मैक्फर्सन का लोकतान्त्रिक सिद्धान्त

माइकल क्लार्क एवं रिक टिल्मैन : लोकतान्त्रिक सिद्धान्तों एवं व्यवहार का उद्भव एक लम्बी एवं श्रमसाध्य प्रक्रिया रही है. इसके बावजूद, पश्चिमी जगत में लोकतन्त्र का कोई सुनिश्चित सिद्धान्त नहीं है; कतिपय प्रतिस्पर्द्धी सिद्धान्त अवश्य हैं, जिनमें जॉन डिवी का उपकरणात्मक सिद्धान्त अर्थशास्त्रियों में सर्वाधिक प्रभावशाली है. डिवी और उनके शिष्यों द्वारा विकसित उपकरणवाद एवं नव-उपकरणवाद के अनुसार लोकतन्त्र कमतर बुराई पर आधारित कोई संरक्षणात्मक व्यवस्था मात्र नहीं है जो स्वेच्छाचारी शक्ति को परिसीमित करे तथा दमन को रोके. नवउपकरणात्मक पैराडाइम के अनुसार लोकतन्त्र के औचित्य का आधार यह है कि (1) यह बुद्धिमत्ता की पद्यति को प्रभावी ढंग से लागू करता है, अर्थात यह मूल्यों में बदलाव लाकर साध्य व साधन में सामन्जस्य स्थापित करता है; (2) यह वांछित मानव उन्नयन व विकास को प्रभावी ढंग से आगे बढ़ाता है. नवउपकरणवादी मानते हैं कि सामाजिक संस्थाओं को जितना ही लोकतान्त्रिक बनाया जायेगा उतने ही अच्छे ढंग से वे उपरोक्त दोनों उद्देश्यों को प्राप्त करेंगी. औद्योगिक समाजों के लोकतन्त्रीकरण में अनेक व्यवधान हैं परन्तु नवउपकरणवादी लोकतान्त्रिक सामाजिक व्यवस्था का कोई सैद्धान्तिक मॉडल नहीं दिया.

ऐसे मॉडल का एक सुझाव टोरंटो विश्वविद्यालय में अध्यापक रहे लोकतान्त्रिक समाजवादी विचारक क्रैफर्ड ब्रों मैक्फर्सन की रचनाओं में मिलता है. उन्होंने जॉन डिवी के साधन-साध्य विश्लेषण के बजाय ‘संस्थाओं की संरचना का सिद्धान्त’ प्रस्तुत किया है जो वैयक्तिक स्वतन्त्रता का बलिदान किए बिना अथवा आर्थिक शोषण को बढ़ावा दिए बिना मानवीय संवृद्धि एवं विकास को तेज करेगा. आगे हम इस सिद्धान्त तथा उसके द्वारा लोकतान्त्रिक समाजवाद में योगदान पर चर्चा करेंगे.

एल्किस कोंटोंस, डेविड मिलर, स्टीवन लूकस जैसे मैक्फर्सन के विश्लेषणकर्ता उनके कृतित्व के केन्द्रीय फोकस पर सहमत हैं. उनके अनुसार मैक्फर्सन एक ऐसे सिद्धान्त की व्याख्या कर रहे हैं जिसमें मनुष्य की अन्तर्निहित क्षमताओं का अधिकतम विकास ऐसे सांचे में हो सके जो वैयक्तिक स्वतंत्रता एवं आर्थिक समृद्धि को साथ-साथ उपलब्ध करवा सके. इस क्रम में मैक्फर्सन ने थॉमस हॉब्स, जॉन लॉक, जरमी बेंथम एवं जॉन स्टुअर्ट मिल के लेखन की गहरी समीक्षा की है. मैक्फर्सन के अनुसार इन आरंभिक उदारवादी विचारकों ने मनुष्य का विवेचन असीमित तृष्णाओं वाले उपभोक्ता के रूप में किया है, जो सदैव असीमित भोग एवं संचय करने तथा इसे नैतिक दृष्टि से उचित सिद्ध करने में संलग्न रहता है. सामाजिक व्यवस्था के समक्ष व्यक्ति की स्वायत्तता पर बल देने का यह विचार वस्तुत: इंग्लैण्ड में सामंतवाद से उदीयमान पूंजीवाद की ओर शक्ति हस्तांरण के लिए एक औचित्य-स्थापक विचारधारा की आवश्यकता थी जो बाजार-आधारित सामाजिक सम्बन्धों की नैतिक सर्वोच्चता में आस्था द्वारा स्थापित की गई. मैक्फर्सन इसे ‘संरक्षणात्मक तंत्र’ कहते हैं, जिसमें मनुष्य को उपभोक्ता के रूप में देखते हुए उसकी स्वतंत्रता और निजी सम्पत्ति के अधिकार में ऐतिहासिक संबंध को रेखांकित किया जाता है. इसमें समाज को शक्तिकामी व्यक्तियों के गठजोड़ के रूप में अभिव्यक्त किया गया जिसमें कानूनों द्वारा व्यवस्था की स्थापना की जाती है. यहां सर्वश्रेष्ठ कानून उन्हें माना गया जो जीवन निर्वाह, प्रचुरता एवं सुरक्षा उपलब्ध करवाते हैं. मैक्फर्सन के अनुसार ‘इसकी परिणति असीम सम्पत्ति अधिकारों को उचित ठहराने में होती है.’

