भारत में आर्थिक विकास की राजनीति

अतुल कोहली : 

[खण्ड-एक : 1980 का दशक]

पिछले 25 वर्षों में भारत के आर्थिक विकास में औसतन 6 प्रतिशत वार्षिक की वृद्धि हुई. स्वतन्त्रतापूर्व अर्थव्यवस्था में विकास न होना, और स्वतन्त्रता के बाद भी मात्र 3-4 प्रतिशत की वार्षिक दर से विकास होना इस विकास दर के महत्व को दर्शाता है. विश्व में सर्वाधिक तेज विकसित होने वाली भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था ने यह विकास एक प्रजातान्त्रिक ढांचे में प्राप्त किया है. ऐसा कैसे हो सका ? अन्य देश इससे क्या सीख ले सकतेहैं ?

जहां भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था की बदली प्रकृति और बदलता अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय परिदृष्य इसके कारण हो सकते हैं, वहीं ‘राज्य की बदलती भूमिका’ भी एक महत्वपूर्ण कारक है. क्या भारतीय राज्य द्वारा नवउदारवादी नीतियों को अपनाने के कारण भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में तेजी आई है; या राज्य द्वारा हस्तक्षेप के जटिल तरीकों को अपनाने से ऐसा हुआ है? बाज़ारवादी दृष्टिकोण के अनुसार 1991 से ही भारत द्वारा अपनाई गई आर्थिक उदारीकरण की नीतियों के कारण ऐस हुआ. इसमें घरेलू नियमों को उदार बनाने, आयात शुल्क घटाने, उचित विनिमय दर नीतियां बनाने तथा विदेशी निवेशकों को आमन्त्रित करने जैसे उपाय किये गये. लेकिन, इस दृष्टिकोण में कुछ कमजोर बिन्दु भी है. एक, नागराज, बिरमानी और सुब्रमणियम के अनुसार उदारीकरण के एक दशक पूर्व ही भारत में आर्थिक विकास तेज होने लगा था; क्यों ? दो, उदारीकरण के दौरान किये गये सुधारों से औद्योगिक उत्पादन में कोई तेजी नहीं आई, वरन् कुछ गिरावट ही हुई, क्यों ? तीन, क्यों उदारीकरण का प्रभाव सभी भारतीय राज्यों में एक समान नहीं दिखाई देता?

Indian Economy

भारत द्वारा वैश्विक अर्थव्यवस्था को सीमित ढंग से ही अपनाया गया है. अनेक विकासशील राज्यों के उदारीकरण के अनुभव मिश्रित रहे हैं. भारत के सन्दर्भ में दो बातें ध्यान रखना जरूरी है : प्रथम, 1980 के आसपास की मजबूत स्थिति, द्वितीय, बाज़ारवादी दृष्टिकोण के बजाय भारत में आर्थिक विकास की सफलता व असफलता में राज्य की भूमिका. मैं समझता हूं कि भारत में राज्य ने ‘बाज़ारवादी-नीति’ के स्थान पर ‘व्यापारवादी-नीति’ को अपनाया है जिसके अन्तर्गत 1980 से वामपंथ के प्रति झुकाव और पूंजीवाद-विरोध का परित्याग, आर्थिक विकास को प्रमुखता तथा भारतीय पूंजी को महत्व दिया गया. दक्षिण कोरिया और ब्राजील जैसे विकासशील देशों में भी औद्योगिक विकास इसीलिये तेज हुआ क्योंकि राज्य ने आर्थिक विकास के लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के लिये पूंजीपतियों के पक्ष में और मजदूरों के विरुद्ध जबर्दस्त हस्तक्षेप किया. 1950 से 1980 के मध्य विकास की गति इसलिये नहीं धीमी थी कि राज्य ने ‘बाज़ारवाद’ को स्वीकार नहीं किया, वरन इसलिये कि विकास के ‘राज्यवादी-मॉडल’ के अनुरूप राज्य का पर्याप्त हस्तक्षेप न था. 1980 के बाद विकास की गति में जो वृद्धि हुई उसका मूल कारण राज्य का ‘दक्षिणपंथ’ की ओर बढ़ता झुकाव था.

बाज़ारवाद बनाम् व्यापारवाद

विकास पर चर्चा करते समय सामान्यत: ‘बाज़ारवादी-सरकारों’ को ‘व्यापारवादी-सरकारों’ के समानार्थी के रूप में देखा जाता है. पर गहराई से देखें तो ‘विकास की राजनीति’ पर ये सरकारें अपनी नीतियों, उनके परिणामों के कारण व स्वरूप, तथा उनमें अन्तर्निहित राजनीति के सम्बन्ध में भिन्न नज़रिया रखती हैं.

‘बाज़ारवाद’ जहां नये उद्यमियों तथा ग्राहकों का समर्थन करता है, वहीं ‘व्यापारवाद’ स्थापित-उत्पादों का पक्षधर है. बाज़ारवाद संसाधनों के दक्ष आवंटन और प्रतिस्पर्धा से उत्पादन और विकास में वृद्धि की कल्पना करता है. इस परिकल्पना से 1980 व 1990 के दशकों में ‘वाशिंगटन-सहमति’ बनी. इसके द्वारा 1950 व 1960 के दशकों में विकास के लिए राज्य-हस्तक्षेप की आलोचना की गई, तथा यह सुझाव दिया गया कि यदि राज्य अपना आर्थिक हस्तक्षेप न्यूनतम कर दें और अपनी अर्थव्यवस्था को पूरे विश्व के लिए खोल दें तो उनका आर्थिक विकास बढ़ जायेगा. ऐसा न करने से उन्हें वित्तीय व व्यापार असन्तुलन का सामना करना पड़ेगा. अन्य सुझावों के अनुसार, राज्य को सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र का निजीकरण, सब्सिडी में कटौती, मूल्य निर्धारण में हस्तक्षेप, मुद्रा का अवमूल्यन तथा विदेशी पूंजी निवेशकों को आमन्त्रण देने जैसे कार्य करना चाहिये. उनका मानना था कि एक प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक, खुली और दक्ष अर्थव्यवस्था से अनेक सकारात्मक परिणाम आयेंगे. इससे बेहतर आर्थिक विकास दर, उच्च रोजगार अवसर, ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों की बेहतरी और क्षेत्रीय-असन्तुलन दूर करने जैसी उपलब्धियां हो सकेंगी. चूंकी बाज़ारवादी नीतियों को लागू करने में आर्थिक मन्दी व घरेलू राजनीतिक कठिनाइयां आ सकती हैं, अत: इस दृष्टिकोण के समर्थकों ने संक्रमणकाल में विकासशील देशों को ‘बाहरी समर्थन’ की पेशकश की.

जहां ‘बाज़ारवादी’ दृष्टिकोण ‘नवउदारवाद’ से प्रेरणा लेता है, वहीं ‘व्यापारवादी’ दृष्टिकोण कुछ पूर्वी एशियाई देशों की आर्थिक सफलता  से प्रेरणा लेता है. यह समझना जरूरी है कि आर्थिक वृद्धि राज्य के हस्तक्षेप की मात्रा पर नहीं, वरन् उसकी गुणवत्ता पर निर्भर है. इसके लिये राज्य व निजी क्षेत्र के समीकरण का बड़ा महत्व है. उनके उद्देश्य समान या परस्पर विरोधी हो सकते हैं. लेकिन जब राज्य की उच्च विकास दर के प्रति प्रतिबद्धता निजी क्षेत्र द्वारा अधिकतम लाभ कमाने की भावना से जुड़ जाती है, तब विकासशील देशों में बड़ी तेजी से औद्योगिक विकास होता है. इसमें दमन और लाभ का समन्वय कर सरकार राष्ट्र के नाम पर विकास प्राप्त करती है. पूर्वी एशिया के देशों जैसे दक्षिण कोरिया व ताइवान में ऐसा ही हुआ है.

इस ‘व्यापारवादी मॉडल’ में उच्च आर्थिक विकास के लिये राज्य आपूर्ति एवम् मांग दोनों ही आयामों को अपने हस्तक्षेप से नियन्त्रित करता है. यह हस्तक्षेप प्रत्यक्ष व परोक्ष दोनों ही प्रकार का हो सकता है. जैसे आपूर्ति के प्रति प्रत्यक्ष हस्तक्षेप के उदाहरण – पूंजी, श्रम, प्राविधि एवम् उद्यमियों की उपलब्धता सुनिश्चित कर तथा मुद्रास्फीति बढ़ा कर राज्य संसाधनों को निजी क्षेत्रों में हस्तान्तरित करने का प्रयास कर सकता है. अपनी दमनकारी नीतियों से राज्य सस्ते व अनुशासित मज़दूरों की उपलब्धता सुनिश्चित कर सकता है. अप्रत्यक्ष हस्तक्षेप के अन्तर्गत राज्य शोध में पूंजी निवेश कर प्रौद्योगिकी को बढ़ावा दे सकता है, या विदेशों से वार्ता कर प्रौद्योगिकी को बढ़ावा दे सकता है, या विदेशों से वार्ता कर प्रौद्योगिकी हस्तान्तरण का प्रयास कर सकता है. मांग के क्षेत्र में भी राज्य विस्तारवादी मौद्रिक एवम् वित्तीय नीतियां अपना कर तथा विनिमय दर के द्वारा घरेलू मांग को बढ़ा सकता है. और यदि घरेलू मांग ज्यादा न बढ़े तो निर्यात सुविधाएं बढ़ा कर राज्य घरेलू व विदेशी खपत को बढ़ा सकता है. अधिकतर विकासवादी राज्यों ने बाज़ारवादी नीतियों के स्थान पर व्यापारवादी नीति ही अपनाई.

