राष्ट्र : गवेषणात्मक दृष्टि

शिव विश्वनाथन : राष्ट्रीयता एवम् नस्लवाद जैसी अवधारणाएं अरुचिकर लग सकती हैं. इतिहास की पुस्तकों में राष्ट्र की अवधारणा समाज की चेतना में गहरे पैठे हुए किसी विचार-सा लगता है जिससे एकजुट, निश्चित एवम् सीमांकित होने का बोध होता है. इससे किसी समुदाय की शक्ति एवम् अस्तित्व का भास होता है. एक राष्ट्र-राज्य से स्पष्ट सीमाओं वाले सम्प्रभु राज्य का बोध होता है, और व्यक्ति के रूप में हम सभी परिभाषित राष्ट्र-राज्य के नागरिक के रूप में जाने जाते हैं. राजनीतिक, नैतिक एवम् बौद्धिक दृष्टि से राष्ट्र एवम् राष्ट्रीय-राज्य की अवधारणाएं क्यों अशान्ति पैदा करती हैं?

अर्नेस्ट गेलनर (नेशन्स एण्ड नेशनलिज्म) तथा इर्क हाब्सबॉम (नेशन्स एण्ड नेशनलिज्म सिन्स 1780) की महत्वपूर्ण पुस्तकों में राष्ट्र व राष्ट्रीय-राज्य में अन्तर्निहित विरोधाभास को चिन्हित किया गया है. प्रारम्भिक अवस्था में राष्ट्रीयता को समुदाय, संस्कृति एवम् क्षेत्र को जोड़ने वाले एक वस्तुनिष्ठ सूत्र के रूप में देखा गया. पर जब राष्ट्र के लिये ऐसे वस्तुनिष्ठ मानक का निर्धारण करने का प्रयास किया गया तो समस्याएं आ गईं. राष्ट्र शब्द की व्युत्पत्ति लैटिन भाषा के ‘नेटियो’ शब्द से हुई जिसका सम्बन्ध ‘जन्म’ से था और इसका प्रयोग रोमन लोगों की तुलना में विदेशियों की निम्नतर स्थिति को व्यक्त करने में किया जात था. कालान्तर में इसका प्रयोग ‘विदेशी छात्रों’ की निम्नतर स्थिति को व्यक्त करने में किया जाने लगा. बाद में इसका प्रयोग ‘विदेशी छात्रों’ के उन समूहों को इंगित करने में होने लगा जो पश्चिमी विश्वविद्यालयों में अध्ययनरत थे. सोलहवीं शताब्दी में राष्ट्र शब्द का प्रयोग एक पूरे देश व उसकी जनसंख्या के लिए किया जाने लगा तथा व्यक्ति की राष्ट्रीय पहचान व अस्मिता के लिए ऐसे देश व जनसंख्या की सदस्यता आवश्यक हो गई. इस प्रकार, राष्ट्र की अवधारणा में एक विविधतापूर्ण समाज से एकरूप समाज होने का खतरा सन्निहित है. इसी खतरे में विरोधाभास एवम् हिंसा बीज रूप में विद्यमान है.

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राष्ट्र-राज्य की अवधारणा एक नई खोज है. राष्ट्र वास्तव में औद्योगिक व्यवस्था की एक तार्किक आवश्यकता है. इसके अन्तर्गत समुदायों और क्षेत्रों को एक पूर्व निर्धारित परिभाषा के अनुकूल बनाने की बाध्यता मान्य और यदि वे उसके अनुरुप न हों तो उनके परिष्करण की अपेक्षा की गई. इस प्रकार, राष्ट्रवाद ने एक प्रोजेक्ट का स्वरूप ग्रहण कर लिया.

वर्तमान में नागरिक को औद्योगिक जीवन शैली में स्थापित एक निष्ठावान जीव के रूप में देखा जाता है. इस नागरिक को अजनबी लोगों से समस्या है. उनके प्रति उसमें वैमनस्यता का भाव है. पर औद्योगिक जीवन शैली के लिए नागरिक का विश्व से तादाम्य अपरिहार्य है. इस प्रकार, नागरिकता को ‘नस्लवाद’ व ‘वैश्विकता’ के बीच सन्तुलन बनाने में कुछ समस्या अवश्य है. नागरिकों का तो एक देश होता है, पर जो लोग नागरिकता की विधिक परिभाषा में नहीं होते, उनका कोई देश नहीं होता. ऐसी श्रेणी में अनेक चलायमान समूह आते हैं और उन्हें छ: भागों में बांटा जा सकता है- निर्वासित, प्रवासी, शरणार्थी, विक्षेपित, यायावर (घुमक्कड़) एवम् विस्थापित. ये सभी चलायमान व्यक्ति समूह हाशिए पर रह कर एक तरफ नागरिकता को पुष्ट करते हैं, तो दूसरी ओर उसे चुनौती देते हैं. इस द्वन्द्ध से आधुनिक राजनीतिक सिद्धान्तों को ऊर्जा प्राप्त हुई है और इसी द्वन्द्व से राष्ट्र निर्माण में हिंसा में अभिवृद्धि हुई है. हिंसा को राष्ट्र निर्माण व नागरिकता की विकृति के रूप में नहीं, वरन् उसकी एक सामान्य तार्किक अभिव्यक्ति के रूप में देखा जाना चाहिए. हिंसा को नागरिक तथा नागरिकता से वंचित हाशिए पर स्थापित चलायमान समूहों के मध्य अन्तर्सम्बन्धों के रूप में देखा जाना चाहिए. हाशिए पर स्थापित ये समूह किसी सुदूर देश के नागरिक या शत्रु नहीं, वरन् वे लोग हैं जो किसी विचित्र वर्गीकरण के कारण नागरिकता की विधिक परिभाषा के अन्तर्गत नहीं आते.