इस मुक्त बाज़ार केंद्रित उदारवाद में दो घटनाक्रमों ने नैतिक समस्या पैदा कर दी. एक तो अनियंत्रित औद्योगीकरण ने श्रमजीवी जनता को ऐसी दुर्दशा में धकेल दिया कि आज मनुष्य विभाजित एवं गैर-उदार हो गया. दूसरा, अब यह समझ में आने लगा कि सम्पत्ति का व्यापक वितरण औद्योगिक समाज में संभव नहीं. फलस्वरूप चिरसम्मत उदारवादी अपनी विचारधारा के केंद्रीय अंतर्द्वन्द में उलझ गए कि सम्पत्ति के संचय एवं उपभोग के असीमित अधिकार की उनकी मांग के साथ स्वतंत्रता एवं समता के मूल्यों को अर्जित करना असंभव है. इसी अंतर्निहित असंगति के आधार पर मैक्फर्सन ने चिरसम्मत उदारवादियों के ‘संरक्षणात्मक लोकतंत्र’ पर आक्रमण करते हुए लोकतंत्र की एक वैकल्पिक एवं नैतिक अवधारणा के विकास पर बल दिया है.

मैक्फर्सन ने अपने सिद्धान्त को ‘विकासात्मक लोकतंत्र’ कहा है जिसके बीज सर्वप्रथम जॉन स्टुअर्ट मिल के चिंतन में देखे जा सकते हैं. मिल लोकतंत्र को ‘सरकारों के चयन की पद्धति’ की बेंथमवादी दृष्टि से आगे ले जाते हैं. वे मनुष्य को उपभोक्ता के बजाय एक कर्ता या सृजनकर्ता के रूप में देखते हैं तथा उनके लिए अच्छा समाज वह है जो इस मानवीय विकास को प्रोत्साहित करे. तदनुसार मिल के लिए लोकतंत्र एक ऐसी सहभागी व्यवस्था है जो वर्तमान सामाजिक एवं आर्थिक विषमताओं को घटा कर इस मानवीय विकास की प्रक्रिया को बढ़ावा दे सके. किन्तु मिल के साथ कठिनाई यह है कि एक और तो वे विद्यमान वर्ग-भेद के लिए वे पूंजीवाद को उत्तरदायी नहीं मानते. इस संदर्भ मैक्फर्सन ने विकासात्मक लोकतंत्र के अपने सिद्धान्त ‘पजेसिव इंडिविजुअलिज्म’ नामक प्रमुख प्रस्तुक में दिया है जिसका विस्तृत रूप ‘द रीयल वर्ल्ड ऑफ डेमोक्रेसी’ एवं ‘डेमोक्रेटिक थ्योरी : एसेज़ इन रिट्रीवल’ में अभिव्यक्त हुआ है.

मैक्फर्सन की पुस्तक ‘एसेज़ इन रिट्रीवल’ से स्पष्ट होता है कि लोकतंत्र का सिद्धान्त एक समय मौजूद था मगर अब उसका पुनरुद्धार किया जाना आवश्यक है क्योंकि उसका वर्तमान स्वरूप नैतिक दृष्टि से अपर्याप्त है. वर्तमान सिद्धान्त केवल बाजार-केंद्रित समाज के लिए ही उपयुक्त है जिसमें मनुष्य को एक ‘अनंत उपभोक्ता’ के रूप में देखा जाता है. मैक्फर्सन के अनुसार यह दृष्टिकोण उदीयमान पूंजीवाद के दौर में सही रहा होगा किंतु आज यह सर्वथा अनुपयुक्त है. इसमें यह भी अंतर्निहित है कि लोकतंत्र का सिद्धान्त जड़ नहीं, विकासात्मक है जिसका बदलती सामाजिक परिस्थितियों के अनुसार बदलना आवश्यक है. अत: उदारवादी समाजों में मौजूद लोकतंत्र के मिलवादी-दृष्टिकोण में आधारभूत परिवर्तन आवश्यक है.