भारतीय परिप्रेक्ष्य में क्या हुआ ? यहां बाज़ारवादी नीति अपनाई गई या व्यापारवादी ? 1950 से 1980 तक भारत के विकास का एक राज्यवादी, आयात-वैकल्पिक मॉडल रहा पर 1980 से आगे हमने पूर्वी एशियाई देशों के विकास मॉडल को आंशिक रूप से अपनाया. आंशिक इसलिये कि हम जापान या दक्षिण कोरिया की तरह दमनकारी नहीं हो सकते थे. हमने केवल आर्थिक विकास के प्रति अपनी प्राथमिकता तथा भारतीय पूंजी के प्रति अपने सकारात्मक दृष्टिकोण अपनाने में ही उनका अनुगमन किया है. अत:, मूलत एक ‘समाजवादी भारत’ व्यापारिक भारत (इंडिया – इनकारपोरेटेड) की ओर उन्मुख हुआ है जिसेस भारत की बढ़ती आर्थिक विकास दर को ‘व्यापारवादी-विकास मॉडल’ की आंशिक स्वीकृति के रूप में देखा जा सकता है.

1980 के दशक में आर्थिक विकास की राजनीति

देश में 1980 के आसपास से आर्थिक विकास में तेजी आई और वह परम्परागत ‘हिन्दू-विकास-दर’ (1950 से) का अवरोध तोड़ सकी. पर ऐसा हुआ कैसे ? वास्तव में ऐसा इसलिये हुआ क्योंकि निवेश की दर और उत्पादकता दोनों में वृद्धि हुई. निवेश की दर तो 1970 के उत्तरार्ध से ही बढ़ने लगी थी जो 1980 के आसपास काफी तेज हो गई. 1980 के दशक में सार्वजनिक व निजी दोनों क्षेत्रों में निवेश बढ़ा पर 1990 के दशक में केवल निजी निवेश में ही वृद्धि आई. उत्पादकता में भी इसी समय तेजी आई पर 1990 के दशक  में कुछ गिरावट भी दर्ज हुई. अत:, यह जानना जरूरी है कि किन राजनीतिक व नीतिगत परिस्थितियों से 1980 के आसपास पूंजी निवेश और उत्पादकता दोनों में वृद्धि हुई.

प्रथम कारण, भारत विकास के एक नये मॉडल की ओर उन्मुख हुआ. इंदिरा गांधी के समय से ही आर्थिक विकास हेतु ‘राज्य व व्यापार’ का गठबन्धन होना शुरू हो गया. इंदिरा गांधी की ‘गरीबी हटाओ’ की नीति के कारण इस गठबन्धन का संज्ञान न लिया जा सका. आपातकाल के बाद की इंदिरा गांधी में काफी बदलाव आ गया था; उन्होंने पुनर्वितरण से ज्यादा आर्थिक विकास पर बल दिया, बड़े उद्यमियों से गठबन्धन किया, मज़दूर विरोधी रवैया अपनाया, सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र के विकास पर विराम लगाया और योजना आयोग व आर्थिक नियोजन का महत्व घटाया. लोकतन्त्र की विवशताओं के कारण इस उजागर करना संभव न था, पर निश्चित ही उनका झुकाव वामपंथ से हटकर दक्षिणपंथ की ओर गया. इस झुकाव को पूंजीपतियों ने समझा और अर्थव्यवस्था में ज्यादा निवेश किया. जब 1980 में वे पुन: प्रधानमंत्री बनी तो उन्होंने स्पष्ट कर दिया कि उनकी पहली प्राथमिकता बेहतर उत्पादन और आर्थिक विकास है. इस परिवर्तन के पीछे यह मान्यता थी कि 1970 के दशक में विकास की गति धीमी रही, अत: उत्पादन बढ़ाना जरूरी है. सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र की दुर्दशा के कारण राज्य के उस दावे को खारिज कर दिया गया कि उसका अर्थव्यवस्था पर कोई नियन्त्रण है. अत: निजी क्षेत्र की ओर देखा जाना एक मजबूत संभावना बन कर उभरी. इंदिरा गांधी को इस बात का पता था कि 1980 तक ‘गरीबी हटाओ’ की हवा निकल चुकी थी, भूमि सुधारों में कठिनाई आ रही थी, समाजवाद निष्प्रभावी हो रहा था तथा विकास में अवरोध बन रहा था. इसके विपरीत, कृषि के क्षेत्र में राज्य द्वारा निजी उत्पादकों को समर्थन देने से 1960 के दशक में हरित-क्रान्ति हो गई थी. ऐसा महसूस किया जाने लगा कि बड़े उद्यमियों को भी राज्य का समर्थन देने से औद्योगिक विकास में तेजी आयेगी, मुद्रा स्फीति कम होगी जिससे अन्तत: गरीबों को ही लाभ पहुंचेगा.

विकास के इस नये मॉडल के तीन घटक थे : आर्थिक विकास राज्य का प्राथमिक लक्ष्य है- इस लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने हेतु बड़े उद्यमियों को समर्थन देना और इसके लिये मज़दूरों पर लगाम लगाना था. इस मॉडल को लागू करने के लिये जहां एक ओर इंदिरा गांधी ने कई शक्तिशाली समितियों का गठन किया (एल. के. झा समिति – आर्थिक प्रशासन का पुनर्गठन; आबिद हुसैन समिति – व्यापार समीक्षा; एम. नरसिम्हन समिति – वित्तीय सुधार), वहीं दूसरी ओर ‘विकास की प्राथमिकता’ हेतु कई  नीतिगत फैसले भी किये. इन सभी में एक महत्वपूर्ण बात यह थी कि भारत में विकास की धीमी गति के कारणों (जैसे व्यापार को सरकरी समर्थन न होना, श्रमिक सक्रियता, सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र में दक्षता की कमी, और आधारभूत संरचनाओं में सरकारी निवेश की कमी आदि) पर उद्यमियों और सरकार की एक सी सोच थी. दोनों का ही मानना था कि ‘वाशिंगटन-सहमति’ के विपरीत भारत में एक ‘सक्रिय-राज्य’ की जरूरत है जो ज्यादा निवेश करे, श्रमिकों पर लगाम लगाये, और पूंजी को ज्यादा समर्थन दे.

इंदिरा गांधी ने कई महत्वपूर्ण नीतिगत फैसले भी लिये. प्रथम, बड़े उद्यमियों पर नियन्त्रण में कमी कर उन्हें उन क्षेत्रों में प्रवेश दिया जो अभी तक सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र के लिये उपलब्ध थे. लाइसेंस में उदारता बरत कर उन्हें रसायन, औषधि, सीमेन्ट, ऊर्जा आदि क्षेत्रों में प्रवेश दिया. द्वितीय, उद्यमियों को विस्तार करने हेतु वांछित पूंजी के लिये न केवल बैंकों से उदार शर्तों पर ऋण की व्यवस्था की, वरन करों में राहत देना तथा कानूनों में परिवर्तन करके निजी क्षेत्र को सीधे जनता से संसाधन जुटाने की छूट भी दी. तृतीय, सरकारी उद्बोधनों में इंदिरा ने हड़ताल, घेराव, धीमी गति से काम करने तथा ‘नियमानुसार काम करने’ आदि का परित्याग कर श्रमिकों को उद्यमियों से सहयोग करने की अपील की. स्वयं सरकार ने अप्रत्यक्ष करों (एक्साइज़ व कस्टम) में वृद्धि कर तथा घरेलू व विदेशी स्रोतों से पूंजी जुटा कर सार्वजनिक निवेश को बढ़ाये रखा जिससे विकास में तेजी आई. इससे बजट पर वित्तीय दबाव जरूर बढ़ा, पर सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र में खर्च में कमी करके उत्पाद-कर तथा उन्हें मूल्य वृद्धि की इज़ाजत देकर सरकार ने उस दबाव से निज़ात पाने की कोशिश की. इसी क्रम में सब्सिडी में कटौती की गई तथा ‘काम के बदले अनाज योजना’ खत्म की गई.

इंदिरा गांधी के काल में बजट घाटा व सार्वजनिक ऋण का आकार तो बढ़ा पर राजीव-काल की तुलना में वह काफी कम था. 1981 में तेल की कीमतों में भारी वृद्धि तथा मशीनरी व प्रौद्योगिकी के आयात पर होने वाले खर्चे के लिये भारत ने अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष से 5 अरब डालर का ऋण लिया और उन्हें इस बात के लिये सन्तुष्ट कर दिया कि भारत के निजी क्षेत्रों के माध्यम से आर्थिक विकास को तेज करने के लिये सरकार को ज्यादा निवेश करने की जरूरत है.

