भारत में राजनीतिक संस्कृति तथा राजनीति की संस्कृति

रघुवीर सिंह : ‘’इस प्रकार भारतीय समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्त तथा समस्त परम्परागत राजनीति के अनुसार वैयक्तिक तानाशाही, अन्त में उनमें भी प्रभाव पैदा कर देता है जो अप्रभावी होते हैं तथा राज्य को विखण्डन व अन्त में विनाश की ओर ले जाता है. परम्परागत राजनीति का सार यह है कि ‘स्व-शासन’ या ‘स्वराज्य’ आत्म-नियंत्रण या आत्म-संयम पर निर्भर होता है. यह कहा जा सकता है कि शासन की यह अवधारणा आधुनिक भारत में आज भी जीवन्त है क्योंकि जिस राजनीतिक विजय की गांधी जी ने कल्पना की थी वह निश्चित रूप से ‘आत्म-विजय’ के  द्वारा ही प्राप्त की जा सकती है.’’ (ए. के. कुमारस्वामी :  स्प्रीचुअल एथारिटी एण्ड टेम्पोरल पावर इन द इंडियन थियरी ऑफ गवर्न्मेंट 1978)

  • जहां मन भयमुक्त हो तथा शीश ऊंचा रहे,

जहां ज्ञान प्राप्त करने की स्वतन्त्रता हो,

जहां विश्व संकीर्ण घरेलू दीवारों द्वारा टुकड़ों में न विभक्त हो,

जहां वाणी सत्य की गहराइयों से निकले,

जहां कठोर परिश्रम से पूर्णता प्राप्त करने की प्रवृत्ति हो,

जहां तर्क की स्पष्ट धारा मृतप्राय व्यवहार के काल्पनिक मरुस्थलों में अपना मार्ग विस्मृत नहीं करती हो,

जहां ईश्वर जनता के मन को निरन्तर व्यापक होते विचारधारा व कर्म में प्रवृत करता हो,

हे परमपिता परमेश्वर, ऐसे स्वतन्त्र स्वर्ग में मेरे राष्ट्र को चेतना व जागृति प्रदान करें.’’ (रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर गीतांजलि)

 

  • ‘’यह मेरा दृढ़ विचार है कि हम शक्ति-राजनीति एवं इसकी संक्रामक प्रवृत्ति से परे एक साथ रहेंगे… राजनीतिक शक्ति प्राप्त करने के लिये वयस्क मताधिकार का प्रयोग इसे भ्रष्ट करना होगा. आज राजनीति भ्रष्ट हो गयी है. हमें इससे अलग रहना होगा. हमारी आन्तरिक पवित्रता जितनी अधिक होगी, जनता पर हमारा उतना ही प्रभावी व सहज नियन्त्रण होगा.’’ (महात्मा गांधी)
  • ‘’मैं पूर्व एवं पश्चिम का अनुपम मिश्रण हूं; हर स्थान पर असहज, कहीं भी सहज शांत नहीं…. ‘’हिंसा यद्यपि स्वयं में एक बुराई है तथापि स्वभाव से अनैतिक नहीं समझी जा सकती है. हिंसा आधुनिक राज्य एवं सामाजिक व्यवस्था की जीवनी-शक्ति है.’’ (जवाहरलाल नेहरू: आत्मकथा) कुमारास्वामी के अनुसार, ‘’ये शब्द किसी स्वतन्त्र व्यक्ति के नहीं है जिसे कि सदैव गांधी जी के होते हैं, वरन वे आत्मा की अस्वस्थता के परिचायक हैं.’’
  • ‘’मैं समझता हूं कि गांधी जी ने साधनों की पवित्रता पर बल देकर मानवता की महान सेवा की है. किन्तु फिर भी मैं यह दृढ़ता से अनुभव करता हूं कि अन्तिम दृष्टि सदैव साध्यों एवं लक्ष्यों पर ही होनी चाहिये’’ (जवाहरलाल नेहरू)
  • ‘’मेरे पिता एक सन्त थे जो भूल से राजनीति में आ गये. मैं एक विशुद्ध राजनीतिज्ञ हूं.’’ (इन्दिरा गांधी)

