इस्लाम की राजनीति

वली नसर : प्रस्तुत लेख निम्न पांच पुस्तकों की समीक्षा पर आधारित है : (1) मिया ब्लूम – ‘डाइंग टू किल : द एल्यूर सुसाइड टेरर’ (कोलम्बिया यूनिवर्सिटी, 2005); (2) जोसिलिन सीज़री – ‘व्हेन इस्लाम एण्ड डिमोक्रेसी मीट : मुस्लिम इन यूरोप एण्ड द यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स’ (पालग्रेवमैकमिलन, 2004) (3) बेवरले मिल्टन एडवर्ड – ‘इस्लामिक फंडामेण्टलिज्म’ (राउटलेग, 2005); (4) मंसूर मोअडेल – ‘इस्लामिक माडर्निज्म, नेशनलिज्म एण्ड फंडामेण्टलिज्म : एपीसोड एण्ड डिस्कोर्स (यूनिवर्सिटी आफ शिकागो, 2005)’; (5) फहद् ज़कारिया – ‘मिथ एण्ड रियलिटी इन द कन्टेम्पोरेरी इस्लामिक मूवमेण्ट’ (प्लूटो, 2005)

11 सितम्बर, 2001 से ‘इस्लामी कट्टरपंथी’, ‘मुस्लिम आतंकवाद’ तथा अब ‘इस्लामी तानाशाही’ जैसे शीर्षकों ने समाचार पत्रों में गंभीर पकड़ बना ली है. वर्ल्ड ट्रेड सेन्टर पर आत्मघाती हमलों की भयानक तस्वीरों ने सभी का ध्यान केन्द्रित किया है, जिससे अफगानिस्तान में बदले की भावना उत्पन्न हुई. एक ऐसा देश जहां छात्र राज्य कर रहे थे तथा जहां पुरातन कानून लागू था वहां उत्पात उत्पन्न हो गया जिसे इस्लामी ‘लार्ड ऑफ द फ्लाईज़’ ने बहुत बड़े पैमाने पर महसूस किया. इस्लामी जेहाद और हमास ने इज़रायल में आत्मघाती हमले के सम्बन्ध में धर्म प्रचार किया, मेड्रिड और लन्दन में बमबारी हमले किए गए और इराक में हिंसा का आरोप इस्लाम पर लगाया गया. ‘हिज्ब-अल्लाह’ दि पार्टी ऑफ गॉड’ ने इजरायली सेना से लेबनान में बराबरी की लड़ाई लड़ी, जिससे इस्लामी कार्यकर्ताओं ने पश्चिमी समाज में शक और भय की गहरी जड़े बना लीं और जिसके कारण संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका और उस के सहयोगी इस्लाम के विरुद्ध युद्ध में शामिल हो गए.

सेमुअल हटिंग्टन ने ‘क्लैश ऑफ सिविलाइज़ेशन’ में इस  बात को महसूस किया फिर भी दोनों तरफ की जनता अपेक्षाकृत उनके बारे में कम जानती हैं जिससे ये डरते हैं.

Muslim

यूरोप तथा अमरीका के प्रकाशनों ने इस्लामी राजनीति की अधिक सूचनाएं प्राप्त करने के लिए (जनता की मांग पर) कोशिशें कीं. 1978-79 में ईरान में क्रान्ति के बाद इस पर गहन अध्ययन प्रारम्भ कर दिया गया, जब 1981 में मिस्र के राष्ट्रपति अनवर सादात की हत्या हो गई. वास्तव में इस युद्ध का क्षेत्र 1990 के दशक में खुला जब न्यूयॉर्क में वर्ल्ड ट्रेड सेन्टर को नष्ट करने का प्रयास किया गया और अल्जीरिया फिलीस्तीन, मिस्र, जॉर्डन, सुडान, टर्की और अफगानिस्तान में धार्मिक संगठनों ने अपनी अप्रत्याशित राजनैतिक शक्ति का प्रदर्शन किया.

सन् 1980 और 1990 के दशक में मुस्लिम विचार और राजनीति में कई मोड़ आए. उनकी मज़बूती का एक अच्छा संकेत प्रकाशकों की, उनमें से कुछ को, पुन: प्रकाशित करने की तत्परता है. 2001 के बाद से कुछ नए मुद्दों ने जन्म लिया. इस अवधि में कुछ लिखने योग्य लम्बे चौड़े सर्वेक्षण पर थोड़ी सी रोशनी डालने से और इस्लामी कट्टरपंथी का अच्छा अध्ययन करके अधिक जानकारी प्राप्त की जा सकती है. इन लेखों के विस्तृत स्तरीय कार्य ने लेखकों को और अधिक पुस्तकें लिखने और अपना ध्यान अधिक सूक्ष्म विषयों पर केन्द्रित करने  के लिए प्रोत्साहित किया. यद्यपि अनेक पुस्तकें जो पुनर्विचार के अन्तर्गत हैं, छोटी-छोटी बातों पर रोशनी ही नहीं डालतीं वरन् वे इस्लामी और मध्य-पूर्वी क्षेत्रों के अध्ययन में विशेषज्ञ हैं और शिक्षित पाठक पर ही नहीं वरन् इस्लाम और राजनीति पर पहले ही से थोड़ा ज्ञान रखने वालों को कुछ न कुछ प्रदान करती हैं.

एक बिन्दु जिस पर आधुनिक तथा पहले के लेखक सहमत हैं, वह यह कि इस्लाम एक अपरिवर्तनीय रहस्य है, जो गुमराह करने वाला है – यह सोच भ्रामक है. तालिबान शासन डरावना था जिससे यह सोच उभरी. इस शासन का कठोर स्वभाव कितना इस्लाम से प्राप्त किया गया था और कितना पश्तून जातीय संस्कृति से, तथा कितना कठोर राजनीतिक हालातों से जिनमें यह आन्दोलन उभरा. ओसामा बिन लादेन ने वर्ल्ड ट्रेड सेन्टर की बर्बादी की और अमेरिकी जनता के मस्तिष्क में इस्लाम की अमानवीय छवि डाल दी, किन्तु उसे इस्लामी धार्मिक स्वभाव का व्याख्यान नहीं कहा जा सकता.

इस्लाम एक ऐसा धर्म है जिसके मूल तत्वों में कुछ स्पष्ट राजनैतिक पहलू हैं. दूसरे धर्मों के समान इसका समाज से सहजीवी रिश्ता है. दोनों एक दूसरे को उसी प्रकार प्रभावित करते हैं जिस प्रकार भक्ति भगवान को प्रसन्न करने वाला आचरण अपनाने के लिए विश्वासी को प्रेरित करती है.

इस्लाम ने सरकार बनाने का कोई स्पष्ट उदाहरण प्रस्तुत नहीं किया है. इस्लामी भक्ति के स्तम्भ (विश्वास, प्रार्थना, रोजा, जकात और धार्मिक यात्रा) कहीं भी राजनैतिक नहीं है, किन्तु फिर भी इस्लाम अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से कहीं राजनीति से सम्बन्धित है, हर स्तम्भ में लोक पहलू है जो मुसलमानों को एक समुदाय में पिरोने का कार्य करता है जिसे उम्मा कहते हैं. मुहम्मद साहब की मृत्यु के बाद धार्मिक सिद्धान्तों के अनुपालन के लिए उम्मा निर्मित की गई, किन्तु यह समुदाय बहुत जल्दी ही प्रतिद्वन्दी संप्रदायों मे विभाजित हो गए. यह प्रदर्शित करता है कि कुरान और मुहम्मद साहब ने कितना कम राजनैतिक मार्ग दर्शन किया है. सुन्नी राजनैतिक नेता, मुसलमानों की बहुमत सुन्नियों के लिए, बलपूर्वक धर्म के मामले नहीं थोपते बल्कि इस्लाम के पांच स्तम्भों में इंसाफ और कानून का समर्थन करते हैं और अपने समुदाय में गैर मुस्लिमों की धमकियों की परवाह न करते हुए शान्ति रखना चाहते हैं क्योंकि यह राजनैतिक मामला नहीं वरन् सही को लागू करना और गलत को रोकना उनका कर्तव्य है जो व्यक्तिगत मुस्लिम और उम्मा पर लागू होती है.