उसी समय भारत ने विदेशी सामान व विदेशई निवेशकों के लिये अपने दरवाज़े खोल दिये. परिणामस्वरूप, सस्ते विदेशी सामान भारतीय बाज़ार में छाने लगे. इससे घबराकर भारतीय उद्यमियों ने सरकार से संरक्षण की गुहार लगाई. सरकार ने 1983-84 में पुन: आयात प्रतिबन्ध लगाये, और अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष के ऋण का पूरा प्रयोग किये बिना ही उस करार को समाप्त कर दिया. यह सब भारतीय उद्यमियों व व्यापारियों को स्थापित करने की रणनीति थी, न कि बाज़ारवादी नीति. यही नीति राजीव गांधी के समय व 1991 के बाद भी बनी रही.

राजीव गांधी के कार्यकाल में ‘आर्थिक राजनीति’ के तीन बिन्दुओं की ओर इंगित करना महत्वपूर्ण है. प्रथम, राजीव ने परम्परा से हटकर, समाजवाद का दिखावा बन्द कर सीधे-सीधे एक नये ‘उदारवाद’ की ओर बढ़ने का स्पष्ट संकेत दिया. उनके सलाहकार (एल. के. झा, मनमोहन सिंह, माण्टेक सिंह आहलूवालिया और आबिद हुसैन) वही थे जो इंदिरा काल में थे. इन सभी के दिमाग में वे आर्थिक सुधार भरे थे जो एक बदले राजनीतिक परिदृष्य में प्रकट हो गये. द्वितीय, सरकार की प्रथम प्रतिबद्धता ‘आर्थिक विकास’ की थी न कि ‘खुलेपन’ या ‘यद्-भाव्यम्’ के किसी सिद्धान्त के प्रति. इसीलिये सार्वजनिक निवेश में कोई कमी नहीं की गई, तथा प्रत्यक्ष करों को घटाकर उपभोक्ताओं को घरेलू सामान खरीदने का प्रोत्साहन दिया गया. तृतीय, पूरी नीति का उद्देश्य बड़े भारतीय उद्यमियों, व्यापारियों व निवेशकों के हित संरक्षण का था. इस सम्पूर्ण नवीन विकास मॉडल का सहारा लेकर निजी क्षेत्र ने राज्य के सहयोग से आर्थिक विकास के नये आयाम प्राप्त किये. इससे न केवल टाटा व बिड़ला जैसे स्थापित बड़े उद्यमियों को लाभ हुआ, वरन राजनीतिक रूप से प्रभावशाली रिलायन्स जैसे नये उद्यमियों को भी पनपने का मौका मिला.

यह तो समझ में आता है कि सरकार की ‘आर्थिक विकास की प्राथमिकता’ व उसके निजी क्षेत्र को भरपूर समर्थन से फर्क पड़ा, पर यह स्पष्ट नहीं कि उत्पादकता व दक्षता में भी क्यों सुधार हुआ ? शायद प्रौद्योगिकी, प्रबन्धन, उत्पादक-नेटवर्क तथा बड़े टैक्स आधार व कर्मिकों की प्रचुर उपलब्धता इसके लिये जिम्मेदार रही हो. घरेलू प्रतियोगिता में वृद्धि भी इसका कारण हो सकती है. कुल मिलाकर कह सकते हैं कि सरकारी नीतियों में बदलाव और निजी क्षेत्र की मजबूती व सक्रियता से न केवल पूंजी निवेश को बढ़ावा मिला, वनर् अर्थव्यवस्था में भी दक्षता आई. पर इससे कुछ समस्याएं भी आयीं. इन समस्याओं को दो भागों में बांट सकते हैं. – राजनीतिक और आर्थिक – राजनीतिक. राजनीतिक समस्या यह आई कि कांग्रेस व्यापारवादी नीतियों के चलते समाज के गरीब तबकों का समर्थन कैसे हासिल करे? आर्थिक-राजनीतिक समस्या यह थी कि अपने लोकतान्त्रिक-स्वरूप के कारण भारतीय राज्य पूर्वी-एशियाई देशों की भांति दमनकारी होकर पूरी तौर से उद्यमियों का हितैषी नहीं हो सकता था. वह न तो ज्यादा टैक्स ले सकता था और न ही सार्वजनिक खर्च में कोई गंभीर कटौती कर सकता था.

[खण्ड – 2 : 1990 के आगे]

1980 के दशक की आर्थिक राजनीति समझने के बाद दूसरी पहेली तब प्रकट होती है जब हम 1980 और 1990 के दशकों में औद्योगिक व उत्पादन क्षेत्रों की तुलना करते हैं. 1990 के दशक में आर्थिक सुधारों के हो-हल्ला के बावजूद उत्पादन क्षेत्र में कोई महत्वपूर्ण परिवर्तन नहीं हुआ है. वास्तविक परिवर्तन 1980 के आसपास ही दिखाई दिया. आर्थिक विकास के आंकड़ों को रोज़गार के आंकड़ों से मिलाकर देखने पर यह और भी साफ हो जाता है; 1980 व 1990 के दशकों में उत्पादन क्षेत्र में रोज़गार 12 प्रतिशत की दर पर ही रहा. अत: आर्थिक सुधारों से विकास और रोज़गार को न तो लाभ हुआ, न हानि. ऐसा क्यों ? दूसरी पहेली यह है कि आर्थिक सुधारों के बावजूद निवेश में क्यों स्थायित्व रहा (उसके स्वरूप में अवश्य परिवर्तन हुआ : 1990 के दशक में सार्वजनिक निवेश में आई कमी को निजी क्षेत्र ने पूरा किया). अत: हमारे सामने दो महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्न हैं : क्यों हम आर्थिक सुधारों की ओर अग्रसर हुये और ये सुधार कैसे विकसित हुये हैं ? तथा, सुधारों का समग्र आर्थिक विकास पर तथा मुख्यत: औद्योगिक विकास पर प्रभाव क्यों नगण्य रहा है ?

1991 से जो आर्थिक सुधार किये गये उसने भारत की औद्योगिक नीति और बाह्य आर्थिक-सम्बन्धों को प्रभावित किया है. औद्योगिक नीति के सुधारों को 1980 के दशक से चली आ रही सुधारों की कड़ी का एक हिस्सा ही माना जाना चाहिये. इस नीति ने नये और पुराने देशी औद्योगिक घरानों की मदद की है. लेकिन विदेश व्यापार, विदेशी निवेश और वित्तीय-सम्बन्धों के क्षेत्र में हमारी नीति में परिवर्तन दिखाई देता है. 1991 से आयात कोटा समाप्त होने लगा (2001 तक पूर्णत: समाप्त), आयात शुल्क घटने लगा, मुद्रा का अवमूल्यन हुआ, विदेशी निवेश को उदार बनाया गया और विदेशी वित्तीय लेन-देन पर प्रतिबन्ध कम किये गये. इनमें से कुछ ने भारतीय उद्यमियों को लाभ पहुंचाया पर कुछ ने उन्हें कठोर प्रतिस्पर्धा में ढकेल दिया. ऐसा करने में भारतीय राज्य एक बदले परिवेश में, भारतीय-व्यापार से एक नया समझौता कर रहा था. राज्य व्यापारियों की पूरी मदद करेगा, पर व्यापारियों को प्रतिस्पर्धा करनी ही होगी.

यद्यपि भारतीय दृष्टिकोण से ये सुधार क्रांतिकारी थे, पर वैश्विक दृष्टि से इन्हें साधारण ही कहा जा सकता है. सबसे पहले सुधारों की राजनीति पर गौर करते हैं. जो सुधार 1980 के दशक में संभव न थे वे 1990 के दशक में कैसे संभव हो गये ? सतही तौर पर 1991 के आर्थिक संकट को इसका कारण बताया जा सकता है, पर गहराई से देखने पर पता चलता है कि उस संकट ने आर्थिक सुधारों के लिये केवल उचित अवसर प्रदान किया. अनेक विद्वानों ने संरचनात्मक कारकों को राजनीतिक प्रक्रिया से अलग कर यह देखने का प्रयास किया कि भारतीय व्यापारियों/उद्यमियों को किस प्रकार देश में और देश के बाहर हो रहे संरचनात्मक परिवर्तनों ने प्रभावित किया. 1990 के दशक में ये सुधार इसलिये हो सके क्योंकि भारत के बाहर हो रहे परिवर्तनों में तेजी आई, तथा देश में पूंजीपतियों का एक वर्ग ‘खुली-अर्थव्यवस्था’ की चुनौती लेने को तैयार हो गया.

सबसे पहले सोवियत संघ का विघटन ही लें. सोवियत संघ भारतीय माल के बदले भारत को तेल, शस्त्र व प्रतिरक्षा सामग्री देता था, और इस विनिमय में हमें मुद्रा नहीं खर्च करनी पड़ती थी. लेकिन जब रूस को हमारा निर्यात घट गया तब हमें सेना की जरूरतों और उसके उन्नयन के लिये ‘विदेशी मुद्रा’ की जरूरत पड़ी. अत: निर्यात बढ़ाना और विदेशी मुद्रा कमाना हमारे ‘प्रतिरक्षा’ के लिये अपरिहार्य हो गया. इतना ही नहीं, सोवियत संघ के विघटन से हमने एक महत्वपूर्ण राजनीतिक व सामरिक मित्र खो दिया जिससे अमेरिका से सम्बन्ध बनाना जरूरी हो गया. विकासशील देशों को पता है कि अमेरिका से राजनीतिक सम्बन्ध बनाने का मतलब होता है कि उनसे आर्थिक-सम्बन्ध भी बनाया जाय, और अपनी अर्थव्यवस्था को उनके माल और पूंजी के लिये खोल दिया जाए.