Nehru Gandhi

विभिन्न महानुभावों (जिन्होंने समकालीन भारतीय इतिहास को आकार प्रदान किया) के उपरोक्त कथन ‘राजनीतिक संस्कृति’ एवं ‘राजनीति की संस्कृति’ के अध्ययन की सर्वोत्तम भूमिका हैं. वे आधुनिक भारत में राजनीतिक कृत्यों की नैतिक एवं बौद्धिक प्रवृत्तियों में हुये क्रान्तिकारी परिवर्तनों का सटीक व सजीव वर्णन करते हैं. पूर्णता एवं मुक्त बौद्धिकता से परिपूर्ण टैगोर के स्वतन्त्रता की अवधारणा की दृष्टि से गांधी जी की ‘सर्वोत्तम राजनीति’ की खोज तक (जो शाश्वत एवं सत्य तथा न्याय व नैतिकता के मौलिक सिद्धान्तों पर आधारित है और जिसके बिना राजनीति एक दानवी कृत्य बन जाती है) फिर जवाहरलाल नेहरू की व्यावहारिक वास्तविकता (जो इपीक्यूरियन वैयक्तिक नैतिकता के साथ-साथ धर्मनिरपेक्ष, वैज्ञानिक, समाज कल्याणवाद का समिश्रण है तथा जहां व्यवहार सिद्धान्त से अधिक प्रभावी है तथा, जहां अन्ततोगत्वा जनता का सुख, चाहे वह किसी भी साधन द्वारा सिद्ध हो, समस्त राजनीतिक कृत्यों को न्यायिक बनाता है) से इन्दिरा गांधी के अति-मैकियावेलीवादी तथा अ-नैतिकतावादी उपागम तक (जिसमें सफलता स्वयं ही अपना औचित्य सिद्ध करती है एवं शक्ति ही राजनीति का अन्तिम प्रमाण हो जाती है) ये परिवर्तन स्पष्ट दिखाई देते हैं. गांधीवादी (अर्थात् परम्परागत भारतीय राजनीतिक संस्कृति) एवं उत्तर-गांधीवादी राजनीतिक संस्कृतियों के मध्य की विभाजक रेखा इतनी स्पष्ट नहीं है. वास्तव में यह राजनीतिक संस्कृति एवं शुद्ध (शक्ति) राजनीति की संस्कृति के भेद से सम्बन्धित है. फिर भी यह हमारे सार्वजनिक जीवन का आश्चर्यजनक विरोधाभास है कि जहां गांधीवाद को हमारे राजनीतिक अभिजनों द्वारा सैद्धान्तिक एवं व्यावहारिक दोनों रूपों में अस्वीकार कर दिया गया है, वहीं भारतीय राजनीति के पथ-प्रदर्शक सिद्धान्तों के रूप में इसे सदैव मान्यता दी गई है.

भारत में दो प्रकार की राजनीतिक संस्कृतियां – अभिजन संस्कृति एवं सर्वसाधारण संस्कृति – के मध्य भेद किया जाता रहा है. हम सैद्धान्तिक तथा व्यावहारिक राजनीतिक संस्कृतियों, ‘वैरागी’ एवं ‘अभिलाषी संस्कृतियों’ के मध्य अधिक उपयुक्त भेद कर सकते हैं. सैद्धान्तिक और वैरागी संस्कृति भारतीय परम्परा की आधारशिला है, और वह भारतीय दर्शन, साहित्य, कला, पुराणों प्रतीकों तथा शास्त्रों में व्यक्त होती है. व्यावहारिक व अभिलाषी संस्कृति पाश्चात्य बौद्धिकतावाद, धर्मनिरपेक्षता, विज्ञानवाद तथा व्यक्तिवाद से उपजी है. भारतीय सैद्धान्तिक संस्कृति राजनीति को शाश्वत एवं सार्वभौमिक सत्य के सन्दर्भ में देखती है. इसकी राजनीतिक संस्कृति इसकी सम्पूर्ण परम्परा का एक पक्ष है, मनुष्य के सम्पूर्ण बौद्धिक एवं आध्यात्मिक अभिमुखीकरणों का एक पक्ष है जो राजनीति से परे है. लेकिन दूसरी अर्थात् व्यावहारिक संस्कृति, संस्कृति को राजनीति के उत्पाद के रूप में देखती है. एक सार्वभौमिक स्रोत बन जाती है. वह स्वयं की एक संस्कृति, चरित्र व शैली प्राप्त कर लेती है. लेकिन फिर यह वास्तविक राजनीतिक संस्कृति नहीं रह पाती (जो समाज के व्यापक संस्कृति का मूल तत्व होता है तथा जिसे कला, साहित्य, मिथकों, प्रतीकों, ऐतिहासिक अनुभवों तथा दार्शनिक दृष्टिकोणों में व्यक्त किया जाता है).