सही – गलत की पहचान करना, न्याय और नैतिकता को मिलाने के इस आदर्श ने आधुनिक इस्लामी राजनीति की जीवित रखा है. इस्लामी सक्रियतावादी यद्पि पुरातन इस्लामी समुदाय की ओर वापसी की अपील करते हैं, किन्तु वह जानते हैं कि आज विश्व वह नहीं है जो मुहम्मद साहब के समय में था. वह चाहते हैं कि मुहम्मद साहब के न्याय के संदेश को पहुंचा सकें न कि सातवीं शताब्दी को वापस लाएं. इसके उलट पश्चिमी देशों में व्याप्त शक के विरुद्ध इस्लाम अमेरिका-विरोधी नहीं है, बल्कि इस बात से नाराज है कि मुस्लिम देशों में भ्रष्टाचार-अनैतिकता बढ़ती जा रही है और वह अमेरिका के विरुद्ध इसलिए है कि वह भ्रष्ट सरकार का समर्थन कर रहा है. इस प्रकार इस्लाम विरोध की घरेलू राजनीति है.

आलोचक इस्लाम की इस विशेषता को पहचानने में असमर्थ होने के कारण शिकायत करते हैं कि इस्लाम ने कभी भी सुधार का लाभ नहीं उठाया अर्थात् इस्लाम में धर्मस्थल (जैसे चर्च) और राज्य का पृथक्करण नहीं है. मूलभूत रूप से वह इस सच्चाई को नज़रअन्दाज़ कर देते हैं कि इस्लाम में कोई चर्च (वर्गीकृत धार्मिक संस्था) नहीं है (कम से कम सुन्नियों में). वह इस बात को स्वीकार नहीं करते कि पश्चिम में चर्च और राज्य के गहरे रिश्ते हैं. उनमें राज्य चर्च पर ही निर्भर करता है. वैटिकन द्वारा लैटिन अमेरिका में स्वतन्त्रता का दमन करता इस बात  का उदाहरण है कि वहां पर चर्च तथा राज्य में तालमेल व मेल मिलाप है, इसके अतिरिक्त और बहुत से उदाहरण हैं. यूरोप में क्रिश्चिन डिमोक्रेटिक पार्टी से लेकर कैथोलिक चर्च तक जैसे – पोलैण्ड, आयरलैण्ड व इंग्लैण्ड के चर्च जिनमें राज्याध्यक्ष चर्च का सर्वोच्च गवर्नर होता है. अमेरिका में भी जहां पृथ्क्करण का मन्त्र प्राय: प्रयुक्त होता है, धर्म और राजनीति इतनी अभिन्न हैं कि चुनाव में उम्मीदवार को चर्च की सहमति लेनी पड़ती है. दूसरी ओर मुस्लिम देशों में अधिकतर उम्मीदवार किसी धार्मिक संस्था से बंधे नहीं होते. इसका अर्थ यह नहीं है कि इस्लाम राजनीतिक और ईसाईयत नहीं, वरन् किसी धार्मिक संस्था की इस्लाम में अनुपस्थिति मुसलमानों को अपने नाम से स्थापित आदेशों के विरुद्ध करने की स्वतन्त्रता देती है.

किस प्रकार, न्याय और नैतिकता, जिसका वायदा इस्लाम में किया गया है, को पुनर्जीवित किया जाए, तर्क का विषय है. शरीयत को लागू करना ही इसका उत्तर है – किन्तु किस तरह की शरीयत ? मुहम्मद साहब ने कुरान में राजनीति का बहुत थोड़ा वर्णन किया है और मुहम्मद साहब की मृत्यु के पश्चात् शरीयत अधिकतर व्याख्या का परिणाम है, और इसमें व्याख्या का कोई नियम निश्चित नहीं है. अब आधुनिक युग में बहाबी आदर्श उपस्थित हो गए हैं जो इस्लाम का कट्टरवादी दृष्टिकोण है. और जब ओसामा बिन लादेन अतिवादी इस्लामी कर्तव्यों की एक व्याख्या जारी करता है तो कोई भी शक्ति गैर-कट्टरवादी कहकर ठुकराने वाली नहीं होती.

जितनी इस्लाम में कानून और सही बर्ताव के विषय में व्याख्या की कमी है उससे और अधिक कमी है इस्लाम को पुन:  राज्य और समाज में लागू करने के साधनों में एकता की. इस्लामी गुटों में मिस्र के मुस्लिम भाइयों ने सआदत-हुस्नी मुबारक के काल में राजनीति में अहिंसा का मार्ग अपनाया. फिलिस्तीनी मुस्लिम भाई पहले ‘इन्तिफैदा’ से बदल कर ‘हमस’ हो गए जिनके लिए आत्मघाती बमबारी स्वीकार्य हथियार है. उन्होंने इज़रायल को बमबारी का निशाना बनाया जिससे आतंकवाद का रूप धारण कर लिया. दार्शनीय उग्र आतंकवाद को बढ़ावा देने वाले वही कारण हैं जो राजनीति को किसी भी अन्य स्थान पर प्रभावित करते हैं, अर्थात् स्थानीय सामाजिक, आर्थिक तथा दशा. जहां एक ओर स्थानीय प्रभाव सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण है, आज इन्टरनेट के सीमा रहित विश्व में 24 घंटे समाचारों द्वारा दूर की घटनाएं भी पहले से अधिक मायने रखती हैं.

आज  का सच यह है कि इस्लाम प्रचलित व्यवस्था से असंतुष्टों के लिए, न्याय प्राप्त करने के आशा के तौर पर स्थापित होता जा रहा है.  हिंसा न्याय प्राप्त करने के मार्ग के रूप में स्वीकार्य होती जा रही है. यह परिस्थिति अचानक उत्पन्न नहीं हुई वरन् इसका उद्भव उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी में ढूंढ़ा जा सकता है, अथवा उससे भी कुछ समय पूर्व में. अमेरिका और यूरोप में लोग इस इस्लामी इतिहास से अनभिज्ञ हैं किन्तु इस राजनैतिक आदर्श के विकास का मूल्यांकन व अध्ययन इस्लाम के गूढ़ रहस्यों को खोलने में सहायक हो सकता है. मन्सूर मोआडेल का ‘इस्लामी आधुनिकवाद’ इस्लामी राजनीति एवं राष्ट्रीय राज्यों के मध्य सम्बन्धों के विषय में विचार करने के लिए एक अच्छा तर्कपूर्ण विवरण है.

मोआडेल आधुनिक राजनैतिक विचारधारा की व्याख्या के लिए एक सामाजिक ढांचा तैयार करता है. यह ढांचा संकेत करता है कि किसी भी समाज में कोई एकता नहीं है, आदर्शों में महत्वपूर्ण परिवर्तन केवल तब होते हैं जब स्थितियों में अप्रत्याशित परिवर्तन समाज को हिला देते हैं और समाज असंतुष्ट हो जाता है. मध्य पूर्व तथा दक्षिण एशिया में 19वीं शताब्दी तक सामाजिक एवं राजनैतिक ढांचे में एक रूपता नहीं थी किन्तु स्थानीय स्तर पर काफी हद  तक स्थिरता थी. इसमें बदवाल यूरोप से प्रभावित हुआ है. बाहरी ताकतों ने एक चुनौती पैदा कर दी है, मध्य एशिया में भी वैश्विक आर्थिक पद्धति के द्वारा दबाव डाला गया कि वह भी यह तकनीक अपनाएं.

वह राज्य जिन्होंने सबसे पहले यूरोप की इस शक्ति का प्रभाव महसूस किया मुगल, आटोमन की शाही हुकूमत तथा काजर ईरान हैं जो किसी हद तक निर्बल राज्य माने जाते थे. राजनीति का नया मोड़ था इस्लाम की आधुनिक उदारवादी व्याख्या, वह धर्म जिसने तीनों हुकूमतों को उनकी ऐतिहासिक पहचान दी. इस्लामी आधुनिकीकरण का भारत के सय्यद अहमद खान तथा आटोमन साम्राज्य के मुहम्मद अब्दुल प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं. वह तर्क पर भरोसा करते हैं रुढ़ियों पर नहीं. उनके अनुसार प्राचीन रीतियों के स्थान पर आधुनिकता द्वारा प्रदत्त चुनौती का सामना करने के लिए तर्क अधिक महत्वपूर्ण है. बीसवीं शताब्दी के प्रारम्भिक चरण में स्थिति में परिवर्तन के कारण इस्लामी आधुनिक विचारधारा, उदारवादी राष्ट्रीयता में परिवर्तित हो गई. हसन-अल-बन्ना ने 1928 में मुस्लिम भ्रातृ संघ का आरम्भ किया किन्तु विदेशी प्रभाव से वह निर्बल राजतन्त्रों में परिवर्तित हो गई. उदारवादी राष्ट्रवाद असफल हो गया तथा विदेशी प्रभाव जारी रहा. मिस्र में वफ्द पार्टी प्रभावशाली रही किन्तु वह केवल उच्च वर्ग में ही रूचि रखती थी. जबकि सीरिया में उदारवादी राष्ट्रवादी दल न ही युद्धेतर फ्रांसीसी नियंत्रण समाप्त कर पाए और न ही 1950 की सरकारों को संभाल सके. ईरान में उदारवादी राष्ट्रवाद को प्रधानमंत्री मुहम्मद मुसद्देग के पतन ने शक्तिहीन कर दिया जो एग्लो-अमेरिका गठजोड़ द्वारा 1953 में सम्भव हुआ.