लोकतंत्र का वर्तमान मिलवादी-दृष्टिकोण मनुष्य की असीमित तृष्णाओं को उचित ठहराता है. इसमें लोकतंत्र को राजनीतिक एवं आर्थिक वस्तुओं के अनंत संचय के मार्ग में आने वाली बाधाओं को दूर करने की यंत्रविधि के रूप में देखा जाता है. किंतु  मैक्फर्सन का मत है कि यदि सम्पत्ति संचय के निरपेक्ष अधिकार को समाज में स्वीकार किया जाता है, तो व्यक्तियों की क्षमताओं में प्राकृतिक असमानता के कारण कुछ लोगों के हाथ में संसाधनों का संकेन्ध्रण होना अवश्यंभावी है. फलस्वरूप, सम्पत्तिविहीन लोग अपनी अंन्तर्निहित क्षमताओं का विकास नहीं कर पाएंगे, बल्कि सम्पत्तिशाली लोगों द्वारा उन वंचितों की क्षमताओं का अपने हित में दोहन किया जाएगा. सम्पत्तिशालियों की इस दोहनात्मक क्षमता के कारण सम्पत्तिविहीन लोगों की लोकतांत्रिक आकांक्षाओं की पूर्ति नहीं हो सकेगी. इस प्रकार शक्ति के सतत हस्तांतरण के कारण उपयोगिताओं के विस्तार के सामाजिक लक्ष्य की परिणति अधिकांश व्यक्तियों के आत्म-विकास को अवरुद्ध करने में होगी. स्पष्ट है कि निजी सम्पत्ति पर आधारित उदार-लोकतांत्रिक समाज में बाज़ार ने लोकतंत्र की वर्ग-विभाजित एवं  सीमित धारणा निर्मित की है जो शक्ति-हस्तांतरण की सतत् प्रक्रिया के कारण वास्तव में ‘कम लोकतांत्रिक’ होता है.

इस आलोचना के क्रम में मैक्फर्सन द्वारा प्रस्तुत ‘विकासात्मक लोकतंत्र’ के सिद्धान्त के मूलतत्व हैं कि यह गैर-दोहनात्मक तथा विकासात्मक है. वर्ग-आधारित शक्ति-संबंधों के निरन्तर अस्तित्व पर निर्भर न होने के कारण यह सिद्धान्त गैर-दोहनात्मक है. मैक्फर्सन अपने सिद्धान्त को विकासात्मक इसलिए कहते हैं क्योंकि यह प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को अपनी अंतर्निहित मानवीय क्षमताओं के निर्बाध विकास का अवसर उपलब्ध करवाता है. इन ‘मानवीय’ क्षमताओं में मैक्फर्सन नैतिक निर्णय एवं कार्य करने, सौंदर्यशास्त्रीय सृजन एवं चिंतन, मैत्री, प्रेम एवं धार्मिक अनुभवों की क्षमता को शामिल करते हैं. ये हॉब्स की भांति तृष्णा-आधारित उपयोगिताएं नहीं हैं जिनके पूर्ण विकास के निर्बाध अधिकार की मांग की जा रही है. इसके विपरीत ये शारीरिक अस्तित्व से परे ‘मानवीय’ क्षमताएं हैं, जिनका उपयोग, दूसरों को ऐसी ही क्षमताओं के उपयोग से वंचित नहीं करता है. इसके अलावा इस सिद्धान्त में यह भी अंतर्निहित है कि मनुष्य की क्षमता का उपयोग स्वयं उसी के द्वारा किया जाए, कोई अन्य उसका दोहन न कर सके.

दो कारणों से मैक्फर्सन लोकतंत्र के वर्तमान सिद्धान्त को अपर्याप्त तथा अपने सिद्धान्त को उपयुक्त मानते हैं. प्रथम, कि दुनिया के दो-तिहाई देश (अल्प विकसित एवं समाजवादी) लोकतंत्र के बाज़ार-मॉडल को अस्वीकार करते हैं. दूसरा कारण प्रौद्योगिकी के विकास तथा इसके दुर्लभता पर प्रभाव से संबंधित है. मैक्फर्सन के मतानुसार प्रौद्योगिकी की प्रगति के कारण मानवीय विकास के लिए आवश्यक मानी जाने वाली दुर्लभता की अवधारणा अव समयानुकूल नहीं रही.