उपरोक्त विचार राजनीतिक संस्कृति के अध्ययन में कुछ अवधारणात्मक एवं विधिमूलक मुद्दों को प्रस्तुत करते हैं. जैसा कि सर्वविदित है, राजनीतिक संस्कृति उपागम समकालीन राजनीतिक विश्लेषण में राजनीतिक व्यवस्थाओं को समझने का महत्वपूर्ण साधन बन गया है. किन्तु इसकी व्याख्या करने वालों ने इसे प्राय: संकीर्ण वस्तुपरक एवं मनोवैज्ञानिक अर्थों में प्रयुक्त किया है जिससे उनकी व्याख्याओं के वर्गीकरण एवं प्रकार एक सर्व-स्वीकृत रूपरेखा में परम्परागत तथा आधुनिक राजनीति को समझने में अपर्याप्त हैं. ल्यूसियन पाई कहते हैं ‘’राजनीतिक संस्कृति व्यवहारों, विश्वासों एवं मनोभावों का ऐसा समुच्चय है जो राजनीतिक क्रिया को व्यवस्था एवं अर्थ प्रदान करती है तथा उन निर्दिष्ट विश्वासों एवं नियमों को उपलब्ध कराती है जो  राजनीतिक व्यवस्था में व्यवहार को नियन्त्रित करती है. यह एक राजनीतिक व्यवस्था के राजनीतिक आदर्शों तथा कार्यात्मक सिद्धान्तों को जोड़ती है. राजनीतिक संस्कृति राजनीति के ‘मनोवैज्ञानिक’ तथा ‘वस्तुपरक’ पक्षों की एकीकृत अभिव्यक्ति है. एक राजनीतिक संस्कृति राजनीतिक व्यवस्था के सामूहिक इतिहास तथा साथ ही उस व्यवस्था के सदस्यों के जीवन इतिहासों का उत्पाद है एवं इस प्रकार यह लोक-घटनाओं तथा निजी अनुभवों में समानता से गहन रूप में सम्बन्धित है.’’

सिडनी वर्बा के अनुसार, ‘’राजनीतिक संस्कृति में आनुभाविक विश्वासों, अभिव्यक्त प्रतीकों व मूल्यों की व्यवस्था समाहित है जो उन स्थितियों को परिभाषित करती है जिसमें राजनीतिक क्रियायें सम्पादित होती हैं.’’ इस प्रकार राजनीतिक संस्कृति में ‘’सामान्य सहभागी लक्ष्यों एवं सर्व-स्वीकृत नियमों का समावेश होता है.’’ ये समस्त परिभाषाएं आमण्ड के कथन पर आधारित हैं कि ‘’प्रत्येक राजनीतिक व्यवस्था राजनीतिक क्रियाओं के विशेष प्रकार के अभिमुखीकरण पर आधारित होती है.’’ अभिमुखीकरण को ज्ञानपरक, प्रभावपरक तथा मूल्यांकनपरक प्रकारों में वर्गीकृत किया जा सकता है. किन्तु इन समस्त परिभाषाओं में राजनीतिक संस्कृति को सर्वग्राह्य व सर्व-व्यापक सिद्धान्तों तथा नियमों, ज्ञानमूलक तथा सर्वमान्य तार्किकता के मानकों (जो कि सम्पूर्ण अर्थों में संस्कृति का निर्माण करते हैं) से सम्बन्द्ध नहीं किया गया है. आमण्ड ने ‘राजनीतिक संस्कृति की स्वायत्तता पर बल दिया है. सिडनी वर्बा भी स्वीकार करते हैं कि ‘’राजनीतिक संस्कृति सामान्य संस्कृति का ही एक अभिन्न स्वरूप है, पर दोनों अलग हैं.’’ यही हमारा भी मत है जब हम ‘राजनीतिक संस्कृति’ तथा ‘राजनीति की संस्कृति’ में भेद करते हैं. वर्तमान समय में भारत में परम्पराओं पर आधारित ‘राजनीतिक संस्कृति’ एवम् ‘राजनीति की संस्कृति’ में भेद है.

ल्यूसियन पाई का मत है कि ‘’राजनीतिक संस्कृति राजनीति क्षेत्र को उसी प्रकार संरचना एवं अर्थ प्रदान करती है जिस प्रकार सामान्य संस्कृति सामाजिक जीवन को दृढ़ता एवं एकता प्रदान करती है.’’ यह दुर्भाग्य की बात है कि भारत में राजनीति ने सांस्कृतिक व राजनीतिक-सांस्कृतिक रेखांकनों का निर्धारण शुरू कर दिया है.

अब प्रश्न यह है कि संस्कृति को किस प्रकार परिभाषित किया जाये. यह सिद्धान्त अत्यन्त व्यापक एवं भ्रमात्मक है. रेमण्ड विलियम्स ने इसकी चार अर्थों में व्याख्या की है – (1) मन की सामान्य स्थिति जो मनुष्य की पूर्णता के विचार से घनिष्ठता से सम्बन्धित होती है; (2) सम्पूर्ण समाज में बौद्धिक विकास की एक सामान्य स्थिति; (3) विभिन्न कलाओं का सामान्य समूह; (4) जीवन की सम्पूर्ण पद्धति (भौतिक, बौद्धिक एवं अध्यात्मिक)