उदारवादी राष्ट्रीय प्रजातन्त्र सामाजिक, आर्थिक विकास या पूर्ण सफलता प्राप्त करने में असमर्थ रहा. हालांकि घरेलू क्षेत्र में इसने कुछ शक्ति प्राप्त की और 1945 के बाद इसमें प्रगति की लहर उत्पन्न हुई और उन्नति का ऐसा इन्जन बना दिया जिसको चुनौती नहीं दी जा सकती. मिस्र, सीरिया, ईरान और अल्जीरिया में ईरान की शाही हुकूमत शाह मुहम्मद रज़ा के अन्तर्गत अरब समाजवाद ने निरंकुश राजतन्त्र स्थापित कर दिया जिसने राजनीति में ही नहीं बल्कि आर्थिक व सांस्कृतिक क्षेत्र में एकाधिकार स्थापित कर लिया. यह धर्म निरपेक्ष राज्य थे और पहली बार राज्य ने धर्म पर पूर्ण नियन्त्रण प्राप्त किया, और उस नियंत्रण को उसी नियम के विरुद्ध प्रयुक्त किया जिसकी वह स्वयं सुरक्षा करता था. जिन्होंने विरोध किया उनको देश निकाला अथवा फांसी की सज़ा दी गई जैसे मिस्र के सैय्यद कुतुब तथा ईरान के अयातुल्ला खुमैनी. इससे विरोध उत्पन्न हुआ. अरब समाजवादी राज्यों ने 1967 में छह दिनों के युद्ध में इज़राइल से मात खाई जबकि ईरान में ‘श्वेत क्रान्ति’ के द्वारा शाह ने जनता को सरकार से दूर कर दिया. हालांकि यह राज्य अपनी गलतियों के बावजूद बच गए. उन राज्यों में जहां राज्य राजनीतिक एवं सांस्कृतिक मामलों में पूर्ण शक्ति रखता है, जहां धर्म निरपेक्षता में विश्वास रखने वाले हैं, उन्हें भी इस्लामी कट्टरवाद की ओर देखना पड़ता है. अत: कट्टरवादी इस्लामी राजनीति मजबूत होती है.

जार्डन ने अधिक उदार उदाहरण प्रस्तुत किया, जिससे यह स्पष्ट हो गया कि स्थानीय राजनैतिक स्थितियां इस्लामी आदर्शों को मूर्त रूप देती हैं. यद्यपि जॉर्डन के इस्लाम पर भी कट्टरवाद का प्रभाव है, उनका सबसे वृहद गुट, ‘मुस्लिम ब्रदर’ राजनीति में खींचा गया है और उन्हें अपना संदेश राजनैतिक कार्यक्रम के समानान्तर बनाना पड़ा.

मोअडेल का विश्लेषण बहुत ठोस है और तथ्यों पर आधारित है. उसने पाठक को याद दिलाया कि जिस चीज़ के विरुद्ध आदर्श प्रदर्शन करते हैं वही सबसे महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती है. इसके साथ ही पश्चिमी शक्तियों की मध्य-पूर्व और दक्षिण एशिया के राजनैतिक आदर्शों के निर्माण में क्या भूमिका है उन्होंने यह भी स्पष्ट किया. पश्चिमी प्रभाव यद्यपि राजनैतिक विकास में एक कारण रहा है किन्तु मुख्य शक्ति सदा घरेलू आन्तरिक परिवर्तन ही रहे हैं. यूरोप तथा संयुक्त राष्ट्र को सदा इसी दृष्टि से देखा गया है, जैसा आजकल ‘इस्लाम पर वार’ के विषय में माना जा रहा है. यह गहन चिन्ता का विषय है.

इस्लामी आधुनिकतावाद पढ़ने योग्य है, किन्तु गैर-साहित्यिक लोग इस पचाने में कठिनाई महसूस करते हैं. मोअडेल का लेख यद्यपि लोग दिलचस्पी से पढ़ना चाहते हैं किन्तु उसमें लेखकों एवं विषय की इतनी जानकारी है कि प्रारम्भिक पाठक को बहुत समय लग जाता है, किन्तु यह प्रयास सार्थक सिद्ध होगा. क्योंकि, बहुत कम पुस्तकें इतना अधिक ज्ञान प्रदान करती हैं. अन्य महत्वपूर्ण रचना है एल्बर्ट हुरानी की ‘अरेबिक थॉट इन दि लिबरल एज़’

कट्टरवादी इस्लाम के अध्ययन के लिए बेवरली मिलटन एडवर्ड की ‘इस्लामिक फंडामेन्टलिज्म सिन्स 1945’ भी अच्छा ज्ञान प्रदान करती है. एडवर्ड अन्य मुद्दे भी उठाता है जैसे ‘राजनैतिक इस्लाम के उदय में राष्ट्रीय निरंकुश राज्यों को धर्मनिरपेक्ष बनाने की महत्ता’. मिल्टन एडवर्ड के सर्वेक्षण का एक सकारात्मक पहलू यह है कि कुछ गुटों की प्रसिद्धि के कारणों की मान्यता की गई है, जैसे – मिस्र में ‘मुस्लिम ब्रदर्स’, फिलिस्तीन में ‘हमस’ तथा लेबनान में ‘हिज्ब-अल्लाह’. पश्चिमी कल्पना अन्तिम दो गुटों को हिंसा से जोड़ती है. अमरीकी सरकार ने मिस्र में प्रजातन्त्र की स्थापना में मिस्री सरकार के हस्तक्षेप अथवा ‘मुस्लिम ब्रदर्स’ की 2006 के चुनाव में बढ़ती शक्ति पर रोक लगाने के विरोध में कोई विशेष रुख नहीं अपनाया. इन गुटों ने फिर भी अपने आदर्शों से कोई विशेष समर्थक नहीं बटोरे, बल्कि सामाजिक कार्यों – (निर्धनों की सहायता व ऐसे कार्य जो निर्बल और भ्रष्ट सरकारें नहीं कर सकीं) से अधिक समर्थक एकत्रित कर लिए. इससे यह आशाएं बढ़ीं कि यदि सरकार में धर्मपरायण लोग होंगे तो वह कम भ्रष्ट और अधिक नैतिक होगी, राजनीतिज्ञों से बेहतर होगी जहां मिल्टन एडवर्ड गरीबी और अर्थ-सम्बन्धी समस्याओं पर अधिक ध्यान देते हैं, इन्हीं को इस्लामी गुटबन्दी के लिए उत्तरदायी मानते हैं, वहीं चुनाव में फिलस्तीन में ‘हमस’ तथा तुर्की में ए.के. पार्टी की विजय बहुत कुछ कहती है, इन चुनावों में इनके विरोधी भ्रष्ट, धर्म निरपेक्ष प्रशासक थे.

विश्व के दूसरे क्षेत्रों से देखने पर, अनेक इस्लामी संगठन अपने पश्चिम के प्रति वैरभाव के कारण अलग दिखते हैं. मिल्टन एडवर्ड यूरोप तथा अमरीका की जनता को इस विषय पर शिक्षित करता है. यह निश्चित है कि पश्चिमी सभ्यता विरोध का पात्र इसलिए बनती है कि वह अनैतिक मानी जाती है. मुख्य रूप से अमरीकी नीतियां अपशब्द का पात्र बनती हैं. राष्ट्रपति जार्ज बुश के इस उत्तर ने तेजाबी कार्य किया जब उन्होंने इस प्रश्न का – वह हमसे घृणा क्यों करते हैं ? यह कहकर उत्तर दिया कि ‘’वे हमारी स्वतंत्रता से घृणा करते हैं, हमारी धार्मिक स्वतन्त्रता से, हमारी अभिव्यक्ति की स्वतंत्रता से, हमारी वोट देने की स्वतंत्रता से घृणा करते हैं. हम जो कुछ हैं उससे नहीं बल्कि हम जो कुछ करते हैं उससे घृणा करते हैं.’’

मिल्टन एडवर्ड ने अपनी पुस्तक में ऐतिहासिक पूर्व की बातों का बहुत थोड़ा सा वर्णन किया है इसमें वर्तनी और अरबी शब्दों की बहुत त्रुटियां हैं, इन सबके बावजूद इस्लामी कट्टरवाद का ठोस परिचय दिया है.