निर्वासित लोग वे नागरिक हैं जो घर (देश) से दूर रह कर घर के बारे में सोचते व लिखते हैं; वे घर विहीन हैं तथा घर को इस प्रकार पुनर्परिभाषित करना चाहते हैं जिससे वे घर लौट सकें. परन्तु प्रवासी वह व्यक्ति है जो घर छोड़ कर विदेश में एक नया घर बसाने चल पड़ता है, जहां ऐसे विदेशी मूल के व्यक्ति को कैसे नागरिकता प्रदान की जाए-इसे लेकर काफी राजनीति होती है. जहां यूरोपीय राजनीतिक दर्शन में निर्वासित लोगों का योगदान है, वहीं अमेरिकी समाज-विज्ञान प्रवासियों के ईर्द-गिर्द घूमता है. पर निर्वासित व प्रवासियों से कहीं ज्यादा दु:ख पूर्ण स्थिति राज्यविहीन शरणार्थियों की होती है. शरणार्थी दो राज्यों के बीच पिसने वाला प्राणी है और सम्भव है सदा के लिए उसी स्थिति में रहे. जहां निर्वासित, प्रवासी व शरणार्थी विस्थापन व नागरिकता की पीड़ा से त्रस्त होते हैं वहीं ‘विक्षेपित’ में घर लौटने का सा भाव है. विक्षेपित व्यक्ति का एक संसार में एक घर होता है, घर से दूर एक घर. पर ऐसा विक्षेपित व्यक्ति अपने मूल घर के लिये दो प्रकार से समस्या बन जाता है; प्रथम, वह न केवल विरुद्ध वेदना से त्रस्त होता है वरन् उसमें अपने मूल घर (देश) को त्यागने का अपराध बोध होता है तथा द्वितीय, वह अपने मूल देश में आतंकवादी व विघटनकारी आन्दोलनों की भी मदद करता है. वह ‘दूरस्थ राष्ट्रवाद’ का पोषक है. श्रीलंका के तमिलों का लिट्टे और कैलिफोर्निया तथा ओटावा के सिक्खों का खालिस्तान समर्थन इसी श्रेणी में है. यायावर (घुमक्कड़) समूह भी राष्ट्र व नागरिकता की परिधि में नहीं आते क्योंकि वे अपना घर लेकर दुनिया भर में घूमते-फिरते रहते हैं. वे न   केवल नागरिकता वरन् विकास को भी चुनौती देते हैं और अन्त में वे ‘विस्थापित’ लोग हैं जो विकास की प्रक्रिया में स्थायी रूप से विस्थापित हो गये हैं. सड़क, बिजली, घर, खदान या बड़े बांध बनाने में ऐसी स्थिति आ सकती है.

ऐसे बाहरी लोगों तथा नागरिकों के अन्तर्सम्बन्धों से प्रजातीयता (नस्लवाद) की समस्या का जन्म होता है. इसके पीछे केवल नागरिकता व विकास के ही कारण नहीं होते, वरन् बहुसंख्यक-अल्पसंख्यक राजनीति भी हो सकती है. राष्ट्र-राज्य प्रतिमानों में लोकतान्त्रिक राजनीति की आवश्यकता प्रजातीय संहार को जन्म दे सकती है. रूवाण्डा की घटना इसका उदाहरण है. ‘बटुट्सी’ व ‘बहूटू’ के बीच शुरू हुये चुनावी संघर्ष की चरम परिणति प्रजातीय संहार में हुई. लियो कपूर के अनुसार आधुनिक राज्य में हिंसा पर एकाधिकार से ही ‘प्रजातीय संहार’ की ‘इच्छा’ व शक्ति जाग्रत हुई है. पर माइकल मान इससे भी आगे बढ़ कर लोकतन्त्र को प्रजातीय संहार का कारण मानते हैं. उनके अनुसार तथ्यात्मक रूप से अधिनायकवाद की अपेक्षा लोकतन्त्र में प्रजातीय संहार ज्यादा हुए हैं. ‘माइकल मान’ ने तीन बिन्दुओं की ओर इंगित किया-