इस प्रकार, यह कहा जा सकता है कि संस्कृति जीवन की अन्तरंग विचार-शक्ति है. यह मनुष्य के सम्पूर्ण जीवन को अर्थ, दृढ़ता एवं समझ प्रदान करती है. मनुष्य की विभिन्न गतिविधियों एवं भूमिकायें, विचार एवं क्रियायें, स्वयं समाज, सामाजिक व राजनीतिक संस्थाओं के प्रति चेतना, प्रकृति के प्रति उसका दृष्टिकोण तथा प्रकृति के साथ उसके सम्बन्ध, उसकी विचारधारा तथा इस सम्पूर्ण व्यवस्थित व नियमबद्ध संसार में उसका स्थान ये समस्त उस परिवेश का सृजन करते हैं जिसके अन्तर्गत-मनुष्य अपनी अभिव्यक्ति करता है तथा अपनी अपार क्षमताओं को वास्तविक बनाता है. राजनीति मनुष्य की आत्माभिव्यक्ति तथा आत्म-पूर्णता का सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण साधन है और इसीलिये राजनीतिक संस्कृति सामान्य संस्कृति का एक भाग है. राजनीति मात्र ‘’कौन, क्या, कब और कैसे प्राप्त करता है’’  तक सीमित नहीं होती, अपितु यह ‘’सूचनाओं की खोज’’ है, जो मनुष्य को विचारों तथा कर्मों के ऐहिक एवं सीमित धरातल पर अपने शाश्वत एवं अपरिमित आत्म को खोलने तथा विकसित और पल्लवित करने का सन्देश देती है.

संस्कृति की अवधारणा के सम्बन्ध में आदर्शवादी तत्व की व्याख्या करते हुये शूऑन कहते हैं कि ‘’मनुष्य को सम्पूर्णता से अलग कर मात्र सामूहिकता से सम्बद्ध करना उसे मनुष्य के रूप में अधिकार से विलग करना है…पूर्णता की क्षमता मानवीय विवेक एवं ज्ञान की एकमात्र ऐसी विशिष्टता है जो जानवरों की तुलना में मनुष्य की प्रधानता का प्रतिपादन करती है; परम्परा मनुष्य की वास्तविक श्रेष्ठता का प्रतिपादन करती है. सकारात्मक अर्थ में परम्परा स्वयं ही एक ‘’मानवतावाद है.’’ परम्परा विरोधी संस्कृति पूर्णत्व व सत्य से विलग होने के कारण मनुष्य को वे मूल्य व अधिकार नहीं प्रदान कर सकती है जिसकी आधुनिक मानवतावादी कल्पना करते हैं.

भारत में राजनीतिक संस्कृति की प्रकृति को समझने के लिये संस्कृति के उपरोक्त भाव को ध्यान में रखना आवश्यक है. अरविन्द घोष के अनुसार ‘’भारतीय राजनीति की वास्तविक प्रकृति तभी समझी जा सकती है यदि हम इसे जनता के जीवन तथा मन से पृथक एक स्वतन्त्र यन्त्र के रूप में न देखें अपितु इसे सामाजिक जीवन की अभिन्न एवम् जैविक तत्व रूप में देखें. सामाजिक जीवन को जैविक पूर्णता के धर्म के रूप में परिभाषित किया जाता है जो ‘’प्रत्येक स्तर पर प्राणियों की वास्तविक प्रकृति से तादाम्य स्थापित करती है. धर्म ‘सद्भाव का नियम है ‘’जो एक सथ लौकिक तथा मानवीय व्यवस्थाओं को नियन्त्रित करता है.’’

धर्मशास्त्रीय ग्रन्थों में सामाजिक एवं राजनीतिक स्तर पर सार्वभौमिक अथवा लौकि कानूनों के निर्माण को व्यक्त करने का प्रयास किया गया है. मनु आदि की कृतियों को स्मृतियों की संज्ञा प्रदान की जाती है; उन्हं मात्र वैयक्तिक लेखक नहीं समझा जाना चाहिये, अपितु वे उस परम्परा के प्रतीक हैं जो सामाजिक एवं ऐतिहासिक संकटों के समय शाश्वत एवं सार्वभौमिक सिद्धान्तों को व्यक्त करते हैं. निस्सन्देह यह स्पष्ट है कि अर्थ (आर्थिक एवं राजनीतिक) सदैव धर्म (पारलौकिक नियमों) के सिद्धान्तों के अधीन रहा है. जो विचारक भारतीय राजनीतिक चिन्तन में दो परम्पराओं-धर्मशास्त्रों तथा अर्थशास्त्र की चर्चा करते हैं वे भारतीय संस्कृति की आत्मा को नहीं समझते हैं तथा ‘परम्परा’ शब्द की त्रुटिपूर्ण व्याख्या करते हैं. वे कौटिल्य के ‘अर्थशास्त्र’ की मैकियावेलीवाद से तुलना करने के प्रचलन द्वारा पथ भ्रष्ट हो गये हैं. वे भूल गये हैं कि कौटिल्य के अनुसार ‘’इस शास्त्र का सम्पूर्ण सार यह है कि ‘विचारों एवं क्रियाओं की शक्ति’ पर विजय पायी जाये. ‘अर्थशास्त्र’ एवं ‘धर्मशास्त्र’ को अलग मानने वाले ‘परम्परा की आन्तरिक एकता’ और अर्थ व धर्म के पदसोपानीय सम्बन्धों की उपेक्षा करते हैं. अर्थशास्त्र एवं धर्म शास्त्रीय परम्परा को अलग-अलग देखने के कारण भारतीय राजनीतिक संस्कृति के विद्यार्थी दो त्रुटियां करते हैं : प्रथम, कुछ ने मान लिया कि आध्यात्मिक अभिरुचियों के कारण भारत ने ‘शासन की कला’ तथा ‘सामाजिक संगठन’ के क्षेत्र में कोई योगदान नहीं दिया, तथा यही कारण था कि धर्म एवं दर्शन के क्षेत्र में अपनी महान् उपलब्धियों के बावजूद भारत राजनीति एवं सक्रिय जीवन में असफल रहा जिसके परिणामस्वरूप वह विदेशी आक्रान्ताओं द्वारा पराजित एवं शोषित किया जाता रहा. द्वितीय, कुछ ने मान लिया कि भारत में राजनीति सदैव शक्ति एवं स्वार्थी की एक क्रूर प्रवृत्ति रही है, तथा सत्य एवं अहिंसा पर आधारित गांधीवाद ‘’राजनीति की प्राचीन नैतिकता-निरपेक्ष विचारधारा’’ के विरुद्ध विद्रोह है.

