शब्दकोश, मार्च – 2008

समावेशन (इन्क्लूजन) – समावेशन की अवधारणा एक ऐसे समाज की परिकल्पना करती है जिसमे समाज के सभी व्यक्तियों और वर्गों की शांति,स्वतंत्रता व समानता प्राप्त हो. इसके लिये न केवल भौतिक संसाधनों का समाज में न्यायपूर्ण वितरण होना चाहिये, वरन् नैतिक-समानता(अर्थात् व्यक्ति के साथ समान व्यवहार) भी होनी चाहिये. पर यह मुद्दा समाज के सांस्कृतिक व नैतिक ढांचे से गहरा जुड़ा है, अतः सांस्कृतिक व नैतिक विविधताओं से परिपूर्ण स्वतंत्रताएं व समानताएँ ही समावेशन की आत्मा हैं.

बहिर्वेशन (एक्सक्लूजन) –  किसी समाज में कुछ नागरिकों या नागरिक समूहों या राज्य द्वारा भेदभावपूर्ण या घृणास्पद व्यवहार करने को बहिर्वेशन कहते हैं. इसका स्वरूप सांस्कृतिक,राजनीतिक-आर्थिक व धार्मिक हो सकता है. जब राज्य या कोई नागरिक समूह संस्कृति या भाषा के आधार पर किसी नागरिक-समूह को दबाता है या घृणा करता है तो इसे सांस्कृतिक बहिर्वेशन कहते हैं ; नागरिकता सम्बन्धी किन्हीं अधिकारों से वंचित करना राजनीतिक तथा किसी कार्य/रोजगार से वंचित करने को आर्थिक बहिर्वेशन कहते हैं. राज्य द्वारा धर्म के आधार पर स्वतंत्रता व समानता से वंचित करना धार्मिक बहिर्वेशन कहलाता है.

वर्णसंकर(हाइब्रिड) संस्कृति – भिन्न एवं प्रायः संस्कृतियों ते पारस्परिक मेल-मिलाप से जब एक सर्वथा नूतन संस्कृति का जन्म हो जाता है,जिसमें उन दोनों संस्कृतियों के तत्वों के दर्शन हों,तो उसे वर्णसंकर संस्कृति कहते हैं.

वर्चस्व(हेजीमोनी) – किसी समाज या राज्य द्वारा विधि मान्य सीमा के आगे जाकर किसी अन्य समाज या राज्य पर शक्ति प्रयोग करने को वर्चस्व(हेजीमोनी) कहते हैं. सर्वप्रथम ग्राम्सी ने पँजीवादी समाज में बुर्जुआ की सामाजिक स्थिति स्पष्ट करने हेतु हेजीमोनी(वर्चस्व) शब्द का प्रयोग किया. 1905 में रूसी क्रान्ति के बाद प्लेखनेव ने सर्वहारा के प्रति बोल्शेविक पार्टी के सम्बन्धों को स्पष्ट करने के लिये इसका प्रयोग किया. अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय जगत में अपनी भौगोलिक सीमा से आगे निकल कर विश्व के अन्य राष्ट्रों की नीतियों को निश्चयात्मक रूप से प्रभावित करने की क्षमता को वर्चस्व कहते हैं.

सर्वाधिकारवाद(टोटालिटेरियनिज़्म) – वह अधिनायकवादी राज्य जो राज्य व सरकार के प्रत्येक पहलू तथा वैयक्तिक जीवन व व्यवहार को पूर्णतः नियमित करनी की क्षमता रखता हो,सर्वाधिकारवादी राज्य कहा जाता है. प्रारम्भ में इसका प्रयोग फासीवादी व साम्यवादी सरकारों के लिये किया गया था.