  • लोकतन्त्र को एक प्रक्रिया के रूप में देखा जाए तो अनेक लोकतन्त्र स्थायी व सम-प्रजातीय रूप में दिखाई देंगे. पर इस स्थायित्व व सम-प्रजातीयता का कारण है विभिन्न प्रजातीय संहर. जहां भी लोकतन्त्र सफल रहा है वहां प्रजातीय शुद्धीकरण अवश्य हुआ है. ऐसे राष्ट्र-राज्य की अवधारणा व उदारवादी लोकतन्त्र से उसका अन्तर्सम्बन्ध विकासशील देशों के लिये- जहां बहुसांस्कृतिक परिवेश है- अनेक समस्याएं पैदा करता है. यूरोपीय देशों के प्रतिकूल ऐसे देशों में सांस्कृतिक सम्बन्धों एवम् राजनीति में कोई तादात्म्य आवश्यक नहीं. सांस्कृतिक भिन्नता के बावजूद राजनीतिक एकता संभव है जैसा कि पुरानी भारतीय कांग्रेस पार्टी में था. यदि प्रजातीय समूहों एवम् राजनीति में तादात्म्य स्थापित कर दिया जाए तो प्रजातीय संहार की संभावना बढ़ जाती है.
  • राष्ट्र-राज्य की अवधारणा सामान्य स्थिति में ही बाध्यकारी है, पर यह युद्ध के बदलते स्वरूप में और बाध्यकारी हो जाती है. राष्ट्र-राज्य के सैन्य कार्यों में अत्यधिक अभिवृद्धि हुई है. युद्ध के नए स्वरूप से आर्थिक नियोजन में गम्भीरता तथा लोककल्याणकारी दृष्टि में व्यापकता आई है. राष्ट्र-राज्य से ‘आन्तरिक’ व ‘बाह्य’ तथा ‘भीतर वाला’ व ‘बाहर वाले’ जैसी अवधारणाओं का जन्म हुआ है और ‘आन्तरिक’ को ‘बाह्य’ से बचाने को ही सुरक्षा का नाम दिया गया है. पर मैरी केलडोर के अनुसार नए युद्ध ने आन्तरिक-बाह्य तथा देशी-विदेशी के अन्तर को तोड़ दिया है जो राष्ट्र-राज्य की राजनीति की अवधारणा के लिये महत्वपूर्ण था. वैश्विक समीकरणों के कारण आज किसी देश द्वारा एकतरफा युद्ध करने पर काफी अंकुश है और युद्ध तकनीकि के निजीकरण से अनेक समूहों द्वारा नीचे से संप्रभुता को चुनौती मिलती ह.
  • राष्ट्र-राज्य के अन्तर्गत हिंसा के राजनीतिक अर्थशास्त्र में आमूल-चूल परिवर्तन हुआ है. पुराने समय में युद्ध राष्ट्रीय संगठनों तथा औद्योगिक व्यवस्था दोनों की अभिपुष्टि करते थे, पर उसमें उत्पादन प्रणाली ने स्वायत्तता प्राप्त कर ली है और इसका स्वरूप विध्वंसक हो गया है. रूवाण्डा व बोस्निया इसके उदाहरण हैं.

मैरी केलडोर के अनुसार प्रारम्भिक स्थिति में राष्ट्रवाद से एकता व केन्द्रीकरण को बल मिलता था, पर नवीन राष्ट्रवाद से विखण्डित छोटी-छोटी आर्थिक व राजनीतिक इकाइयों का प्रादुर्भाव हुआ है. पूर्व यूगोस्लाविया पांच टुकड़ों में विखण्डित हुआ. फिर क्रोएशिया को दो टुकड़ों में विभाजित किया गया. बोस्निया व हर्जगोविना को तीन टुकड़ों में विभाजित करने पर वार्ता की गई. पूर्व में राष्ट्रवाद एक विचारधारा का पर्याय था, आज मूलत: अस्तित्व का पर्याय हो गया है तथा नव-राष्ट्रवाद युद्ध व हिंसा की तारतम्यता का पोषक है जिसमें स्वार्थी तत्वों, पूर्व-सैनिकों, अपराधियों व राजनीतिज्ञों का सम्मिलित योगदान है. इसमें हिंसा करने वालों की संख्या तथा हिंसा की प्रकृति में अभिवृद्धि हुई है. रूवाण्डा में हुए संहार में बहुसंख्यक बहूटू समुदाय के लगभग सभी लोग हिंसा में सम्मिलित थे और मात्र तीन माह में अल्पसंख्यक समुदाय को समाप्त कर दिया गया.

काफी कुछ संहार संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ के संरचनात्मक ढांचे में हो रहा है, न केवल वह ऐसी हिंसा को बर्दाश्त करता है, वरन् उसे वैधता भी देता है. ब्रनूडी, इदी अमीन के युगाण्डा व कम्बोडिया इसके साक्षी हैं.

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘इकोनामिक एण्ड पोलिटिकल वीकली’ जून 7, 2003, पृष्ठ 2295-2302 से साभार उद्धृत. मूल लेख ‘इन्टरोगेटिंग द नेशन’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

78 comments

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