पर अरविन्द घोष के अनुसार भारतीय राजनीतिक व्यवस्था (जो विभिन्न साम्राज्यों एवं राजवंशों से भिन्न थी) ने अपना स्थायित्व बनाये रखा और अपनी परम्परा से गहराई से सम्बन्द्ध रही. छठीं शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व से लगभग एक हज़ार वर्ष हर्षवर्धन तक समस्त राजनीतिक उलट-फेरों के बावजूद भारतीय राजनीतिक व्यवस्था हमारी संस्कृति एवं सभ्यता को निरन्तर दृढ़ संरचनात्मक आधार प्रधान करती रही. मुस्लिम-शासन में भी इसने अपनी शक्ति, एकीकरण, समायोजन एवं समन्वयन की क्षमता को बनाये रखा. जहां यूनान के साम्राज्य नष्ट हो गये, वहीं भारतीय व्यवस्था ने अपनी पारम्परिक संस्कृति को बनाये रखा तथा साहित्य, कला एवं दर्शन के क्षेत्र में खूब विकास किया. यह सत्य है कि भारत में सर्वप्रथम एवं सर्वोच्च रूप में सांस्कृतिक एवं अध्यात्मिक एकता व्याप्त है न कि केन्द्रीकृत सैन्य साम्राज्य की एकता. यदि ऐसा प्रयास होता तो भी संभवत: कोई लाभ नहीं मिलता. यह इसी अध्यात्मिक एकता का परिणाम है कि अपनी तमाम विविधताओं के बावजूद भी भारत का अस्तित्व बना हुआ है.

कुछ आधुनिक विचारकों द्वारा इस तथ्य को सरलता से स्वीकार कर लिया गया है कि अनेक राजनीतिक उतार-चढ़ावों एवं परिवर्तनों के मध्य भारतीय समाज एवं संस्कृति के स्थायित्व तथा निरन्तरता का कारण जीवन के विभिन्न पक्षों से राजनीति का पृथक्करण या ‘’भारतीय सभ्यता के आध्यात्मिक एवं लौकिक तत्वों के मध्य अलगाव” रहा है. वे नहीं समझते कि न तौ सैद्धान्तिक रूप से न ही व्यावहारिक रूप से राजनीति कभी भारतीय संस्कृति का स्वतन्त्र कारक या तत्व रही है. यहां तक कि सामुदायिक जीवन के आर्थिक तथा राजनीतिक क्षेत्र वास्तव में ‘धर्म’ के ही अंग रहे हैं और समाज के पन्थों, नैतिकता तथा उच्च सांस्कृतिक आदर्शों से सम्बन्द्ध रहे हैं.

इस प्रकार यदि भारत की संस्कृति अपने राजनीतिक उलट-फेरों के बावजूद जीवित रही तो इसका कारण राजनीति का संस्कृति से अलगाव नहीं है. भारतीय संरचना जनमानस की चेतना में गहराई तक पैठा है, और इसकी संरचना में कोई भी परिवर्तन इसकी आधारभूत आत्म व स्वाभाविक विशिष्टता या प्रकृति को आसानी से प्रभावित नहीं कर सकता.