अधिनायकवाद(डिक्टेटरशिप) – वर्तमान में अधिनायकवाद वह शासन व्यवस्था है जिसमें शासक निरंकुश हो, तथा जिस पर कानून व अन्य राजनीतिक-सामाजिक संस्थाओं को नियंत्रण य नियमन करने का अधिकार या अवसर न हो.प्राचीन इटली में सर्वप्रथम मजिस्ट्रेटों को आपातकाल में असीमित अधिकार दिये गये जिन्हें हम प्रारम्भिक अधिनायक कह सकते हैं, पर न तो वे निरंकुश हो सकते थे, न ही अनुत्तरदायी. पर 20वीं शती में अधिनायक का अस्तित्व सभी सर्वाधिकारवादी व्यवस्थाओं जैसे स्टालिन के रूस हिटलर के जर्मनी व मुसोलिनी के इटली में रहा है.

उत्तर-आधुनिकता(पोस्ट-मॅाडर्निटी) – ‘उत्तर-आधुनिकता’ ‘आधुनिकता’ (मॅाडर्निटी) की अवधारणा को नकारती है.’आधुनिकता’ की अवधारणा विश्व को समझने में विज्ञान व विवेक का प्रयोग करती है.उसकी मान्यता है कि उसका प्रयोग कर वह राजनीति,अर्थशास्त्र,समाज व नैतिकता के कुछ मूल -मानकों की स्थापना तथा सार्वभौमिक सिद्धान्तों का निरूपण करेगी.इसके प्रतिकूल ‘उत्तर आधुनिकता’ जीवन के किसी भी क्षेत्र में सार्वभौमिक,सर्वमान्य सिद्धान्तों की परिकल्पना को अस्वीकार करती है.उसके अनुसार विमर्श,वाद-विवाद और लोकतन्त्र पर आधारित अनेक सिद्धान्तों को जीवन के प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में मान्यता दी जानी चाहिये.

नवउदारवाद(निओलिबरलिज़्म) – नवउदारवाद का दो अर्थों में प्रयोग करते हैं. प्रथम, इसे एक बाज़ारवादी आर्थिक नीति के रूप में देखते हैं; तथा द्वितीय,इसे अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय सम्बन्धों में संस्थाओं के अध्ययन हेतु एक सिद्धान्त के रूप में जाना जाता है.बाज़ारवादी आर्थिक नीति के रूप में विकसित देश इसे थैचरवाद(निजीकरण व नियमों में शिथिलता के साथ कठोर सामाजिक नीति) के रूप में देखते हैं. विकासशील देशों में नवउदारवाद को एक ऐसे विकास मॉडल के रूप में देखा जाता है जो आयत-विकल्पों की खोज का विरोध करती है.यह निजीकरण,नियमों में शिथिलता,वयापार में उदारीकरण,राज्य की घटती भूमिका तथा विदेशी पूँजी निवेश का समर्थन करती है. यह विश्वबैंक अथवा अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष के निर्देशों के अनुरुप आर्थिक नीतियों की संरचना करने का भी संकेत देती है. अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय सम्बन्धों में नवउदारवाद विभिन्न संप्रभु राज्यों के अस्तित्व के बावज़ूद सहयोग की संभावना व्यक्त करती है.

वाशिंगटन सहमति-अस्सी के दशक में मुक्त बाजार की श्रेष्ठता के कट्टरपंथी मन्त्र को लागू करने वाली नीतियों को ‘वाशिंगटन सहमति’ के नाम से जाना जाता है.विकासशील देशों के लिये मुद्राकोष,विश्वबैंक और अमेरिकी वित्त मंत्रालय की सहमति से इसका जन्म हुआ.मूलतः ये नीतियाँ लैटिन अमेरिकी देशों की अर्थव्यवस्था में  मचे उत्पात से निपटने के लिये बनायी गयी थीं,लेकिन वाशिंगटन सहमति के तहत इन्हें सारी दुनिया पर थोपने की मुहिम चलायी गयी.

यद्भाव्यम्(लेज़ेजफेयरे) – यह सिद्धान्त व्यक्ति के आर्थिक क्रियकलापों में राज्य के अहस्तक्षेप की माँग करता है.अट्ठारहवीं शताब्दी में यह सिद्धान्त उदारवादी/व्यक्तिवादी विचारकों ने प्रस्तुत किया था.उनकी मान्यता थी कि व्यक्ति को स्वेच्छा से अपने आर्थिक क्रियाकलापों को करने देने से उसका सर्वांगीण विकास होता है.