दूसरा परिवर्तन शेयर बाजार में विदेशी निवेशकों की बढ़ती रुचि थी. इससे विदेशी मुद्रा की आवक बढ़ी जो भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में कभी गम्भीर चिन्ता का विषय था और अन्तत:, भारतीय नेतृत्व को पता था कि ‘विश्व-व्यापार-संगठन’ की स्थापना होने जा रही है जो आयात कोटा की समाप्ति और आयात-शुल्क में कटौती का प्रयास करेगा, और, कि भारत उस संगठन का सदस्य होगा (विश्व व्यापार संगठन की स्थापना वास्तव में 1994 में हो गई). इसी के साथ-साथ, 1980 के दशक में भारतीय व्यापार में उत्पादकता की वृद्धि ने भारतीय उद्मियों को 1990 में विदेशी-प्रतिस्पर्धा के लिये तैयार कर दिया. इसी के अनुरूप फेडरेशन ऑफ चैम्बर्स ऑफ कॉमर्स एण्ड इंडस्ट्रीज (फिक्की) और एसोसिएटेड चैम्बर्स ऑफ कामर्स एण्ड इण्डस्ट्री (एसोचैम) का पुनर्गठन हुआ, तथा एक नई संस्था कन्फेडरेशन ऑफ इण्डस्ट्री (सीआईआई) का गठन हुआ. सीआईआई वास्तव में आधुनिक भारतीय उद्योगों का प्रतिनिधित्व करने लगी और सरकार से गहरा तालमेल बनाकर चलने लगी. 2004 तक माण्टेक सिंह आहलूवालिया ने सार्वजनिक व निजी क्षेत्र को उसके लिये आमन्त्रित किया. इस प्रकार, परिवर्तित वैश्विक परिदृष्य और भारतीय पूंजीपतियों के एक वर्ग द्वारा खुली अर्थव्यवस्था का समर्थन उस संरचनात्मक परिदृष्य  को इंगित करता है जिसमें भारतीय नीति निर्माताओं को 1990 के दशक में महत्वपूर्ण नीतिगत परिवर्तन का मौका मिला.

संरचनात्मक परिवर्तनों के अलावा, आर्थिक उदारीकरण की राजनीतिक प्रक्रिया भी शक्ति-परिवर्तन के विन्यास को इंगित करती है. इसमें राजनीतिक और आर्थिक अभिजन एक दूसरे की मदद कर रहे थे. पर इन राजनीतिक अभिजनों का आधार संकीर्ण था. उस समय 1990 में एक कामचलाऊ सरकार थी. जब कांग्रेस की सरकार बनी और उसमें तत्कालीन वित्तमंत्री मनमोहन सिंह ने नई आर्थिक नीति की घोषणा की तो उसे समर्थन देने के लिये केवल एक सीमित राजनीतिक नेतृत्व, प्रौद्योगिकी –नीति के कुछ अभिजन, भारतीय पूंजीपतियों का एक वर्ग तथा वाह्य विदेशी तत्व थे. एक लोकतन्त्र होने के बावजूद भारत में आर्थिक सुधार एक सीमित जनाधार पर आधारित था. जब कोई नई पहल होती तो उसे चोरी-छुपे और संसदीय वाद-विवादों से दूर रख कर दिया जाता रहा. भारत में निजी क्षेत्र ने इस ‘अप्रत्याशित स्वतन्त्रता’ को सराहा, और स्टाक मार्केट में तेजी से उछाल आया.

आर्थिक सुधारों का एक दूसरा महत्वपूर्ण आयाम था – ‘बजट घाटे में कमीं’ जिससे सरकार को अपना व्यय घटाना पड़ा. लेकिन कुछ समय में ही इसका विरोध होने लगा. सब्सिडी में कटौती का किसान और निर्यातक विरोध करने लगे, सामाजिक पूंजी निवेश घटाने से आर्थिक मन्दी आने लगी. इससे सरकार ने इन सभी प्रवृत्तियों पर कुछ विराम लगाया.

आर्थिक सुधारों का तीसरा महत्वपूर्ण आयाम भारतीय और वैश्विक अर्थव्यवस्था में तादाम्य स्थापित करना था. 1990 के दशक की शुरुआत में जहां आयात कोटा हटाया गया, आयात शुल्क घटाया गया विदेशी पूंजी निवेश को उदार बनाया गया, वहीं भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था को खोलने के लिये वांछित राजनीतिक प्रक्रिया की गति धीमी रही. उस समय की प्रमुख विरोधी पार्टी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) ने स्वदेशी को आधार बनाकर राष्ट्रवाद की भावना को बल प्रदान किया. इस प्रकार, राजनीतिक उठा-पटक ने आर्थिक सुधारों की गति को भी प्रभावित किया. दो अन्य सुधारों- सार्वजनिक उपक्रमों का निजीकरण और श्रम सम्बन्धी सुधार – पर विचार होता रहा है, पर राजनीतिक विरोध की संभावना  से उस पर कोई ठोस पहल न हो सकी. इस प्रकार, हमें एक पैटर्न दिखाई देता है : वे आर्थिक सुधार हो सके जिन्हें भारतीय उद्यमियों का समर्थन था, पर वे सुधार न हो सके जहां राज्य की दृढ़ शक्ति की पहल जरूरी थी (जैसे सार्वजनिक उपक्रमों का निजीकरण और श्रम सम्बन्धी सुधार). यह लोकतान्त्रिक भारत में राज्य शक्ति के विभाजित स्वरूप को इंगित करता है. फिर भी राज्य द्वारा बजट घाटे व सार्वजनिक व्यय को बनाये रखने के कारण भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में राज्य के हस्तक्षेप का स्वरूप अत्यन्त जटिल हो जाता है. कहीं राज्य व्यापारियों के पक्ष में खड़ा दिखाई देता है तो कहीं लोकतान्त्रिक दबावों को महत्व देता दिखाई देता है.

स्वयं माण्टेक सिंह आहलूवालिया ने 2002 में औद्योगिक विकास तथा औद्योगिक निर्यात पर असन्तोष व्यक्त किया. यह सत्य है कि 6 प्रतिशत वार्षिक विकास दर से भारत अभी भी सबसे तेज विकसित होने वाले देशों में एक है, उसके निर्यात में वृद्धि हुयी ह, और भुगतान सन्तुलन में सुधार हुआ, फिर भी 1990 के दशक में औद्योगिक विकास 1980 के दशक के मुकाबले नहीं सुधरा और निर्यात की तुलना में आयात बढ़ा. ऐसा लगता है कि जैसे या तो आर्थिक सुधारों का कोई ज्यादा प्रभाव न हुआ, अथवा कि उनका बहुत जल्दी और दूरगामी प्रभाव हो गया है. अनेक उदाहरण इस बात को प्रमाणित करते हैं कि अर्थव्यवस्था में उन्नयन आर्थिक सुधारों के कारण नहीं, वरन् राज्य के व्यापारोन्मुखी दृष्टिकोण के कारण हुआ है.

1990 के दशक में आर्थिक विकास की जिम्मेदारी पूरी तौर से निजी क्षेत्र को जाती है. लेकिन ताज्जुब है कि औद्योगिक अर्थव्यवस्था की उत्पादकता विकास दर में 1980 के दशक की तुलना में कोई वृद्धि नहीं हुई. यद्यपि भारत में राज्य ने निजी क्षेत्र के नेतृत्व में आर्थिक विकास को समर्थन दिया, पर ताइवान या दक्षिण कोरिया की तरह न था. न तो राज्य ने निजी क्षेत्र को वांछित समर्थन दिया, न ही उसने गरीबों की पुरजोर मदद की. इसके लिये अनेक कारण हैं एक, आधारभूत संरचनाओं के अभाव से निजी क्षेत्रों को ज्यादा खर्च करना पड़ता है; दो, राज्य श्रमिकों के प्रति दक्षिण कोरिया की तरह दमनकारी होना नहीं चाहता; तीन, राज्य ने देशी प्रौद्योगिकी को आयातित किया; चार, भारत में मानवीय पूंजी को सुधारने का प्रयास न्यूनतम रहा है; पांच, निजी क्षेत्र द्वारा निर्यात को पर्याप्त प्रोत्साहन नहीं दिया गया.