भारतीय राजनीतिक चिन्तन न तो मात्र काल्पनिक था न ही विचारधारापरक, अपितु वास्तविक एवं ऐहिक जगत से सम्बन्धित था. अत: यह न तो क्रान्तिकारी था न ही प्रतिक्रियावादी. इसने किसी सिद्धान्त की रचना का जानबूझकर कोई प्रयास नहीं किया, न ही किसी विशिष्ट शासन काल को न्यायोचित सिद्ध करने का प्रयास किया क्योंकि यह आश्वस्त था कि राजनीतिक क्रम ऐहिक क्रम की ही एक अभिव्यक्ति थी. सन्देह तब प्रारम्भ हुये जब पाश्चात्य सभ्यता के प्रभाव ने पारम्परिक मूल्यों के स्थान पर बौद्धिक-व्यक्तिवाद, धर्मनिरपेक्षता तथा वैज्ञानिक-प्रगति के लिए मार्ग प्रशस्त किया. टैगोर, अरविन्द और गांधी प्रत्येक ने अपने तरीके से आधुनिक भारत को अध्यात्मिक रूप से पुनर्जीवित करने का प्रयत्न किया किन्तु नेहरू ने भारत को आधुनिक काल्पनिक प्रगति तथा समृद्धि का प्रलोभन दिया एवं इस प्रकार टैगोर व गांधी जी के स्वतन्त्र भारत के स्वप्न को पश्चिम के सांस्कृतिक-उपग्रह में परिवर्तित कर दिया. अपनी आत्मकथा में नेहरू ने गांधी के अहिंसा व साधनों की शुद्धता के स्थान पर हिंसा व साध्य को औचित्यपूर्ण ठहराया है. गांधी और नेहरू भारतीय परिप्रेक्ष्य में परम्परा व आधुनिकता को व्यक्त करते हैं; वे विश्व को देखने के सही और गलत दृष्टि के प्रतिमान हैं.

राजनीतिक संस्कृति एवं विचारधारा के दृष्टिकोण से आधुनिक भारत में राजा राममोहन राय के बाद ऐसा कोई परिवर्तन दिखाई नहीं देता जो इतना अधिक मौलिक हो जितना गांधीवादी परम्परागत दृष्टिकोण से नेहरू के आधुनिक, धर्मनिरपेक्ष, मानवीय व वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिकोण में दिखाई देता है. भारतीय इतिहास में पहली बार सामाजिक-राजनीतिक व्यवस्था का आधार परम्परा व पाश्चात्य मूल्यों के समन्वय में खोजा गया. हमने तकनीकी विकास तथा आर्थिक प्रगति के आधारभूत मूल्यों को उनकी बुराइयों एवं विरोधाभासी परिणामों की अनदेखी कर आत्मसात करना प्रारम्भ किया. नेहरू की मान्यता कि, ‘साधनों की अपेक्षा साध्य अधिक महत्वपूर्ण है’ के कारण नैतिक अवधारणाओं का स्थान गौण हो गया और धीरे-धीरे इसका अन्त हो गया. एक बार संसद में भारतीय राजनीतिक व्यवस्था में भ्रष्टाचार के प्रश्न के उत्तर में नेहरू ने कहा कि भ्रष्टाचार किसी भी विकासशील अर्थव्यवस्था में अपरिहार्य है, अत: जब विकास हमारा स्पष्ट लक्ष्य है, तो हमें भ्रष्टाचार को राष्ट्रीय प्रगति के स्वाभाविक परिणाम के रूप में स्वीकार करना चाहिये. कांग्रेस की संस्कृति, जो भारतीय राजनीतिक संस्कृति की प्रभावी संस्कृति है, इस दृष्टिकोण का ठोस रूप है.

शक्ति संरचना में जो उच्च पदों पर आसीन हैं वे न केवल भ्रष्टाचार सहन करते हैं अपितु उसे प्रोत्साहित भी करते हैं. यहां तक कि निर्णय-निर्माता तथा शासक भी भ्रष्ट व्यवहार में लिप्त रहते हैं ताकि इस गला-काट प्रतियोगिता के खेल में जीवित रह सकें. इस प्रकार भ्रष्टाचार एक क्रूर आवश्यकता एवं पूर्ण राजनीतिक नियोजक हो जाता है. हिंसा एवं भ्रष्टाचार परस्पर सहयोगी होते हैं, दोनों ही अनौचित्यपूर्ण व्यवहार के रूप हैं. जिस समय में ‘भ्रष्टाचार की अति क्षमता निहित होती है उसमें हिंसा की भी उतनी ही तीव्र क्षमता समाहित होती है’ (हंटिंग्टन). भ्रष्टाचार हिंसा को जन्म देता है तथा हिंसा मानवीय संगठन के लिये अपरिहार्य शक्ति एवं सत्ता की संरचना का विनाश कर देती है. देश के विभिन्न भागों में साम्प्रदायिक घृणा, जातीय संघर्ष तथा भाषायी व क्षेत्रीय उग्रवाद की भावना ने न केवल सरकार के सम्मान व सत्ता को छिन्न-भिन्न किया है अपितु सभ्य जीवन के प्रत्येक स्वरूप को ही नष्ट कर दिया है.