उत्तर-संरचनावादी(पोस्ट-स्ट्रक्चरलिस्ट) – ‘संरचनावादी’ मानते हैं कि किसी संगठन या व्यवस्था की संरचना उसमें निवास करने वाले व्यक्तियों के वैयक्तिक व्यवहार से ज़्यादा महत्वपूर्ण होती है.1968 के बाद इस पर विश्वास न करने वालों को उत्तर-संरचनावादी कहते हैं.वे परिवर्तन पर स्थायित्व,मानव व्यवहार पर संरचना तथा विविधता पर सामान्यीकरण के वर्चस्व को अस्वीकार करते हैं.

पहचान/अस्मिता (आइडेन्टिटी) – यह बताता है कि व्यक्ति या समुदाय स्वयं को क्या समझते हैं. पहचान का दायरा एक बौद्धिक, ऐतिहासिक व मनोवैज्ञानिक संरचना का रूप ले लेता है जिसकी रक्षा करने के लिये व्यक्ति/समुदाय कृत संकल्प होते हैं. वे स्वयं और दूसरे भी उनकी पहचान के उसी दायरे का संज्ञान लेते हैं.

लोक-क्षेत्र (पब्लिक स्फियर) – लोक-क्षेत्र नागरिक समाज का वह हिस्सा है जहां विभिन्न समुदाय और संस्कृतियां अन्योन्य क्रिया करती है. ऐसा करके वे किसी मुद्दे पर आम राय बनाने और उसके ज़रिये राज्य-तन्त्र को प्रभावित करने का प्रयास करती हैं. लोक-क्षेत्र सभी के लिये खुला रहता है जिसमें अपने विमर्श के जरिये कोई भी हस्तक्षेप कर सकता है. हैबरमास इसके महत्वपूर्ण प्रतिपादक हैं.

ज्ञान मीमांसा (मेटाफिजिक्स) – यथार्थ के अध्ययन की वह पद्धति जिसमें उसे उसके दृष्य रूपों से परे जाकर समझने की कोशिश होती है. इसके महत्वपूर्ण प्रयोक्ता हेगेल, और सबसे कठोर आलोचक कांट माने जाते हैं.

सत्ता मीमांसा (ऑन्टॉलजी) – यह तत्वमीमांसा (मोटाफिजिक्स) की एक शाखा है जो अस्तित्व की प्रकृति का विश्लेषण किन्हीं खास सन्दर्भों में न करके उसकी सम्पूर्ण सत्ता के सन्दर्भ में करती है.

आधुनिक (मॉडर्निटी) और आधुनिकतावाद (मॉडर्निज्म) – अठारहवीं सदी के यूरोप में चले वैचारिक आन्दोलन को ‘ज्ञानोदय’ के नाम  से जाना जाता है. इस आन्दोलन नेजिन प्रवृत्तियों को जन्म दिया उन्हें हम आधुनिकता या आधुनिकतावाद के नाम से जानते हैं. इसमें समता व न्याय विचारों को बल मिला. यह अंधविश्वास पर विज्ञान और आस्था पर विवेक की विजय भी दर्शाता है. उन्नीसवीं सदी में इसके प्रभाव से ‘इतिहास का महत्व’, प्रगति और विकास की अपरिहार्यता, सेकुलरवाद तथा राष्ट्रवाद जैसी अवधारणाएं बलवती हुईं.