सर्वेक्षण से ज्ञात हुआ कि मियां ब्लूम ने सैनिक आदर्श पर अधिक अच्छा लिखा है. उसने लिखा है कि पुराने काल में आत्मघाती हमले की तरकीब सफल रही. विशेष रूप से जापान की कमीकजे सैनिक विद्या का वर्णन किया है जो द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध में प्रयोग की गई थी. समकालीन क्षेत्र में उसने एक अध्याय में श्रीलंका तथा तुर्की के कुर्दिश क्षेत्र में आत्मघाती आतंकवाद का वर्णन किया है. इसी के साथ चेचिनिया, कोलम्बिया, लेबनान और उत्तरीय आयरलैण्ड का भी वर्णन है और यह भी वर्णित है कि हमले में यह रूप क्यों अपनाए गए हैं. आत्मघाती हमला अन्तिम हथियार है, यह समाज के स्वीकार करने पर आधारित तथा निर्भर है. यदि समाज इसे स्वीकार करता है तब इसे शत्रु को प्रभावित करने के लिए नहीं वरन् प्रचार के लिए भी प्रयुक्त किया जा सकता है. अधिकतर अध्याय में आत्मघातियों की प्रेरणा पर एक भाग अवश्य लिखा है. विशेष रूप से श्रीलंका पर लिखे अध्याय विश्लेषणात्मक से अधिक वर्णनात्मक हैं.

जोसलीन सिज़ारी की पुस्तक ‘’व्हेन इस्लाम एण्ड डेमोक्रेसी मीट’’ इस्लाम के विषय में अत्यन्त मनोरंजक अध्ययन है. सिज़री के अनुसार मुस्लिम समुदाय को अपने लिए अमरीकी समाज में स्थान बनाने में यूरोप के मुकाबले में कम समस्याओं  का सामना करना पड़ा. शरीयत की स्थानीय व्याख्या उस क्षेत्र के कानून से प्रभावित होती है. किन्तु कुछ मामलों में सरकारों ने इस्लाम को राज्य द्वारा मान्यता प्रधान धर्म माना है और कानूनी मामलों में शरीयत के कुछ तत्व भी स्वीकार किए हैं. इस उन्नत संचार व्यवस्था के युग में यह संभव है कि पश्चिमी क्षेत्रों में रहने वाले मुस्लिम अपने को वैश्विक उम्मा का भाग महसूस करें, प्रजातान्त्रिक, धर्म निरपेक्ष पश्चिम में एक उचित मुस्लिम जीवन व्यतीत करने के लिए किस चीज की आवश्यकता है, इसको आंकने के भी प्रयास जारी हैं. सिजारी ने कुछ समाज सुधारकों जैसे तारिक रमादान और खालिद अबू-अल-फदल का वर्णन किया है. आज के सुधारक तर्क द्वारा अवतरण की व्याख्या इसलिए करते हैं कि वह मुस्लिम जो विभिन्न समाजों में निवास कर रहे हों वे धर्म के आवश्यक तत्तों का पालन कर सकें.

सिज़ारी की पुस्तक यूरोप तथा अमरीका में बड़े चाव से पढ़ी जा रही हैं.

फहद् ज़कारिया की पुस्तक, जिसका अनुवाद इब्राहिम अबू रबी द्वारा किया गया, सादात की हत्या के बाद लिखी गई. इस पुस्तक में, जिसका नाम ‘मिथ एण्ड रियालिटी इन कन्टेम्परेरी इस्लामिक मूवमेंट’ है, धर्मनिरपेक्षता को इस्लामी राजनीति से श्रेष्ठ बताया गया है. ज़कारिया के बचाव के बावजूद धर्म निरपेक्षता ने मिस्र वासियों की आशाओं को पूर्ण नहीं किया. ज़कारिया की पुस्तक इस बात का प्रमाण है कि इस्लाम के मध्य पूर्व  में आज भी अनेक आलोचक हैं.

इसका भविष्य क्या होगा ? उपरोक्त वर्णित पुस्तकों के निष्कर्ष के आधार पर यह तर्क प्रस्तुत किया जा सकता है कि इस्लाम को उग्रवाद से दूर करने के लिए मुस्लिम विश्व में व्याप्त तीखी राजनीति को कम किया जाए. यह सभी पुस्तकें इस बात पर सहमत हैं कि इस्लाम की प्रकृति स्थानीय राजनीति और सामाजिक दशा पर निर्भर करती हैं. जितने कठोर यह क्षेत्र होंगे उतना ही इस्लाम उग्रवाद की ओर बढ़ेगा. जैसा कि जार्डन का उदाहरण प्रस्तुत करके मोअद्दल ने सुझाव दिया है, कि जितने इस्लामी गुटों को प्रतिवाद के प्रतीक के स्थान पर राजनैतिक वर्ग के रूप में कार्य करने का अवसर दिया जाएगा उतना ही वे व्यवहारिक हो जाएंगे. ‘’इस्लाम हल है’’, मुस्लिम ब्रदर्स का आदर्श और ज़कारिया द्वारा निन्दित एक नारा, समझ में आने वाले कार्यक्रम के रूप में काफी नहीं है. यह संभव है कि बुश शासन द्वारा प्रजातन्त्र की ओर बुलाना ही सही हो यदि वाशिंगटन ही नतीजे(परिणाम) को कुशलता पूर्वक घुमा देने के प्रयास से बचने की कोशिश करे.

(पुनर्लेखन : डॉ सोफ़िया अकिल, रीडर, इतिहास विभाग, क्राइस्ट चर्च कॉलेज, कानपुर एवं शोधार्थी शोध-मण्डल)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘जर्नल ऑफ कन्टेम्पोरेरी हिस्ट्री’, वाल्यूम 42, संख्या 3, 2007, पृष्ठ  555-564 से साभार उद्धत. मूल लेख ‘रिव्यू आर्टिकिल :  द पॉलिटिक्स ऑफ इस्लाम’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित.

 

108 comments

  1. My spouse and i got really thrilled when Chris managed to deal with his research because of the ideas he discovered through your blog. It’s not at all simplistic to simply happen to be freely giving strategies which the rest could have been selling. And we all take into account we need the writer to give thanks to because of that. The entire illustrations you made, the easy blog menu, the friendships you will give support to create – it’s all fabulous, and it’s leading our son and our family reason why this matter is enjoyable, which is really fundamental. Thank you for all the pieces!

  2. My husband and i were absolutely fortunate when Louis managed to deal with his investigation by way of the ideas he was given from your very own site. It’s not at all simplistic to simply happen to be handing out methods that other folks may have been making money from. We really take into account we have the writer to thank for that. The most important explanations you have made, the straightforward web site navigation, the friendships you assist to create – it’s mostly exceptional, and it is aiding our son and our family do think this subject matter is pleasurable, and that is highly vital. Many thanks for everything!

  3. Thanks a lot for providing individuals with such a pleasant chance to read from this website. It is often very useful and full of amusement for me and my office fellow workers to visit your web site nearly three times in one week to learn the newest stuff you will have. And lastly, I am also usually contented with your eye-popping suggestions you give. Some two facts in this article are in truth the most impressive I have had.

  4. Thanks so much for giving everyone an exceptionally wonderful possiblity to read articles and blog posts from this blog. It is always so enjoyable and as well , stuffed with a lot of fun for me personally and my office acquaintances to visit your blog at minimum thrice in 7 days to learn the latest secrets you have got. Of course, I’m so certainly pleased concerning the fabulous strategies served by you. Selected two points on this page are really the best we have had.

  5. I actually wanted to jot down a remark in order to appreciate you for the wonderful guides you are giving out on this site. My extended internet investigation has at the end of the day been honored with brilliant insight to exchange with my friends and classmates. I would state that that many of us readers actually are unquestionably fortunate to dwell in a wonderful website with so many awesome individuals with useful secrets. I feel extremely blessed to have come across your entire web page and look forward to so many more entertaining minutes reading here. Thanks a lot again for a lot of things.

  6. My husband and i have been very delighted when Edward could deal with his homework because of the ideas he received in your web page. It’s not at all simplistic to simply choose to be making a gift of facts which often people today could have been selling. And we all fully understand we have got the website owner to appreciate for that. The main illustrations you’ve made, the easy web site menu, the relationships you help engender – it’s mostly astounding, and it’s facilitating our son and the family believe that that subject is entertaining, and that’s extraordinarily mandatory. Thanks for all!