समकालीन भारत में राजनीति परम्परागत संस्कृति से सर्वथा अलग हो गयी है. यह पूर्णतया अ-सांस्कृतिक तथा मूल्य रहित हो गयी है. एक ‘संस्कृति-उन्मुख राजनीति’ के स्थान पर एक ‘राजनीति-उन्मुख संस्कृति’ को हमने स्वीकार किया है. वैयक्तिक हितों के अनुरूप कानून एवं नियमों को तोड़-मरोड़ लिया जाता है तथा जब कभी न्यायालयों द्वारा उच्च पदों पर आसीन व्यक्तियों की भ्रष्ट कार्यों में लिप्तता सिद्ध की जाती है तो इसकी प्रतिक्रिया संविधान में संशोधन के रूप में होती है. ऐसा प्रतीत होता है कि विधि के शासन का स्थान व्यक्तियों के शासन ने ले लिया है. फलस्वरूप, स्वतन्त्र भारत में राजनीतिक व्यवसाय में जिस नवीन वर्ग का उद्भव हुआ है उन्हें ‘नेता’ की संज्ञा प्रदान की जा सकती है. वे ऐसे राजनीतिज्ञ हैं जिनकी अपनी स्वयं की शैली है, वे दल में उच्च सम्पर्क वाले जन होने का दावा करते हैं तथा शासक-दल व सामान्य जनता के बीच मध्यस्थ की भूमिका का निर्वाह करते हैं. नौकरशाही को प्रलोभन देकर वे अपने ग्राहकों को लाभान्वित करते हैं तथा इस कार्य के प्रतिफल में उन्हें अपने ग्राहकों से विशाल धनराशि प्राप्त होती है. यह ‘नेता संस्कृति’ इतनी अधिक व्यापक एवं दृढ़ हो गयी है कि युवा एवं अयोग्य व्यक्ति इस अंगीकृत करने के लिए आतुर हैं ताकि वे समाज में सम्मान प्राप्त कर सकें. किन्तु नेता एक विशेष प्रकार की प्रजाति है  जो राजनीति के लिए नहीं वरन् राजनीति से परे क्रियाशील रहते हैं. न तो वे उत्तरदायी व्यक्ति हैं, न ही उनके पास कोई सदलक्ष्य है. वे सदैव विरोध, प्रदर्श, घेराव, धरना इत्यादि में अति-लिप्त रहते हैं.

आधुनिक समाज में हम व्यावसायिक राजनेताओं की अपरिहार्यता को नकार नहीं सकते. स्वतन्त्रता से पहले भारत में महात्मा गांधी, राजगोपालाचारी, जवाहरलाल नेहरू, राजेन्द्र प्रसाद, मदन मोहन मालवीय, मौलाना अबुल कलाम आज़ाद सरीखे व्यक्तियों ने अपने व्यवसायों को त्याग कर स्वयं को राजनीति के प्रति समर्पित कर दिया था. तथापि उन्होंने राजनीति को अपनी जीविका का साधन नहीं बनाया; स्वतन्त्र साधनों के माध्यम से राजनीति के प्रति सम्मानपूर्ण व्यवहार किया. राजनीति उनके लिए पवित्र साध्य, लक्ष्य एवं जाग्रति थी. वर्तमान समय में राजनीति एक लाभकारी व्यवसाय मात्र बन गयी है. राजनेता केवल शक्ति प्राप्त करना चाहते हैं. परिणामस्वरूप, प्रशासनिक अकुशलता, नैतिक उदासीनता, भ्रष्टाचार, सामाजिक एवं साम्प्रदायिक संघर्ष, सिद्धान्तहीनता की उभरती हुयी तस्वीर समाज के समक्ष उपस्थित है. क्या इसे राजनीतिक विकास अथवा राजनीतिक अवनति, राजनीतिक संस्कृति अथवा राजनीतिक विकृति कहा जाये?

राजनीतिक संस्कृति के पाश्चात्य सिद्धान्तवेत्ता प्राय: मूल्यविहीन दृष्टिकोण से तथ्यों का अवलोकन करते हैं तथा इसके मूल्यपरक एवं आदर्शवादी क्षेत्रों को नकारते हैं. उनके अनुसार राजनीतिक विकास का अर्थ सहभागिता, प्रकार्यात्मक विभेदीकरण, क्षमता, समानता एवं जनसामाजीकरण है. वे राजनीतिक संस्कृति को विश्वासों एवं व्यवहारों का एक नमूना तथा राजनीतिक क्रियाओं- के सामूहिक अभिमुखीकारण के रूप में देखते हैं. प्रश्न यह है कि क्या राजनीतिक संस्कृति भारत में प्रजातन्त्र के लिये प्रगतिकारक है? निस्सन्देह भारत आधुनिकीकरण, जनगतिशीलता तथा सहभागिता के पथ पर अग्रसर है. तथापि यदि हटिंग्टन के सुप्रसिद्ध निबन्ध ‘क्लैश ऑफ सिविलाइजेशन्स’ को स्वीकार किया जाये तो वह राजनीतिक व्यवस्था पर एक भारी भरकम अपेक्षा आरोपित करता है तथा सामाजिक संघर्षों, विचारधारात्मक अलगावों, जन भावनाओं की उत्तेजना, खण्डित बहुलवाद, संस्थात्मक संरचना का अस्थायीकरण तथा क्रियाओं के जनसहमत नमूने के ह्रास की ओर उन्मुख करता है जहां शक्ति (धन एवं बल) की प्रधानता होगी.