राज्यों में आर्थिक विकास की राजनीति

इस दौर की तीसरी पहेली यह है कि विभिन्न भारतीय राज्यों के आर्थिक विकास में अन्तर क्यों है ? महत्वपूर्ण यह है कि राज्यों में आर्थिक विकास दर में 1980 की बजाय 1990 के दशक  में भिन्नता आने लगी. पर क्यों ? गुजरात, केरल और पश्चिम बंगाल में आर्थिक विकास में वृद्धि हुई, पर बिहार, उत्तर प्रदेश, उड़ीसा, पंजाब व राजस्थान में एक प्रतिशत की गिरावट दर्ज हुई. क्यों ? वैसे तो राज्य स्तर पर आंकड़े उपलब्ध नहीं, लेकिन इतना अवश्य कहा जा सकता है कि निवेश और उत्पादकता में भिन्नता इसके प्रमुख कारण हो सकते हैं. निवेश के मामले में कहा जा सकता है कि जिस प्रकार सार्वजनिक निवेश में राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर कमी आई उसी प्रकार इसमें राज्य स्तर पर भी कमी आई. जो राज्य निजी पूंजी निवेशकों को आकर्षित करने में सफल रहे, वहां विकास हुआ, और जो राज्य ऐसा न कर सके वे पिछड़ गये. ये वही राज्य थे जो गरीब हैं, पर पंजाब का इसमें शामिल होना कृषि क्षेत्र में आई गिरावट से सम्बन्धित है, क्योंकि वहां की औद्योगिक विकास दर 6 प्रतिशत पर बनी हुई है.

राज्यों की प्राथमिक दशा जहां पूंजी निवेश के लिये महत्वपूर्ण है, वहीं यह नहीं भूलना चाहिये कि यह ‘प्राथमिक दशा’ स्वयं पिछली सरकारों की विकास नीतियों का परिणाम हैं. फिर प्राथमिक दशाओं में अन्तर ही महत्वपूर्ण नहीं है, राज्य प्रशासन की गुणवत्ता भी एक महत्वपर्ण कारक है. क्यों गुजरात अन्य समान सम्पन्न राज्यों की तुलना में अधिक विकसित हुआ, और क्यों बिहार अन्य गरीब राज्यों (जैसे मध्य प्रदेश) की अपेक्षा और नीचे चला गया ? और ऐसा क्या हैं कि केरल व पश्चिम बंगाल जैसे मध्य आय वाले राज्यों में तेजी से विकास हुआ जबकि ये दोनों राज्य निजी निवेशकों के लिये बहुत आकर्षक क्षेत्र नहीं हो सकते (वामपंथी रुझान के कारण). अत: राज्य स्तर पर और शोध की जरूरत है. संक्षेप में, 1991 के दशक में आर्थिक सुधारों ने कुछ राज्यों को ही लाभ पहुंचाया है.

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘इकोनॉमिक एण्ड पोलिटिकल वीकली, 1 अप्रैल, 2006 पृष्ठ 1251-1259 और 8 अप्रैल, 2006 पृष्ठ 1361-1369 से साभार उदधृत. मूल लेख ‘पॉलिटिक्स ऑफ इकोनॉमिक ग्रोथ इन इण्डिया. (1980-2005)’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

436 comments

  1. A lot of thanks for your own work on this website. My mum enjoys engaging in investigation and it’s really easy to see why. My spouse and i know all concerning the compelling method you offer rewarding items via the website and therefore foster response from other ones on this article then my princess is certainly becoming educated a lot. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the year. You are always carrying out a splendid job.

  2. I would like to show my admiration for your kindness for persons that must have assistance with in this idea. Your special dedication to getting the solution across had become remarkably important and has continuously allowed others much like me to reach their targets. Your personal warm and friendly guidelines entails so much a person like me and a whole lot more to my office colleagues. Thanks a lot; from each one of us.

  3. I would like to express my admiration for your generosity giving support to men who must have assistance with this important area. Your very own dedication to passing the solution all over was definitely useful and have in every case encouraged some individuals just like me to arrive at their dreams. Your amazing useful publication can mean a lot to me and especially to my mates. Thank you; from all of us.

  4. I really wanted to write down a message to express gratitude to you for all the great facts you are giving out here. My rather long internet lookup has at the end been paid with incredibly good knowledge to go over with my colleagues. I ‘d mention that most of us visitors actually are rather endowed to dwell in a good site with many special professionals with valuable tactics. I feel very much blessed to have seen the webpage and look forward to some more exciting moments reading here. Thanks a lot once again for everything.

  5. Thanks for all your valuable labor on this website. Gloria takes pleasure in getting into investigation and it’s really obvious why. All of us learn all concerning the powerful way you produce very useful items via the web blog and even cause contribution from website visitors on that content while our daughter is undoubtedly learning a lot of things. Enjoy the rest of the year. You are doing a good job.

  6. I and my friends were actually reading through the good solutions from your web page and then all of a sudden I had an awful suspicion I never thanked the blog owner for those strategies. Those ladies are already as a result glad to read through all of them and have in effect simply been making the most of these things. I appreciate you for turning out to be quite helpful and also for obtaining certain beneficial subjects most people are really wanting to know about. My personal sincere apologies for not expressing appreciation to sooner.

  7. A lot of thanks for each of your work on this web page. My daughter take interest in carrying out investigations and it is easy to see why. Most people hear all concerning the compelling medium you create priceless suggestions by means of your web blog and as well attract response from some other people about this point plus my daughter is undoubtedly being taught a lot of things. Take pleasure in the remaining portion of the year. You have been doing a useful job.

  8. Thank you so much for providing individuals with such a nice possiblity to discover important secrets from this website. It’s always very fantastic and packed with a good time for me and my office acquaintances to search your website at least thrice per week to study the latest secrets you have. And indeed, we’re usually fascinated for the fantastic concepts you serve. Some two facts on this page are easily the very best we’ve ever had.

  9. A lot of thanks for all your valuable work on this website. Kate takes pleasure in making time for investigation and it’s obvious why. My partner and i notice all concerning the lively way you create useful information through your website and as well as strongly encourage response from other ones on that subject matter then our own daughter is studying a great deal. Take pleasure in the rest of the year. You’re doing a superb job.

  10. I simply had to appreciate you once again. I do not know the things that I could possibly have carried out in the absence of these advice provided by you regarding that area. It became a very depressing condition in my view, however , observing a new specialized avenue you dealt with it took me to leap with joy. I’m just happier for the help as well as sincerely hope you really know what a powerful job you’re providing teaching some other people by way of your blog. More than likely you haven’t encountered all of us.

  11. My wife and i ended up being now cheerful Emmanuel could finish off his researching via the ideas he came across from your very own weblog. It is now and again perplexing to just possibly be giving for free key points which the rest might have been selling. We really recognize we have the blog owner to appreciate because of that. All the illustrations you’ve made, the easy web site menu, the relationships you will aid to instill – it’s all superb, and it’s leading our son in addition to our family believe that this issue is cool, which is certainly particularly important. Thanks for everything!

  12. Thank you a lot for giving everyone such a special opportunity to check tips from this blog. It is usually so sweet and jam-packed with fun for me personally and my office friends to visit your website really three times weekly to learn the fresh issues you will have. And definitely, I’m just always pleased with all the good ideas you give. Some 3 ideas in this post are truly the simplest we’ve had.

  13. I’m just writing to make you know of the impressive experience our daughter experienced checking your webblog. She mastered such a lot of issues, which included what it’s like to have an incredible coaching heart to have other individuals just thoroughly grasp certain problematic things. You actually did more than our desires. Thank you for distributing such precious, trusted, informative and even easy guidance on that topic to Gloria.

  14. Thank you so much for giving everyone an extraordinarily wonderful chance to read in detail from this web site. It really is very awesome and as well , packed with a great time for me and my office friends to visit your blog at the least three times a week to learn the new tips you will have. And lastly, I am actually motivated with all the beautiful advice served by you. Some 4 areas in this posting are definitely the best we’ve had.

  15. I just wanted to write a simple remark to appreciate you for some of the pleasant steps you are giving out at this website. My extensive internet search has at the end of the day been paid with beneficial facts to write about with my company. I would express that most of us website visitors actually are very endowed to dwell in a fine network with so many marvellous people with helpful tips and hints. I feel extremely blessed to have encountered your entire site and look forward to some more entertaining times reading here. Thanks a lot once more for a lot of things.

  16. I’m writing to let you understand of the outstanding experience our girl obtained going through yuor web blog. She even learned plenty of pieces, not to mention what it is like to possess a very effective coaching heart to make the mediocre ones without hassle learn about selected specialized subject matter. You actually did more than my desires. Thanks for displaying such practical, trusted, educational and also unique tips about the topic to Lizeth.

  17. Thank you a lot for providing individuals with an extraordinarily memorable chance to discover important secrets from this blog. It is usually so sweet plus stuffed with a good time for me and my office fellow workers to visit your blog at minimum thrice in one week to learn the newest guidance you have got. And of course, I am just always fulfilled with the staggering tricks served by you. Selected two facts on this page are essentially the most suitable we have all ever had.

  18. I needed to put you that little remark to thank you so much as before for these spectacular things you’ve discussed here. It was quite shockingly open-handed with people like you in giving without restraint all that numerous people would’ve marketed as an e-book in order to make some dough for themselves, certainly seeing that you could possibly have tried it if you ever decided. The secrets in addition served to be a good way to fully grasp that other people have a similar interest like my own to realize much more with regards to this matter. I think there are a lot more pleasurable periods in the future for many who scan your site.

  19. My spouse and i have been very thankful Raymond managed to finish off his basic research with the precious recommendations he obtained from your very own weblog. It is now and again perplexing to simply choose to be giving freely guides which people may have been trying to sell. And now we grasp we have the writer to be grateful to for this. The specific explanations you’ve made, the easy web site menu, the friendships your site give support to promote – it is most terrific, and it is aiding our son and us consider that that topic is fun, which is certainly extremely fundamental. Thank you for the whole thing!

