्थानीय, असतत्, अयोग्य एवं अवैध ज्ञान को एक ऐसे विज्ञान से मुक्त किया जाये जो अपन को एकात्मक एवं वास्तविक वैज्ञानिक ज्ञान पर आधारित बतलाया है.

अब तक यह बात स्पष्ट हो चुकी है कि फूको पश्चिमी समाज द्वारा प्रदर्शित आधुनिकता की गंभीर आलोचना करता है. परन्तु फूको का सबसे बड़ा आलोचक हैबरमास है. हैबरमास ने फूको के ज्ञान शक्ति सम्बन्धी अवधारणा को प्रस्तुतनीय, सापेक्षीय, प्रच्छन आदर्शी, एवं छद्म-विज्ञानी कहानी बताया. हालांकि वह शक्ति के केशिका के सिद्धान्त के महत्व को स्वीकार करता है. पॉल रेबिनाऊ ने फूको को असंगता का संस्थापक माना है. निष्कर्ष स्वरूप फूको को छद्म विज्ञान का प्रबन्धक मानना उचित नहीं है, हालांकि हेबरमास रेविनाऊ के मुकाबले ज्यादा तर्क संगत हैं.

(पुनर्लेखन : डॉ संजय कुमार, रीडर, राजनीति विज्ञान विभाग, वाई. डी. कॉलेज, लखीमपुर खीरी, उ. प्र., एवं शोधार्थी शोध-मण्डल)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘सोशलिस्ट पर्सपेक्टिव : ए क्वाटर्ली जर्नल ऑफ सोशल साइन्सेज़’ वाल्यूम 2, अंक 3-4, दिसंबर 1994, मार्च 1995, पृष्ठ 91-100 से साभार उद्धत. मूल लेख ‘माइकल फूकोज़ एनालिटिक्स ऑफ पावर’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

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