भारतीय राजनीति के कुछ विदेशी विचारकों ने भारत के सम्बन्ध में हंटिग्टन के निबन्ध की स्वीकार्यता पर प्रश्न चिन्ह लगाया है एवं यह दावा किया है कि राजनीतिकरण ने व्यवस्थाकी स्वीकृति में वृद्धि की है तथा फलस्वरूप ‘प्रजातान्त्रिक राजनीति का सांस्कृतिक संस्थानीकरण’ हुआ है. हमारी मान्यता इसके विपरीत है.

भारतीय राजनीति में आज सभ्यता में पतन तथा हन्ना आर्ण्ट के शब्दों में व्यक्तिगत क्षेत्र द्वारा जनता का आक्रमण हो रहा है. शासक येन-केन प्रकारेण शक्ति एवं सत्ता से जुड़े रहना चाहते हैं; विपक्ष भी विभक्त एवं सशंकित तथा अपनी पहचान की स्थापना के लिये संघर्षरत है. राजनीतिक दलों की न तो अपनी कोई विशिष्ट विचारधारा है, न ही कोई कार्यक्रमपरक पहचान. उनका एकमात्र उद्देश्य शक्ति पर अपना प्रभाव स्थापित करना होता है. वे असैद्धान्तिक अल्पकालिक गठबन्धनों का निर्माण करते हैं तथा जैसे ही उनके हितों में टकराव उत्पन्न होत है, परस्पर पृथक हो जाते हैं. जहां तक संविधान की बात है, सत्ता पक्ष द्वारा उसे अपनी सुविधानुसार परिवर्तित एवं संशोधित कर लिया जाता है. क्षेत्रीयतावाद, साम्प्रदायिकतावाद तथा जातिवाद ने राष्ट्र की अखण्डता को बाधित एवं पतित किया है. संचार माध्यमों का प्रयोग वास्तविक तथ्यों से परिचित कराने के लिये नहीं वरन् जनता को मूर्ख बनाने के लिये किया जाता है. तथाकथित अकादमिक संस्थाओं एवं पाठ्यक्रमों को शिक्षा तथा बौद्धिक प्रबोधन के लिये नहीं वरन् प्रचार तथा विचारधारात्मक असमाजीकरण के लिये प्रयुक्त किया जाता है. इतिहास का अध्यापन सत्य को प्रस्तुत करने के लिये नहीं किया जाता अपितु स्व-विज्ञापन के लिये किया जाता है तथा अपने भविष्य को सुनिश्चित करने के लिये हम भूतकाल को विकृत कर देते हैं. एक राष्ट्र व्यक्तिगत हितों का मात्र एक गणितीय प्रश्न नहीं होता है अपितु यह एक जैविक संगठन तथा सहभागी अर्थों व मूल्यों का संसार है.

मैं समकालीन समस्याओं से सम्बन्धित साइमन वील के विचारों से अपने देशवासियों को परिचित कराना चाहता हूं, “एक महान सभ्यता के रूप  में चार बाधायें हमें पृथक करती हैं : महानता की हमारी भ्रमात्मक अवधारणा; न्याय की भावना का पतन; धन की आराधना, तथा, हमारी धार्मिक प्रेरणाओं का अभाव.” साइमन वील का विचार था कि यह अत्यन्त सन्देहास्पद है कि “इस विश्व में एक भी ऐसा मानव हो जो उपरोक्त चारों अवगुणों से मुक्त हो.” सम्भवत: वह पूर्णतया सत्य है. तथापि यदि अत्यन्त दयनीय स्थिति है कि ऐसे समय में जब आधुनिक पाश्चात्य सभ्यता दिव्य-प्रकाश और चेतना के पुनर्जागरण के लिये भारत की महान् एवं प्राचीन सभ्यता की ओर देख रही है, हमने स्वयं को अथाह पाताल में डूबने के लिये पश्चिम की ओर उन्मुख किया है.

प्रस्तुत लेख पुण्ताम्बेकर मेमोरियल लेक्चर, इंडियन पोलिटिकल साइन्स कान्फरेन्स, जोधपुर विश्वविद्यालय, जोधपुर, 1984 से साभार उदधृत. मूल लेक्चर ‘पोलिटकल कल्चर एण्ड कल्चर ऑफ पॉलिटिक्स इन इंडिया’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

392 comments

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