जाति (कास्ट) और जातीयता (एथ्नीसिटी) – जातियां सनातन धर्म के तहत प्रचलित वर्ण-व्यवस्था ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य व शूद्र का विकृत स्वरूप हैं. मनुस्मृति के अनुसार ईसा से 200 वर्ष पूर्व से 200 वर्ष पश्चात् तक सामाजिक कार्यों के आधार पर व्यक्ति का वर्ण निर्धारित होता था. एक पांचवां समूह भी होता था जिसे अवर्ण कहते थे और वह अछूत होता था. कालान्तर में, कार्य के बदले जन्म के आधार पर जाति का निर्धारण होने लगा. जातीयता तब बनती है जब जाति के साथ राजनीतिक-सांस्कृतिक श्रेणियां जुड़ जाती हैं. उसका आधार भाषा, क्षेत्रियता, रंग-रूप खानपान और पहनावा आदि होता है. एक जातीयता में एक से अधिक जातियां व धर्म हो सकते हैं. तमिल बोलने वाले मुसलमान, हिन्दू और ईसाई अपनी-अपनी पूजा पद्धति अपनाते हुये भी ‘तमिल जातीयता’ के दायरे में परिभाषित किये जायेंगे.

विमर्श(डिस्कोर्स) – एक निश्चित सामाजिक सन्दर्भ में भाषा के जरिये किसी एक विषय के इर्द-गिर्द होती हुई बहस द्वारा व्याख्याओं, तात्पर्य और मान्यताओं के निर्माण की प्रक्रिया को विमर्श कहते हैं.

नागरिक समाज (सिविल सोसाइटी) – समाज का वह रूप जो राज्य व परिवार जैसी संस्थाओं से अलग माना जाता है. यह नागरिकों के अधिकारों और उनकी सत्ता को व्यक्त करने वाली प्रक्रियाओं और संगठनों से मिलकर बनता है. वह राज्य को संयमित कर उसे नागरिक नियन्त्रण में लाता है.

अनुभव सिद्ध/अनुभावात्मक/तथ्यात्मक(एम्पिरिकल) – समाज विज्ञान के अध्ययनों में सर्वेक्षण और फिल्ड वर्क के द्वारा प्राप्त तथ्यों के विश्लेषण से निष्कर्ष निकालना.

संस्कृतीकरण (संस्कृताइज़ेशन) – निचली जातियों द्वारा अपने से ऊपर की जातियों के आचार-व्यवहार, खान-पान और पहनावे का अनुकरण करते हुये सामाजिक प्रगति का प्रयास.

भूमण्डलीकरण/वैश्वीकरण(ग्लोबलाइज़ेशन) – एक विश्व अर्थतन्त्र और विश्व बाज़ार का निर्माण जिससे प्रत्येक राष्ट्र की अर्थव्यवस्था को अनिवार्य रूप से जुड़ना होगा. दुनिया की राजनीति को इसी अर्थतन्त्र और विश्व बाज़ार की जरूरतों के हिसाब से संचालित करने का प्रयास करना. इसमें सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी से देशों के बीच फासला कम हो जाता है, और एक भूमण्डलीय संस्कृति का जन्म होता है.

एसियान(एसोसियेशन ऑफ साउथ ईस्ट एशियन नेशंस) – इंडोनेशिया, मलेशिया, फिलीपींस, सिंगापुर व थाईलैंड ने 8 अगस्त 1967 को बैंकाक घोषणा के माध्यम से एक ऐसे व्यापक क्षेत्र का गठन किया जो आज विश्व के सर्वाधिक शक्तिशाली व्यापार क्षेत्रों में एक है.

राज्यतंत्र(पॉलिटी) – राज्य, दलीय प्रणाली और अन्य सभी सम्बन्धित संस्थानों समेत राजनीतिक व्यवस्था का समर्पूरण स्वरूप.

बहुसंस्कृतिवाद(मल्टीकल्चरिज्म) – सांस्कृतिक विविधता पर बल देने वाला वैचारिक-राजनीतिक- सांस्कृतिक आन्दोलन अमेरिकी समाज की अवधारणा ‘मेल्टिग-पॉट’ की है जिसमें विविध जातीय संस्कृतियां अमेरिकी धारा में विसर्जित हो जाती हैं; इसके विरुद्ध बहुसंस्कृतिवाद ‘सलाद-पॉट’ की अवधारणा प्रतिपादित करती है जिसमें एक राष्ट्र की सीमाओं में रहते हुये भी सांस्कृतियां अपनी अलग-अलग पहचान नहीं खोतीं.

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