  20. I simply wanted to say thanks once again. I’m not certain what I would have done in the absence of the actual advice contributed by you directly on such a topic. This has been an absolute distressing difficulty in my circumstances, but understanding a new professional manner you dealt with it made me to leap for contentment. I will be happier for the guidance and as well , pray you comprehend what an amazing job you’re accomplishing instructing others through the use of a web site. Most probably you haven’t got to know any of us.

  21. My husband and i have been now glad Raymond could finish up his survey from your precious recommendations he received from your own web page. It’s not at all simplistic to just choose to be giving away facts some other people could have been selling. So we remember we now have you to be grateful to for that. These illustrations you made, the straightforward web site menu, the relationships your site help engender – it is everything incredible, and it is leading our son in addition to us know that the idea is cool, and that’s tremendously mandatory. Thank you for the whole thing!

  22. I not to mention my pals ended up following the excellent information found on your website while immediately came up with an awful feeling I had not expressed respect to the web site owner for those secrets. These young boys were absolutely passionate to read them and now have really been tapping into them. Appreciation for actually being quite accommodating and then for settling on certain good resources millions of individuals are really wanting to know about. Our own sincere regret for not saying thanks to you earlier.

  23. I have to express my appreciation to the writer for bailing me out of this particular circumstance. After searching throughout the search engines and finding strategies which were not productive, I thought my entire life was gone. Being alive devoid of the answers to the problems you have resolved as a result of your main report is a crucial case, as well as the ones that might have badly damaged my career if I hadn’t encountered your web blog. That competence and kindness in handling all things was valuable. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I had not come across such a step like this. I can at this point relish my future. Thanks so much for the expert and effective help. I will not be reluctant to refer your blog post to any individual who wants and needs care about this area.

  24. I simply wished to thank you very much yet again. I do not know what I would’ve followed without these tricks contributed by you concerning my area. It was actually an absolute challenging dilemma in my position, nevertheless observing your specialized fashion you processed the issue took me to jump over joy. I’m happy for your assistance and hope that you are aware of an amazing job your are carrying out educating men and women through a web site. Probably you have never got to know all of us.

  25. Needed to put you this little bit of word so as to thank you so much as before on the magnificent things you’ve featured here. It’s surprisingly generous of you to make easily exactly what most of us would’ve marketed for an ebook to generate some cash on their own, principally considering the fact that you could possibly have done it in case you decided. Those basics in addition acted to become a fantastic way to be certain that many people have a similar zeal just like my very own to realize a little more regarding this issue. I think there are millions of more fun occasions up front for people who scan your site.

  26. Thank you for each of your effort on this web page. Debby takes pleasure in doing investigations and it is easy to see why. I notice all regarding the dynamic tactic you present important tips and tricks on this web blog and as well as welcome participation from other people on that concern while our favorite girl is really learning a lot of things. Have fun with the remaining portion of the year. You’re the one carrying out a terrific job.

  27. I simply wanted to make a word in order to say thanks to you for these nice secrets you are sharing at this website. My extensive internet look up has finally been recognized with pleasant details to write about with my guests. I would declare that many of us site visitors are unequivocally lucky to exist in a very good network with many outstanding individuals with very helpful tactics. I feel quite grateful to have discovered the weblog and look forward to plenty of more brilliant times reading here. Thank you again for all the details.

  28. My husband and i got now satisfied when Edward could finish up his homework while using the precious recommendations he obtained from your very own web pages. It’s not at all simplistic to simply find yourself releasing things which often men and women might have been trying to sell. We realize we have the writer to appreciate because of that. The main illustrations you made, the easy site menu, the friendships your site aid to instill – it’s got mostly exceptional, and it is facilitating our son and us know that the issue is entertaining, which is very indispensable. Thank you for all!

  29. I must get across my gratitude for your generosity in support of persons that have the need for assistance with this particular issue. Your special commitment to passing the solution all through had been unbelievably beneficial and have continuously permitted professionals just like me to reach their endeavors. Your personal warm and helpful help implies a whole lot to me and a whole lot more to my fellow workers. Best wishes; from everyone of us.

  30. I precisely wished to say thanks all over again. I do not know what I could possibly have created without the actual points provided by you about this area. It had been an absolute difficult setting in my opinion, however , seeing this specialised form you resolved the issue forced me to jump with delight. I will be happier for this service and even have high hopes you are aware of a powerful job you are undertaking teaching people thru your web site. More than likely you’ve never come across any of us.

  31. I really wanted to develop a small comment to be able to express gratitude to you for these amazing tricks you are showing at this website. My considerable internet lookup has now been rewarded with awesome concept to go over with my friends and classmates. I would repeat that we site visitors actually are unequivocally endowed to dwell in a very good community with so many perfect individuals with valuable methods. I feel pretty grateful to have discovered your entire web site and look forward to really more excellent times reading here. Thanks a lot once more for everything.

  32. I simply desired to appreciate you again. I’m not certain the things that I would’ve tried in the absence of the entire concepts discussed by you directly on my concern. It was actually a very difficult difficulty in my opinion, but taking a look at a new expert approach you processed it forced me to cry over fulfillment. Now i’m happier for the work and even wish you find out what a great job you are always carrying out teaching some other people using your website. I know that you have never encountered all of us.

  33. I have to show appreciation to you for rescuing me from this predicament. Because of checking through the internet and coming across advice which are not powerful, I was thinking my entire life was over. Being alive devoid of the answers to the issues you’ve solved all through your main short article is a serious case, and those that might have in a negative way affected my career if I had not come across your web blog. That know-how and kindness in maneuvering all the pieces was useful. I am not sure what I would have done if I had not discovered such a solution like this. I can now look ahead to my future. Thank you so much for this specialized and amazing help. I will not be reluctant to endorse the sites to any individual who should have guidance about this problem.

  34. Needed to write you a little note to finally say thanks over again relating to the spectacular tactics you’ve discussed above. It was unbelievably generous with you to present publicly precisely what a lot of people could possibly have offered for sale as an electronic book in making some profit for themselves, mostly considering that you could possibly have done it if you decided. Those tricks likewise acted as the great way to be certain that most people have a similar passion just like my very own to know the truth significantly more regarding this condition. I’m sure there are some more fun periods in the future for those who look into your blog.

  35. My spouse and i have been absolutely cheerful Ervin managed to finish off his reports using the ideas he gained when using the web page. It’s not at all simplistic just to happen to be freely giving concepts that many many others might have been making money from. And now we do understand we have the writer to be grateful to because of that. Those explanations you’ve made, the straightforward website navigation, the friendships your site make it easier to instill – it is many fantastic, and it’s really helping our son in addition to the family imagine that the subject matter is amusing, which is certainly truly essential. Thank you for the whole thing!

  36. My wife and i got very peaceful when Albert managed to complete his researching using the ideas he had while using the web site. It’s not at all simplistic just to find yourself offering helpful hints which usually other people might have been making money from. And now we do understand we have the blog owner to thank because of that. Most of the illustrations you’ve made, the simple blog menu, the relationships you will make it easier to create – it’s got mostly astonishing, and it’s making our son and our family know that this issue is pleasurable, which is certainly extremely important. Many thanks for all the pieces!

  37. I wish to show my passion for your kind-heartedness for folks who actually need help on this particular issue. Your real dedication to passing the message all over ended up being rather informative and has regularly helped folks like me to arrive at their targets. The useful advice means much a person like me and especially to my colleagues. Thanks a lot; from all of us.

  38. I intended to post you the bit of word so as to thank you very much yet again for your nice techniques you’ve documented in this case. It was certainly extremely generous with you to deliver without restraint all that a number of people could have distributed as an ebook to generate some bucks for their own end, especially since you could possibly have done it in the event you considered necessary. Those tips as well served as a good way to be sure that someone else have similar dreams the same as mine to understand very much more in regard to this matter. I believe there are several more pleasurable sessions in the future for individuals who look into your site.

  39. Thanks so much for providing individuals with remarkably spectacular opportunity to read in detail from this site. It is usually very useful plus full of amusement for me and my office fellow workers to visit your web site at least three times every week to find out the latest guides you have. Not to mention, I am also always happy with your beautiful hints you give. Some 2 ideas on this page are in fact the finest we have ever had.

  40. I am commenting to let you know of the fine experience my daughter went through browsing your web site. She even learned such a lot of details, including what it is like to possess an excellent teaching nature to get the rest very easily know precisely a variety of complicated subject areas. You really exceeded our own expectations. Thanks for imparting the invaluable, trustworthy, explanatory and even cool guidance on that topic to Evelyn.

  41. I am just commenting to make you be aware of of the extraordinary experience my cousin’s girl went through using yuor web blog. She noticed lots of details, which included what it is like to possess an excellent teaching mindset to have the others really easily understand chosen problematic issues. You truly exceeded people’s desires. Many thanks for showing such interesting, dependable, edifying as well as unique thoughts on your topic to Evelyn.

  42. I definitely wanted to make a brief message so as to appreciate you for all of the fantastic guides you are placing on this site. My time intensive internet look up has at the end of the day been paid with wonderful points to write about with my family members. I ‘d express that many of us visitors actually are definitely endowed to be in a very good community with so many brilliant professionals with beneficial solutions. I feel very much blessed to have come across the web pages and look forward to so many more pleasurable times reading here. Thank you once more for all the details.