  7. I precisely wished to thank you very much once again. I do not know the things I would have made to happen without the opinions documented by you on my field. It absolutely was the frightful case in my circumstances, but seeing the very professional style you dealt with the issue forced me to leap over fulfillment. I’m happier for this work and in addition hope you comprehend what a powerful job you are always carrying out educating many people thru your blog. Most probably you haven’t come across any of us.

  8. Thanks for all of the work on this web site. Kim enjoys conducting investigation and it’s really easy to understand why. My spouse and i notice all concerning the powerful means you render very helpful tactics by means of this blog and cause contribution from website visitors about this concept so our favorite simple princess is without question learning a lot of things. Have fun with the remaining portion of the new year. You are doing a really great job.

  9. My wife and i were contented Ervin managed to finish up his studies by way of the ideas he was given through your blog. It’s not at all simplistic just to choose to be giving for free guidelines which usually others have been selling. We realize we have the website owner to be grateful to for that. All of the explanations you made, the straightforward blog menu, the relationships you will make it easier to create – it’s everything terrific, and it’s leading our son in addition to the family understand that subject is pleasurable, and that is seriously indispensable. Thanks for all the pieces!

  10. My wife and i have been really more than happy when Peter managed to finish up his survey through your precious recommendations he gained out of the site. It is now and again perplexing to simply choose to be giving away helpful tips which the others may have been trying to sell. We really grasp we’ve got you to be grateful to for this. These illustrations you made, the simple site navigation, the relationships you will help to instill – it’s many impressive, and it’s really letting our son and our family feel that the subject matter is thrilling, and that’s particularly pressing. Thank you for the whole lot!

  11. I and my friends were found to be reading through the excellent guidelines from the website then at once I got a terrible feeling I had not thanked the web blog owner for those strategies. These people appeared to be so thrilled to read through them and now have clearly been using those things. Thanks for really being very accommodating as well as for finding this sort of cool subjects most people are really wanting to be aware of. Our sincere apologies for not expressing appreciation to you earlier.

  12. I and also my friends have already been looking through the excellent solutions located on your web blog and quickly came up with an awful suspicion I never thanked you for those tips. All of the young men are actually absolutely thrilled to learn all of them and have now in truth been taking pleasure in those things. Thank you for simply being very kind and also for obtaining some ideal tips most people are really needing to know about. My very own honest apologies for not expressing gratitude to you sooner.

  13. I not to mention my buddies were checking the excellent guides located on your web page and so instantly developed an awful suspicion I never expressed respect to you for them. The boys ended up very interested to read all of them and have in effect seriously been taking advantage of these things. Many thanks for turning out to be very thoughtful and for making a decision on these kinds of superb subjects most people are really needing to discover. My sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to sooner.

  14. Thank you a lot for providing individuals with a very marvellous possiblity to check tips from this blog. It’s always very amazing and also packed with amusement for me and my office peers to search your site on the least thrice every week to read through the new secrets you have got. Of course, I’m always pleased with your powerful opinions served by you. Some 2 areas on this page are truly the most suitable we have all ever had.

  15. I together with my guys were found to be digesting the excellent key points found on the website and then then I had a terrible suspicion I had not expressed respect to the web blog owner for those strategies. My young boys were certainly stimulated to see all of them and have without a doubt been taking advantage of them. Appreciate your being quite thoughtful as well as for deciding on this sort of decent tips most people are really eager to discover. Our honest apologies for not saying thanks to you earlier.

  16. I would like to point out my affection for your kind-heartedness giving support to those who must have assistance with this one subject. Your real commitment to passing the solution around appears to be certainly significant and have consistently enabled men and women like me to arrive at their targets. Your valuable key points implies a great deal to me and much more to my office colleagues. Best wishes; from everyone of us.

  17. My wife and i were now ecstatic when Louis could round up his basic research through your ideas he discovered through the web page. It is now and again perplexing to just continually be giving freely information which usually the rest might have been selling. So we remember we have the writer to be grateful to for that. The most important explanations you’ve made, the straightforward blog navigation, the relationships your site make it possible to create – it’s mostly impressive, and it’s assisting our son and our family do think the matter is entertaining, and that is very fundamental. Many thanks for all the pieces!

  18. Thank you for every one of your work on this blog. My daughter really loves carrying out investigations and it’s really obvious why. A number of us know all relating to the compelling manner you provide informative tactics by means of the web blog and as well as boost participation from other individuals on this concept so my girl is now discovering so much. Take pleasure in the rest of the new year. Your conducting a good job.

  19. Needed to write you the little remark so as to thank you very much over again for your striking suggestions you have shown here. This has been so extremely open-handed with people like you to deliver publicly exactly what many of us would have advertised for an electronic book to end up making some cash for themselves, most notably considering that you might have tried it in the event you decided. Those principles also served to be the great way to know that other people online have a similar passion just like my personal own to grasp more in respect of this issue. I’m sure there are many more pleasant occasions up front for many who look into your blog post.

  20. My husband and i have been now thankful that Peter could do his reports using the ideas he acquired through your site. It is now and again perplexing to just always be releasing instructions which often the others may have been trying to sell. We keep in mind we have got the blog owner to appreciate for this. All the explanations you have made, the straightforward web site navigation, the relationships your site make it possible to engender – it’s everything overwhelming, and it’s really helping our son in addition to the family know that that situation is excellent, and that is really vital. Many thanks for the whole lot!

  21. I and also my guys happened to be digesting the excellent suggestions found on the blog and so then got a terrible suspicion I had not thanked you for those secrets. All of the young boys became for that reason passionate to see them and now have clearly been having fun with them. Appreciate your getting so kind and for deciding on this sort of very good topics millions of individuals are really desirous to understand about. My honest regret for not expressing gratitude to sooner.

  22. Thanks a lot for giving everyone such a remarkable opportunity to discover important secrets from this website. It can be very beneficial and packed with a great time for me personally and my office mates to search your blog at least three times in a week to study the fresh tips you have got. And indeed, we’re always happy with your wonderful methods you serve. Selected two ideas on this page are certainly the most beneficial we’ve had.

  23. My husband and i ended up being quite joyous that Emmanuel managed to round up his research while using the precious recommendations he grabbed from your very own blog. It is now and again perplexing to simply continually be giving away guides which a number of people might have been making money from. And we all acknowledge we have got the blog owner to be grateful to for that. The main illustrations you have made, the easy site navigation, the friendships your site make it possible to foster – it is many amazing, and it’s really letting our son and us understand that matter is interesting, and that’s particularly essential. Many thanks for everything!

  24. I and my buddies were reading the excellent guides located on your site and so all of the sudden I got a terrible suspicion I never expressed respect to the web blog owner for those secrets. The guys had been for this reason thrilled to learn all of them and now have actually been having fun with them. Thanks for being simply accommodating and for opting for these kinds of remarkable themes millions of individuals are really eager to know about. Our honest regret for not saying thanks to sooner.

  25. I am also writing to make you understand of the brilliant discovery my friend’s princess had browsing your web site. She realized a wide variety of pieces, not to mention what it is like to possess an amazing teaching heart to have most people really easily thoroughly grasp several specialized topics. You really exceeded visitors’ desires. Thank you for presenting the good, trustworthy, edifying and also easy thoughts on that topic to Gloria.

  26. Thanks a lot for giving everyone an exceptionally remarkable chance to read from this site. It’s always very kind and as well , jam-packed with a good time for me and my office colleagues to visit your blog particularly thrice in 7 days to read through the latest issues you will have. And lastly, we are at all times happy with the cool ideas you give. Some 2 ideas on this page are basically the most beneficial I’ve had.

  27. Thanks for your own work on this site. My mum enjoys setting aside time for investigations and it’s obvious why. A number of us learn all about the lively mode you deliver invaluable techniques by means of this website and even inspire response from the others about this topic and our simple princess is learning a lot of things. Have fun with the rest of the new year. You are conducting a remarkable job.

  28. I would like to express my appreciation to this writer for bailing me out of this issue. Just after searching throughout the the web and coming across principles which were not powerful, I assumed my life was done. Existing minus the approaches to the issues you have resolved as a result of your main write-up is a serious case, as well as the ones that could have in a wrong way affected my entire career if I hadn’t noticed the blog. Your main training and kindness in handling all the stuff was vital. I’m not sure what I would have done if I had not come across such a thing like this. I’m able to at this moment look forward to my future. Thank you so much for this reliable and sensible guide. I will not be reluctant to propose your blog to any person who needs support about this area.