  43. I must show my appreciation for your generosity supporting people that have the need for guidance on the field. Your very own commitment to passing the solution along ended up being amazingly beneficial and has all the time enabled girls just like me to reach their objectives. Your own warm and helpful tutorial denotes much to me and a whole lot more to my peers. Thank you; from everyone of us.

  44. I wish to show appreciation to this writer for rescuing me from this particular problem. As a result of browsing through the search engines and getting proposals which were not helpful, I believed my entire life was gone. Living without the solutions to the issues you have fixed all through your entire report is a critical case, and the ones which could have negatively damaged my entire career if I had not noticed your website. That ability and kindness in handling all areas was vital. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t encountered such a subject like this. I am able to at this point look ahead to my future. Thanks a lot very much for your skilled and effective guide. I will not hesitate to suggest your site to anyone who needs to have direction on this subject matter.

  45. I would like to point out my passion for your generosity for those who really need help with this important concern. Your very own dedication to getting the message throughout turned out to be pretty important and has frequently encouraged guys and women much like me to attain their objectives. Your personal insightful help signifies this much a person like me and even more to my office colleagues. With thanks; from all of us.

  46. I wanted to write down a simple comment in order to thank you for those awesome instructions you are posting here. My extended internet look up has finally been compensated with useful ideas to write about with my colleagues. I ‘d state that that many of us website visitors are unquestionably fortunate to dwell in a fabulous network with many brilliant people with great techniques. I feel pretty fortunate to have come across your entire weblog and look forward to some more amazing times reading here. Thanks a lot once more for all the details.

  47. Thank you a lot for giving everyone such a remarkable opportunity to discover important secrets from here. It’s usually very fantastic and jam-packed with a good time for me personally and my office friends to search the blog minimum 3 times per week to study the fresh guidance you have. And indeed, I am just always pleased with all the outstanding techniques served by you. Certain 1 tips in this post are surely the finest we have all ever had.

  48. I actually wanted to write down a simple remark in order to thank you for all the stunning concepts you are giving out on this website. My extended internet look up has finally been paid with wonderful facts and techniques to exchange with my company. I would state that that most of us site visitors actually are definitely blessed to dwell in a very good network with so many awesome individuals with insightful techniques. I feel really privileged to have discovered the webpages and look forward to really more entertaining times reading here. Thank you again for a lot of things.

  49. I precisely wanted to thank you so much once more. I’m not certain what I could possibly have achieved without the ideas shared by you over such question. It absolutely was an absolute distressing case for me personally, nevertheless coming across a new well-written fashion you solved that took me to leap with happiness. Now i’m happier for the service and wish you comprehend what an amazing job that you’re getting into educating people today by way of your web site. Probably you’ve never met all of us.

  50. I in addition to my pals have been examining the great pointers on your website while the sudden I had an awful suspicion I never expressed respect to the web site owner for those techniques. All the people happened to be totally stimulated to see them and have seriously been taking pleasure in these things. We appreciate you simply being well helpful as well as for selecting variety of terrific information millions of individuals are really desperate to learn about. My personal honest apologies for not saying thanks to earlier.

  51. I’m commenting to let you be aware of what a extraordinary discovery my child found using your web site. She learned so many pieces, including what it’s like to have an excellent coaching spirit to make a number of people really easily have an understanding of selected very confusing things. You really exceeded her desires. Thanks for coming up with those productive, safe, edifying as well as fun tips on your topic to Mary.

  52. Thanks so much for providing individuals with a very breathtaking opportunity to discover important secrets from this website. It can be so awesome and as well , jam-packed with amusement for me personally and my office friends to search your website particularly thrice in one week to study the fresh stuff you have got. And definitely, we’re always impressed concerning the powerful hints served by you. Selected two points on this page are indeed the most impressive I’ve had.

  53. I simply want to mention I am beginner to weblog and certainly liked you’re web site. Almost certainly I’m going to bookmark your site . You really have amazing writings. With thanks for revealing your website page.

  54. I like what you guys are up too. Such smart work and reporting! Carry on the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my website 🙂

  55. Just desire to say your article is as astounding. The clarity in your post is simply nice and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

  56. I was just searching for this information for a while. After 6 hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your web site. I wonder what’s the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this kind of informative web sites in top of the list. Normally the top web sites are full of garbage.

  57. I have been surfing on-line greater than 3 hours nowadays, but I never found any attention-grabbing article like yours. It¡¦s pretty price sufficient for me. In my view, if all web owners and bloggers made good content material as you probably did, the internet shall be a lot more useful than ever before.

  58. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this website. I’m hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing skills has inspired me to get my own website now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a great example of it.

  59. hello!,I really like your writing so so much! share we keep in touch extra approximately your article on AOL? I require a specialist on this house to resolve my problem. May be that is you! Having a look ahead to see you.

  60. I am not certain where you are getting your information, however good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this info for my mission.

  61. I am really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays..

  62. Great blog here! Also your website loads up very fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  63. Wow! This could be one particular of the most beneficial blogs We’ve ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Great. I am also a specialist in this topic therefore I can understand your effort.

  64. Great ¡V I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your website. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs and related info ended up being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it at all. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task..

  65. I’m not sure where you’re getting your info, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this information for my mission.

  66. I am not sure where you’re getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent information I was looking for this information for my mission.

  67. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more from this post. I am very glad to see such fantastic info being shared freely out there.

  68. It¡¦s truly a nice and helpful piece of information. I am satisfied that you just shared this useful info with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  69. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my website so i came to “return the favor”.I’m attempting to find things to improve my web site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  70. Thanks for some other informative blog. Where else may I get that kind of info written in such a perfect way? I have a challenge that I’m just now operating on, and I’ve been at the look out for such info.

  71. I do trust all the ideas you’ve offered on your post. They are very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for novices. Could you please lengthen them a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  72. Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this information. Nowadays bloggers publish just about gossips and web and this is really irritating. A good website with exciting content, this is what I need. Thank you for keeping this website, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can’t find it.

  73. I have been surfing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all site owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be much more useful than ever before.

  74. I wish to voice my appreciation for your kindness for all those that really need help on this important study. Your real commitment to passing the solution along appeared to be particularly beneficial and has in most cases empowered individuals like me to achieve their objectives. Your personal informative guidelines entails a whole lot to me and far more to my office colleagues. With thanks; from everyone of us.

  75. Whats Taking place i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It positively helpful and it has aided me out loads. I am hoping to give a contribution & help different users like its aided me. Great job.

  76. Hello there, I discovered your web site by means of Google whilst looking for a similar subject, your site came up, it seems good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  77. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly return.

  78. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more from this post. I am very glad to see such wonderful info being shared freely out there.

  79. Great blog here! Also your site loads up fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  80. You could definitely see your skills in the paintings you write. The sector hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

  81. I actually wanted to type a simple note so as to appreciate you for some of the splendid secrets you are sharing on this site. My extensive internet investigation has finally been paid with professional strategies to share with my co-workers. I would believe that we visitors are rather fortunate to exist in a fabulous place with very many wonderful individuals with insightful opinions. I feel very blessed to have used your weblog and look forward to plenty of more excellent moments reading here. Thank you once more for a lot of things.

  82. Wonderful paintings! This is the kind of info that are supposed to be shared around the net. Shame on the search engines for not positioning this publish upper! Come on over and visit my site . Thank you =)

  83. Hello, you used to write excellent, but the last several posts have been kinda boring¡K I miss your tremendous writings. Past several posts are just a little bit out of track! come on!

  84. Thanks for sharing excellent informations. Your website is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this web site. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for extra articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched all over the place and simply couldn’t come across. What a perfect website.

  85. Great blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  86. Wonderful goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely fantastic. I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it smart. I can’t wait to read much more from you. This is really a tremendous site.

  87. Magnificent beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your website, how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear concept

  88. Somebody essentially lend a hand to make critically posts I would state. That is the first time I frequented your web page and so far? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this actual post extraordinary. Wonderful job!

  89. I have not checked in here for a while as I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are good quality so I guess I¡¦ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

  90. Nice blog here! Additionally your website quite a bit up fast! What host are you the usage of? Can I get your affiliate link for your host? I wish my site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  91. Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your site is fantastic, as well as the content!

  92. Magnificent beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your web site, how can i subscribe for a blog website? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear concept

  93. naturally like your web-site but you have to check the spelling on several of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very troublesome to inform the truth however I will surely come back again.

  94. I like the valuable info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your blog and check again here regularly. I’m quite certain I’ll learn many new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

  95. hello there and thank you for your info – I have certainly picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise several technical points using this website, since I experienced to reload the site a lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I am complaining, but slow loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and could damage your quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Well I’m adding this RSS to my email and could look out for much more of your respective fascinating content. Ensure that you update this again soon..

  96. hello there and thank you for your information – I’ve definitely picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise several technical points using this site, as I experienced to reload the web site many times previous to I could get it to load correctly. I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage your high quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look out for a lot more of your respective exciting content. Make sure you update this again very soon..

  97. Nice blog here! Also your website loads up fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  98. What i do not realize is if truth be told how you are not really a lot more well-preferred than you might be right now. You are very intelligent. You realize thus significantly in relation to this topic, made me in my view imagine it from so many varied angles. Its like women and men are not fascinated unless it is one thing to do with Lady gaga! Your individual stuffs nice. At all times maintain it up!

  99. Thank you for any other excellent post. Where else could anybody get that kind of information in such an ideal means of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I am on the look for such info.

  100. I was just seeking this information for some time. After six hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your web site. I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this kind of informative sites in top of the list. Generally the top websites are full of garbage.

  101. You really make it appear so easy together with your presentation however I in finding this topic to be actually something which I believe I might never understand. It kind of feels too complicated and extremely broad for me. I am taking a look ahead in your subsequent publish, I will try to get the hold of it!

  102. What i don’t understood is in truth how you’re not actually a lot more well-favored than you may be right now. You’re very intelligent. You understand thus significantly relating to this matter, produced me personally imagine it from numerous varied angles. Its like women and men don’t seem to be involved unless it’s something to accomplish with Girl gaga! Your own stuffs great. Always care for it up!

  103. Thank you, I’ve recently been searching for info approximately this topic for a long time and yours is the best I have found out so far. However, what about the conclusion? Are you sure in regards to the supply?

  104. of course like your web-site but you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I to find it very troublesome to inform the reality nevertheless I will definitely come again again.

  105. Nice blog here! Also your web site loads up fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my website loaded up as fast as yours lol

  106. I in addition to my guys have been following the great guides on the blog and immediately I got an awful suspicion I had not thanked the web site owner for them. Those young men appeared to be so thrilled to learn all of them and have now honestly been taking pleasure in those things. Thank you for simply being quite accommodating as well as for choosing some important subject areas most people are really eager to be aware of. My personal honest regret for not expressing gratitude to you sooner.

  107. Nice blog here! Additionally your web site quite a bit up very fast! What host are you the use of? Can I get your affiliate link in your host? I want my website loaded up as fast as yours lol

  108. Hey there, You have done a great job. I’ll definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends. I’m sure they will be benefited from this web site.

  109. Hello my loved one! I want to say that this post is amazing, great written and include almost all vital infos. I¡¦d like to look more posts like this .

  110. Someone essentially help to make significantly posts I might state. That is the first time I frequented your web page and thus far? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this particular post incredible. Fantastic job!

  111. Thank you a lot for giving everyone remarkably brilliant opportunity to discover important secrets from this blog. It’s usually very pleasurable and full of a lot of fun for me personally and my office colleagues to search your blog at the very least 3 times in a week to study the new things you have got. And lastly, I am always amazed with the awesome things served by you. Some 2 ideas in this article are undeniably the finest we have ever had.

  112. I think this is among the most important information for me. And i am glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The website style is perfect, the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  113. Magnificent goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely excellent. I actually like what you have acquired here, really like what you’re stating and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it smart. I can’t wait to read much more from you. This is actually a great site.

  114. Great ¡V I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your website. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs and related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it at all. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or something, web site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Nice task..

  115. Good post and right to the point. I don’t know if this is really the best place to ask but do you people have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers? Thanks in advance 🙂

  116. Hi! I’ve been following your blog for some time now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout out from
    Austin Tx! Just wanted to tell you keep up the great
    job!

  117. I must get across my appreciation for your generosity for people who really need assistance with this one area. Your personal commitment to getting the message all through turned out to be astonishingly advantageous and has regularly helped professionals much like me to get to their dreams. The helpful information means this much a person like me and substantially more to my fellow workers. Best wishes; from each one of us.

  118. I like the valuable info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I’m quite certain I’ll learn lots of new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

  119. I simply couldn’t depart your web site prior to suggesting that I extremely loved the usual info a person provide for your visitors?
    Is going to be again continuously in order to inspect new posts

  120. hey there and thank you for your information – I have definitely picked up something new from right here. I did however expertise several technical issues using this website, since I experienced to reload the site lots of times previous to I could get it to load correctly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK? Not that I am complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage your high-quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my email and could look out for a lot more of your respective intriguing content. Make sure you update this again very soon..

  121. This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks!

  122. These days of austerity along with relative stress about having debt, many individuals balk resistant to the idea of making use of a credit card in order to make acquisition of merchandise as well as pay for a holiday, preferring, instead to rely on the tried in addition to trusted way of making settlement – cash. However, if you possess the cash available to make the purchase 100 , then, paradoxically, that is the best time just to be able to use the card for several reasons.

  123. Hi, i feel that i saw you visited my website thus i came to return the prefer?.I’m attempting to to find issues to improve my site!I assume its good enough to make use of a few of your ideas!!

  124. Hello! Someone in my Myspace group shared this site with us so I came
    to look it over. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m
    bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers!
    Fantastic blog and outstanding design.

  125. I’m not sure where you are getting your information, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this info for my mission.

  126. Thanks for another wonderful post. Where else may just anyone get that kind of information in such an ideal manner of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I am on the search for such info.

  127. Normally I do not learn article on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very compelled me to try and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thank you, quite great post.

  128. I have been surfing on-line greater than 3 hours nowadays, yet I never discovered any attention-grabbing article like yours.
    It’s pretty value sufficient for me. Personally, if all web
    owners and bloggers made excellent content material as
    you did, the web can be a lot more useful than ever
    before.

  129. I actually wanted to jot down a brief note so as to express gratitude to you for all the nice ways you are giving out at this website. My time-consuming internet look up has finally been recognized with useful details to share with my family members. I ‘d admit that we site visitors actually are undoubtedly blessed to be in a useful network with so many perfect professionals with interesting concepts. I feel really grateful to have used your entire web pages and look forward to really more amazing times reading here. Thank you again for a lot of things.

  130. Hello there, I discovered your website by way of Google while looking for a comparable subject, your site came up, it seems to be great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  131. Hello there! I simply would like to offer you a huge thumbs up for the excellent information you have right here on this post. I’ll be returning to your web site for more soon.

  132. Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this site.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very difficult to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and visual appearance.
    I must say you’ve done a great job with this. Also,
    the blog loads extremely quick for me on Safari. Excellent Blog!

  133. I like the helpful information you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I am quite sure I will learn a lot of new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

  134. You can certainly see your skills in the paintings you write. The sector hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

  135. Hi there, I found your web site by means of Google whilst searching for a comparable matter, your website got here up, it seems great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  136. I’ve been surfing online greater than 3 hours as of
    late, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
    It’s beautiful value sufficient for me. In my opinion,
    if all web owners and bloggers made good content material as you probably did, the web shall be much
    more helpful than ever before.

  137. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an impatience over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again since exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this hike.

  138. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I will be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently rapidly.

  139. Very well written information. It will be valuable to anybody who utilizes it, as well as yours truly :). Keep doing what you are doing – for sure i will check out more posts.

  140. Good web site! I really love how it is simple on my eyes and the data are well written. I am wondering how I might be notified whenever a new post has been made. I’ve subscribed to your RSS feed which must do the trick! Have a great day!

  141. Thank you for all of the effort on this web page. Debby enjoys doing investigation and it’s easy to understand why. We know all about the lively medium you render effective steps through your web site and as well attract contribution from others on the topic so my princess is actually starting to learn a lot. Have fun with the rest of the new year. You’re carrying out a superb job.

  142. I am just commenting to let you know what a cool experience my cousin’s child enjoyed going through your site. She realized so many pieces, which include what it is like to possess a marvelous giving nature to have many more just grasp specified problematic subject areas. You really did more than my expectations. Many thanks for imparting these priceless, trusted, edifying as well as fun tips about your topic to Gloria.

  143. I am not sure the place you’re getting your information, however great topic. I must spend some time studying much more or understanding more. Thank you for magnificent information I used to be searching for this information for my mission.

  144. I think this is one of the most significant info for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The web site style is great, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers

  145. Hi there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it’s truly informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future. Lots of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  146. Hi there, I found your web site via Google even as searching for a comparable subject, your website got here up, it looks great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  147. Hi there! This post couldn’t be written much better!

    Going through this post reminds me of my previous roommate!

    He continually kept preaching about this. I most certainly will send this post
    to him. Fairly certain he’s going to have a good read.
    Many thanks for sharing!

  148. Hey! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site
    with us so I came to give it a look. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m
    book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Excellent
    blog and fantastic style and design.

  149. Good day very nice blog!! Man .. Beautiful .. Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your site and take the feeds additionally¡KI’m glad to search out so many useful information right here within the publish, we need develop more strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  150. Howdy! This blog post could not be written much better!
    Going through this post reminds me of my previous roommate!
    He always kept talking about this. I’ll forward this post to him.
    Fairly certain he will have a very good read. Many thanks for sharing!

  151. It’s perfect time to make some plans for the future
    and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I
    could I want to suggest you few interesting things or tips.
    Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article.

    I wish to read more things about it!

  152. Hi would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m looking to start my own blog soon but I’m having a
    difficult time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.

    The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I’m
    looking for something unique. P.S My apologies for being
    off-topic but I had to ask!

  153. Hi would you mind letting me know which hosting company
    you’re using? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most.
    Can you suggest a good hosting provider at a honest price?
    Kudos, I appreciate it!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.