  29. I would like to express some thanks to the writer just for bailing me out of this particular instance. After looking throughout the world wide web and meeting strategies that were not pleasant, I assumed my entire life was done. Existing devoid of the solutions to the issues you’ve fixed by means of this report is a crucial case, as well as ones that could have in a negative way damaged my entire career if I had not noticed your blog post. Your own skills and kindness in playing with all areas was crucial. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t come across such a subject like this. It’s possible to now relish my future. Thanks very much for the reliable and results-oriented help. I will not hesitate to suggest the sites to anybody who ought to have assistance on this subject.

  30. I intended to post you that very little observation to help give many thanks over again with your amazing things you’ve documented on this site. It is simply generous of you to deliver publicly what exactly a few individuals would have made available for an e book to make some bucks for their own end, principally now that you could possibly have tried it if you ever wanted. These ideas also worked to become good way to know that other people online have the same fervor the same as my personal own to grasp a good deal more when considering this issue. I think there are lots of more enjoyable occasions ahead for people who scan your website.

  31. I in addition to my pals appeared to be taking note of the great ideas located on your web blog while immediately developed a terrible suspicion I had not expressed respect to the site owner for them. My ladies had been as a consequence warmed to read through all of them and now have in truth been taking advantage of them. Appreciation for turning out to be quite accommodating as well as for settling on this kind of helpful subjects most people are really desperate to understand about. Our sincere regret for not expressing appreciation to you sooner.

  32. I would like to convey my respect for your generosity in support of folks who should have assistance with your idea. Your special dedication to getting the solution across has been amazingly practical and have always allowed guys like me to achieve their pursuits. Your entire invaluable useful information entails a great deal a person like me and additionally to my peers. Regards; from each one of us.

  33. I must express some appreciation to you just for rescuing me from this problem. After searching through the search engines and coming across notions that were not beneficial, I assumed my life was over. Existing minus the answers to the problems you have sorted out by way of the post is a critical case, as well as those which could have in a negative way damaged my entire career if I had not noticed the blog. Your primary skills and kindness in playing with almost everything was helpful. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I had not come across such a point like this. I can also at this point look ahead to my future. Thank you so much for your skilled and sensible guide. I won’t hesitate to suggest the sites to any person who needs and wants direction about this subject.

  34. I simply wanted to compose a comment so as to appreciate you for all the wonderful ways you are sharing at this website. My rather long internet look up has now been compensated with good quality facts and strategies to share with my visitors. I ‘d say that most of us readers are unquestionably lucky to be in a great place with so many awesome professionals with great hints. I feel truly lucky to have seen the web site and look forward to tons of more amazing minutes reading here. Thank you once again for everything.

  35. Thanks for your entire effort on this web site. Ellie really likes participating in research and it is simple to grasp why. A lot of people hear all regarding the dynamic tactic you present informative thoughts through your web site and as well as foster response from other people on the concept so our favorite daughter is certainly learning so much. Take pleasure in the rest of the new year. You’re the one doing a first class job.

  36. I simply wished to thank you very much once again. I am not sure the things I could possibly have handled in the absence of the actual concepts shared by you relating to such situation. Certainly was a very daunting situation in my circumstances, nevertheless being able to view a expert form you resolved it forced me to weep for gladness. Now i’m grateful for your information and expect you comprehend what a great job that you’re doing instructing the rest through the use of your blog post. Most likely you’ve never met any of us.

  37. I simply wanted to say thanks once again. I do not know the things I would’ve used without these smart ideas revealed by you directly on my industry. This has been a real alarming situation in my opinion, but seeing the very professional manner you resolved the issue forced me to cry with happiness. I am just thankful for your work and even wish you find out what a great job you’re carrying out training people today through the use of your webblog. I know that you haven’t got to know all of us.

  38. I want to point out my admiration for your kind-heartedness supporting visitors who need help with this area. Your real dedication to passing the message across became rather insightful and has specifically encouraged girls like me to reach their goals. Your new useful hints and tips means this much to me and substantially more to my office colleagues. Regards; from everyone of us.

  39. Needed to send you that very small note to finally thank you so much the moment again for your personal awesome pointers you have documented above. It has been certainly incredibly open-handed with people like you to grant unhampered all many of us could possibly have sold as an e book to help with making some money on their own, even more so considering the fact that you could have done it in the event you considered necessary. These solutions likewise acted as the easy way to realize that other people online have the same zeal just as mine to know the truth somewhat more in respect of this matter. I believe there are numerous more pleasurable instances ahead for folks who examine your site.

  40. I and my guys were analyzing the best recommendations from the website while suddenly came up with a terrible suspicion I had not thanked the website owner for those tips. My young men were absolutely warmed to read all of them and have simply been using them. Thank you for really being really considerate as well as for selecting some decent information most people are really needing to learn about. My very own honest apologies for not saying thanks to sooner.

  41. My spouse and i ended up being so fortunate when Edward managed to carry out his inquiry from the ideas he got through your site. It is now and again perplexing just to find yourself giving out hints other people might have been selling. And we realize we have got you to appreciate for that. All of the explanations you have made, the simple blog navigation, the friendships your site aid to instill – it’s all wonderful, and it’s really assisting our son in addition to us imagine that the issue is pleasurable, and that’s highly mandatory. Thank you for the whole lot!

  42. I wish to show my appreciation to you just for rescuing me from this situation. As a result of scouting through the the net and coming across ideas which were not productive, I was thinking my entire life was over. Existing without the solutions to the problems you have resolved through your article is a serious case, as well as ones that could have negatively affected my entire career if I hadn’t encountered your blog post. The talents and kindness in touching all the things was vital. I’m not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t come across such a stuff like this. I can at this point look forward to my future. Thanks a lot very much for the expert and effective help. I won’t think twice to propose your blog to any person who will need care on this matter.

  43. Thank you for all of your effort on this site. Kim really loves getting into internet research and it’s obvious why. My spouse and i learn all concerning the dynamic means you create advantageous suggestions through this blog and as well as cause participation from some other people on that concern and our favorite simple princess has always been learning a whole lot. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You’re conducting a superb job.

  44. Thanks a lot for giving everyone remarkably special possiblity to check tips from this web site. It’s usually so superb and also jam-packed with fun for me and my office acquaintances to visit the blog at a minimum 3 times in one week to read the fresh guides you have. Of course, I am just certainly fascinated with the powerful secrets you serve. Selected 3 facts on this page are in fact the finest we have had.

  45. Thanks for all your valuable labor on this web page. My daughter enjoys getting into investigation and it’s really simple to grasp why. All of us learn all relating to the dynamic tactic you create helpful techniques by means of the website and in addition foster response from website visitors on the theme plus our girl is undoubtedly starting to learn a lot of things. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the year. You have been performing a good job.

  46. I really wanted to construct a brief remark so as to appreciate you for some of the amazing items you are giving at this site. My extended internet investigation has now been compensated with brilliant suggestions to go over with my family and friends. I would mention that we visitors are quite fortunate to exist in a fabulous place with so many lovely professionals with interesting concepts. I feel quite fortunate to have seen your web site and look forward to plenty of more fabulous moments reading here. Thank you once more for everything.

  47. Thanks so much for providing individuals with an exceptionally spectacular opportunity to check tips from this website. It is always so nice plus jam-packed with a great time for me and my office acquaintances to search your website more than thrice in one week to read the latest issues you have. Not to mention, we’re certainly impressed considering the beautiful thoughts you give. Selected 1 points in this post are indeed the simplest I have had.

  48. Thank you a lot for giving everyone an extremely spectacular opportunity to read in detail from this web site. It is often very pleasurable and as well , jam-packed with a great time for me personally and my office fellow workers to search your blog a minimum of 3 times in a week to see the latest tips you will have. And of course, I am actually fascinated for the astounding principles you give. Selected 3 tips in this article are surely the most suitable we have ever had.

  49. A lot of thanks for your own effort on this web page. Kate take interest in working on internet research and it’s simple to grasp why. All of us notice all concerning the powerful mode you make efficient tricks by means of this website and cause participation from people on the article plus our favorite child is certainly discovering a whole lot. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You’re the one conducting a splendid job.

  50. I must convey my love for your kindness in support of those who really need assistance with the question. Your very own commitment to getting the solution around has been exceptionally productive and has really permitted workers much like me to attain their goals. Your entire important report indicates a whole lot a person like me and especially to my office workers. Thank you; from each one of us.

  51. Thanks so much for giving everyone a very remarkable chance to read critical reviews from this web site. It’s always so sweet and as well , jam-packed with amusement for me personally and my office fellow workers to visit your site at the very least thrice a week to see the fresh guidance you have. And of course, we are certainly contented with all the impressive tips you serve. Selected 4 areas in this article are ultimately the most impressive we have ever had.

  52. I want to express my respect for your kind-heartedness supporting persons who actually need assistance with this particular area of interest. Your personal commitment to passing the solution all around had been amazingly beneficial and have really encouraged most people just like me to realize their ambitions. The helpful tips and hints indicates a lot a person like me and somewhat more to my colleagues. Many thanks; from all of us.

  53. I simply wanted to thank you very much once more. I do not know the things I could possibly have taken care of in the absence of those hints shown by you regarding my area of interest. Entirely was an absolute daunting matter for me, but spending time with the very specialized manner you treated that made me to weep for happiness. I am thankful for this advice as well as have high hopes you find out what an amazing job you are always doing instructing men and women all through your web blog. I’m certain you have never got to know any of us.

  54. I wish to show thanks to this writer just for rescuing me from this type of incident. Just after browsing throughout the online world and obtaining ideas that were not beneficial, I believed my life was done. Living minus the answers to the difficulties you’ve resolved through this article is a critical case, as well as the ones which could have in a wrong way affected my entire career if I had not come across your blog post. The know-how and kindness in dealing with all things was valuable. I don’t know what I would have done if I hadn’t come upon such a point like this. I’m able to at this time relish my future. Thanks a lot so much for the reliable and effective help. I will not think twice to suggest your blog post to any person who wants and needs care about this problem.

  55. I have to express thanks to the writer for bailing me out of this type of matter. As a result of looking through the internet and obtaining notions which are not beneficial, I figured my entire life was gone. Being alive without the strategies to the problems you’ve solved as a result of your good article content is a critical case, as well as ones that would have badly damaged my career if I hadn’t discovered your blog post. That skills and kindness in taking care of every aspect was valuable. I am not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t encountered such a subject like this. It’s possible to at this moment relish my future. Thanks for your time so much for this impressive and result oriented help. I won’t think twice to suggest the sites to anybody who should get tips on this situation.

  56. I have to express appreciation to you for bailing me out of this type of predicament. As a result of exploring throughout the world-wide-web and finding views that were not powerful, I believed my entire life was done. Existing without the presence of strategies to the difficulties you’ve fixed all through your short article is a crucial case, as well as the kind which might have negatively damaged my career if I hadn’t encountered your website. That ability and kindness in touching a lot of things was helpful. I don’t know what I would have done if I had not encountered such a step like this. I am able to at this moment relish my future. Thank you so much for your specialized and results-oriented guide. I won’t hesitate to recommend your web blog to any person who needs and wants direction on this subject.

  57. I intended to draft you the tiny observation in order to say thank you over again for these gorgeous guidelines you’ve discussed in this case. It is remarkably generous with you to give easily just what a lot of people would have supplied for an e-book to help make some profit for themselves, most importantly given that you could possibly have done it in the event you wanted. The inspiring ideas also worked to be the great way to understand that many people have similar interest like my very own to learn more with respect to this issue. I know there are many more fun moments up front for individuals who scan your blog post.

  58. I would like to show my thanks to this writer just for rescuing me from such a problem. After checking throughout the world-wide-web and finding notions that were not productive, I figured my life was done. Living minus the solutions to the difficulties you’ve fixed by means of the site is a serious case, as well as ones which could have badly damaged my entire career if I had not encountered your blog post. Your personal expertise and kindness in controlling the whole thing was very helpful. I’m not sure what I would’ve done if I had not come upon such a point like this. I can also now look forward to my future. Thank you very much for your high quality and results-oriented help. I won’t be reluctant to recommend the website to anybody who would like recommendations about this problem.

  59. I must show some appreciation to you for rescuing me from this situation. Because of exploring throughout the world-wide-web and coming across suggestions that were not beneficial, I believed my entire life was done. Being alive devoid of the solutions to the issues you have fixed through this review is a crucial case, as well as those that might have negatively affected my career if I hadn’t discovered your site. Your good knowledge and kindness in taking care of almost everything was excellent. I am not sure what I would have done if I had not encountered such a stuff like this. It’s possible to at this time look forward to my future. Thanks so much for this skilled and effective help. I won’t be reluctant to refer the blog to any person who would like support about this problem.

  60. I not to mention my buddies happened to be reading through the nice tricks located on the blog and then instantly I had an awful suspicion I had not thanked the blog owner for those strategies. All the boys are actually totally passionate to read through them and have in effect without a doubt been having fun with them. I appreciate you for turning out to be well accommodating as well as for obtaining this kind of exceptional themes most people are really needing to understand about. Our own sincere apologies for not expressing appreciation to earlier.

  61. I want to point out my passion for your kindness in support of those people who really need assistance with this study. Your real dedication to passing the message all over has been remarkably useful and have continually enabled somebody much like me to get to their ambitions. Your new helpful publication implies so much to me and a whole lot more to my office colleagues. Many thanks; from everyone of us.

  62. I have to point out my respect for your generosity giving support to individuals that need assistance with in this concept. Your special commitment to passing the solution up and down had become exceedingly functional and have usually allowed ladies like me to attain their objectives. This warm and helpful instruction entails a whole lot a person like me and a whole lot more to my office colleagues. Thanks a lot; from all of us.

  63. I must convey my appreciation for your kind-heartedness supporting men and women that really want help on the concept. Your personal dedication to getting the solution across had been wonderfully functional and have in every case helped individuals much like me to reach their endeavors. Your entire important help and advice denotes much to me and somewhat more to my office workers. Thanks a ton; from each one of us.

  64. I’m also writing to make you be aware of what a fabulous experience my cousin’s daughter had reading the blog. She discovered a good number of things, not to mention what it is like to have an awesome teaching mindset to make many more with no trouble know several tortuous matters. You actually surpassed readers’ desires. Many thanks for producing these effective, trustworthy, edifying and even easy tips about this topic to Tanya.

  65. I enjoy you because of your whole effort on this web site. Kate take interest in making time for research and it’s easy to see why. We know all concerning the lively form you create helpful information via your web site and foster contribution from people on this article plus our favorite princess is certainly starting to learn so much. Take advantage of the rest of the new year. You’re carrying out a fabulous job.

  66. I simply had to thank you so much again. I do not know the things that I would’ve sorted out without the creative ideas shown by you directly on such a area. It previously was a very depressing crisis in my circumstances, but understanding a specialised form you resolved it made me to leap with contentment. Extremely happier for your advice and in addition hope you comprehend what a powerful job you happen to be accomplishing teaching the rest with the aid of a blog. I’m certain you have never got to know all of us.

  67. I enjoy you because of each of your labor on this site. Ellie enjoys engaging in research and it’s really obvious why. A number of us know all regarding the powerful way you render very important things via your web blog and even boost contribution from other individuals on that subject while my daughter is without question studying a lot. Enjoy the remaining portion of the year. You have been doing a useful job.

  68. I must point out my respect for your kindness supporting women who actually need help on that situation. Your special commitment to passing the solution along had been incredibly invaluable and has consistently encouraged somebody like me to reach their ambitions. Your new warm and friendly help indicates so much to me and extremely more to my mates. With thanks; from each one of us.

  69. I intended to compose you this very little note to be able to thank you as before considering the fantastic information you have documented on this page. It was certainly tremendously open-handed with people like you to allow without restraint precisely what many people could have marketed as an e-book to help with making some dough on their own, most importantly considering that you could have done it in case you considered necessary. These things as well served to be the easy way to be certain that other individuals have the same fervor just as my own to learn whole lot more with reference to this problem. I am certain there are lots of more enjoyable occasions in the future for many who scan your blog.

  70. I’m also writing to make you be aware of of the amazing discovery our child found going through your web page. She discovered several things, most notably what it is like to have an incredible coaching character to get many people quite simply have an understanding of some problematic subject matter. You truly did more than her desires. Thanks for displaying the priceless, trustworthy, explanatory and unique guidance on this topic to Tanya.

  71. I intended to send you this little bit of note in order to thank you so much once again for the nice basics you have provided on this site. It was simply open-handed with people like you to make openly all many individuals might have advertised for an e-book in making some bucks for their own end, especially considering the fact that you might have tried it if you ever considered necessary. Those smart ideas additionally worked like a fantastic way to know that other people have a similar fervor really like mine to know more on the subject of this matter. I’m sure there are millions of more fun sessions in the future for individuals that look over your blog post.

  72. I enjoy you because of all of your labor on this web page. Debby delights in going through investigations and it is obvious why. We notice all of the dynamic means you make very useful tips and hints on the blog and boost contribution from other ones on that article and my daughter is truly learning a lot. Have fun with the rest of the new year. Your carrying out a great job.

  73. I would like to get across my appreciation for your kindness for individuals who absolutely need guidance on this particular subject. Your very own dedication to getting the message around was quite practical and have always empowered regular people like me to realize their aims. This warm and friendly publication implies a whole lot a person like me and substantially more to my peers. Thank you; from everyone of us.

  74. I am commenting to let you know of the awesome discovery my cousin’s child undergone checking your web page. She even learned a good number of pieces, with the inclusion of what it is like to possess a marvelous giving heart to get most people with ease have an understanding of specific advanced things. You undoubtedly exceeded our expectations. Many thanks for giving these beneficial, trusted, informative as well as easy thoughts on this topic to Sandra.

  75. I precisely wished to appreciate you once again. I’m not certain the things that I would have handled in the absence of the thoughts documented by you regarding that question. It actually was an absolute horrifying situation in my circumstances, nevertheless understanding the very specialised tactic you resolved that made me to weep with happiness. I’m thankful for this advice as well as sincerely hope you recognize what a powerful job you are always putting in training others via a blog. Probably you have never met any of us.

  76. I would like to show some appreciation to the writer for rescuing me from this trouble. Because of browsing throughout the the net and meeting ideas which were not productive, I thought my entire life was gone. Being alive devoid of the approaches to the issues you have fixed as a result of this blog post is a serious case, as well as those that would have badly affected my entire career if I had not noticed the website. Your actual training and kindness in maneuvering almost everything was vital. I don’t know what I would have done if I had not encountered such a thing like this. I’m able to at this point look ahead to my future. Thanks very much for this skilled and result oriented help. I will not hesitate to propose the website to any individual who needs and wants counselling on this subject.

  77. I would like to express my thanks to you just for bailing me out of such a setting. Right after looking out throughout the online world and meeting proposals which are not beneficial, I assumed my entire life was over. Living minus the solutions to the problems you’ve solved by means of your main report is a critical case, as well as the kind which might have in a wrong way damaged my entire career if I had not discovered your web site. Your main natural talent and kindness in touching every aspect was important. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I had not come across such a subject like this. I can also now look ahead to my future. Thank you very much for your reliable and result oriented help. I won’t think twice to endorse your web blog to anyone who needs tips about this problem.

  78. I want to voice my appreciation for your kind-heartedness for those people that must have assistance with your concept. Your very own dedication to passing the solution throughout ended up being especially invaluable and have frequently allowed people just like me to arrive at their desired goals. Your own warm and friendly tutorial denotes much a person like me and somewhat more to my office workers. With thanks; from everyone of us.

  79. I’m commenting to let you be aware of of the awesome discovery our princess went through studying your web page. She picked up a wide variety of issues, including what it’s like to have a wonderful giving nature to make many people completely know specified advanced subject matter. You really exceeded her desires. I appreciate you for showing those good, healthy, explanatory and even cool guidance on your topic to Mary.

  80. I must express some thanks to the writer for rescuing me from such a trouble. Because of researching through the the web and meeting thoughts which were not productive, I assumed my life was gone. Existing minus the approaches to the issues you have sorted out by way of the posting is a serious case, and those that might have in a wrong way affected my career if I hadn’t discovered the blog. Your actual understanding and kindness in dealing with all the things was important. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I had not discovered such a subject like this. I can also at this point look forward to my future. Thanks for your time very much for this high quality and results-oriented help. I won’t think twice to propose the sites to any individual who wants and needs care on this subject.

  81. I have to express my thanks to this writer just for rescuing me from this difficulty. Right after browsing throughout the online world and seeing techniques which are not powerful, I figured my entire life was done. Living without the presence of strategies to the difficulties you have sorted out by means of this website is a serious case, and ones that could have negatively damaged my career if I hadn’t discovered your web page. Your main mastery and kindness in handling everything was precious. I’m not sure what I would have done if I had not come across such a subject like this. It’s possible to at this moment look forward to my future. Thank you so much for your reliable and effective help. I will not hesitate to refer your web blog to anyone who wants and needs guide about this situation.

  82. I together with my pals happened to be analyzing the nice advice on your web page and then all of the sudden got a terrible feeling I had not expressed respect to the web site owner for them. My guys became certainly passionate to read through them and have now very much been making the most of them. Appreciate your really being indeed kind as well as for making a decision on this form of helpful subject areas millions of individuals are really needing to be aware of. Our honest regret for not expressing appreciation to you sooner.

  83. I intended to write you a little bit of remark just to give many thanks over again for your magnificent principles you have shown on this page. This is quite surprisingly generous with people like you to deliver extensively what exactly a lot of folks might have supplied as an electronic book to help make some money for their own end, precisely considering the fact that you might well have done it in case you wanted. Those guidelines additionally acted to provide a great way to fully grasp some people have the identical zeal similar to my own to know the truth a little more on the subject of this issue. I believe there are some more pleasurable moments ahead for individuals that look over your website.

  84. I have to show my appreciation to this writer just for bailing me out of this particular trouble. Just after searching throughout the internet and obtaining opinions which were not beneficial, I assumed my entire life was well over. Living without the presence of strategies to the problems you’ve sorted out by way of your good review is a crucial case, as well as the kind which may have badly affected my career if I hadn’t encountered your website. That understanding and kindness in maneuvering every aspect was vital. I’m not sure what I would’ve done if I had not come upon such a step like this. It’s possible to now look ahead to my future. Thanks very much for this reliable and result oriented help. I won’t be reluctant to propose your web sites to anyone who should receive guide about this area.

  85. I precisely needed to thank you so much once more. I am not sure the things I might have made to happen without the actual techniques contributed by you relating to that topic. It previously was an absolute horrifying case for me personally, however , being able to view this professional manner you processed it made me to leap with gladness. Extremely thankful for the work and then expect you really know what an amazing job your are accomplishing instructing other individuals by way of a web site. Most likely you have never encountered all of us.

  86. Thanks a lot for giving everyone a very special possiblity to check tips from this website. It’s usually very cool and as well , jam-packed with a great time for me and my office friends to search your site no less than three times in a week to see the new secrets you have got. And of course, I’m just actually amazed for the stunning tips and hints you serve. Certain two ideas on this page are easily the most efficient we’ve had.

  87. Thanks so much for providing individuals with an extremely pleasant chance to discover important secrets from this blog. It’s always so useful and also jam-packed with amusement for me and my office acquaintances to search your site not less than 3 times a week to study the latest guides you have. Not to mention, I’m always amazed with your excellent solutions you give. Certain 2 areas in this article are really the most beneficial I’ve ever had.

  88. Thank you a lot for giving everyone an extraordinarily nice possiblity to read critical reviews from here. It is always very enjoyable plus full of a lot of fun for me personally and my office peers to visit your website on the least 3 times weekly to find out the newest guides you have. And definitely, I’m just actually fulfilled concerning the unbelievable principles served by you. Some 3 points in this posting are rather the most effective we have ever had.

  89. My spouse and i got joyful that Emmanuel managed to do his investigations through the entire precious recommendations he gained in your web site. It is now and again perplexing to just always be giving for free tips and tricks people today may have been making money from. And we also already know we have got you to thank for that. Those illustrations you’ve made, the straightforward web site menu, the friendships you can aid to foster – it is many fantastic, and it’s really letting our son and us consider that this subject is cool, which is certainly extraordinarily essential. Many thanks for everything!

  90. I have to show my appreciation to this writer for rescuing me from this particular circumstance. Because of looking out throughout the the net and getting tips which were not helpful, I was thinking my entire life was gone. Being alive without the presence of approaches to the problems you have solved by means of your main guideline is a serious case, as well as ones that might have in a negative way affected my career if I hadn’t discovered your web page. That competence and kindness in playing with all the things was very useful. I am not sure what I would have done if I had not come upon such a point like this. I am able to at this time look forward to my future. Thanks a lot very much for your high quality and result oriented guide. I will not hesitate to propose your web sites to any person who ought to have care about this situation.

  91. I’m just writing to let you be aware of what a remarkable encounter my cousin’s daughter went through checking your blog. She figured out a wide variety of issues, including what it is like to possess an excellent helping mood to let many people quite simply comprehend specific tortuous matters. You really surpassed my expected results. Thank you for churning out those precious, healthy, informative not to mention unique thoughts on that topic to Ethel.

  92. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  93. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  94. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  95. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  96. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  97. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  98. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  99. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  100. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  101. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  102. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  103. I just want to tell you that I am newbie to blogs and honestly loved you’re website. Almost certainly I’m going to bookmark your website . You actually have terrific posts. Many thanks for revealing your web site.

  104. This may be the proper weblog for anybody who would like to be familiar with this topic. You recognize a great deal its practically hard to argue on hand (not too I personally would want…HaHa). You certainly put the latest spin with a topic thats been discussing for several years. Great stuff, just wonderful!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.