तीसरी दुनिया के देशों पर औपनिवेशिक प्रभुत्व के दौरान बाज़ार-अर्थव्यवस्था लाद दी गई थी. औपनिवेशिक शासन के प्रतिरोध के साथ इन नव-स्वतंत्र देशों ने लोकतंत्र के बाज़ार-केन्द्रित मॉडल को भी तिरस्कृत कर दिया है. ये देश मनुष्य के पुनर्निमाण में आस्था व्यक्त करते हैं किंतु इसके लिए साम्यवाद के वर्ग-राज्य एवं पूंजीवाद के बाज़ार-राज्य की अपर्याप्तता को भी रेखांकित करते हैं. दूसरी ओर, साम्यवादी भी बाज़ार-मॉडल को निरस्त करते हैं. उनके अनुसार मनुष्य को महज उपभोक्ता मानने तथा समाज की शक्ति-संरचना को बनाए रखने के कारण उदारवादी-लोकतांत्रिक राज्य नैतिकताविहीन, अमानवीय एवं दमनकारी प्रवृत्तियां अपनाता है. साम्यवादियों ने लोकतंत्र की प्राचीनतम अवधारणा का समर्थन किया है जो लोकतंत्र को वंचितों का शासन मानता है तथा ‘सर्वहारा के अधिनायकत्व’ में प्रकट होता है. इस प्रकार, तीसरी दुनिया के देशों एवं साम्यवादियों ने पूंजीवाद के गैर-मानवीय प्रभावों को नकारते हुए ऐसी व्यवस्थाओं का विकास किया है जो यह दावा करती हैं कि वह मानव स्वभाव के प्रति सही दृष्टिकोण पर आधारित हैं.

प्रौद्योगिकीय प्रगति के बावजूद स्वतन्त्रता एवं समानता के संबंध में पूंजीवाद की कमियां उजागर हो गई हैं. हॉब्स, लॉक और यहां तक कि मिल के चिंतन में भी यह मान्यता रही कि बाज़ार-समाज में संसाधनों की दुर्लभता होती है तथा संचय के प्रयोजन को प्रशंसनीय दृष्टि से देखा जाता है, किंतु प्रौद्योगिकीय प्रगति के संसाधनों की इस दुर्लभता का अंत कर दिया है तथा विकसित पश्चिमी समाजों में असीमित उपभोग की नैतिकता अब आवश्यक नहीं रही जिसमें समता की प्राय: उपेक्षा कर दी जाती है. अत: मैक्फर्सन के अनुसार, नई परिस्थितियों में उदार-लोकतंत्रात्मक राज्य के रूपांतरण में कठिनाई भौतिक दुर्लभता की नहीं, बल्कि वैचारिक रुझान की है. जब तक लोग स्वयं को अनंत उपभोक्ता के रूप में देखते रहेंगे तब तक उत्पादन में पर्याप्त वृद्दि से भी दुर्लभता का अन्त नहीं हो पायेगा. राजनीतिक व्यवस्था में परिवर्तन के लिए आवश्यक है कि दुर्लभता को एक सांस्कृतिक कारक माना जाए एवं जीवन के संसाधनोंको सामाजिक कारक के रूप में देखा जाए तथा दोनों कारकों को जनता की मांगों द्वारा सुधारा जा सके.

मैक्फर्सन के अनुसार उदारवादी समाज का मूलभूत अंतर्द्वन्द्ध यह है कि इस में मानव-अधिकारों की कीमत पर आर्थिक संवृद्धि अर्जित की जाती है. पर जैसे – जैसे उदारवादी राज्य का विकास हुआ मनुष्य के अधिकारों को महत्व दिया जाने लगा. अतएव कल्याणकारी राज्य अस्तित्व में आया जो अनियन्त्रित पूंजीवाद को उसकी कमियों से बचाना चाहता था. इस प्रकार उदारवादी लोकतंत्र की विद्यमान विचारधारा निजी सम्पत्ति के अधिकार को अन्य सभी अधिकारों से सम्बन्द्ध कर देती है.

क्या मैक्फर्सन के विकासात्मक एवं गैर-दोहनात्मक लोकतंत्र में, जिसे वे अधिक परिपूर्ण लोकतंत्र कहते हैं, हमारे वर्तमान अधिकार परिसीमित हो जाएंगे ? उनका मत है कि ऐसा नहीं होगा. वे नागरिक स्वतंत्रताओं को लोकतंत्र का अनिवार्य अवयव मानते हैं जिसके बिना वह एक छलावा मात्र रह जाएगा. मैक्फर्सन का लक्ष्य है कि व्यक्ति और समुदाय के अधिकारों को परस्पर जोड़ा जाए तथा इसके लिए वे मानते हैं कि सम्पत्ति के अधिकार की अवधारणा में सुधार आवश्यक है. निस्संदेह मैक्फर्सन मानवाधिकार को सम्पत्ति के अधिकार के रूप में देखते हैं तथा व्यक्ति की क्षमताओं के परिपूर्ण विकास के लिए इसे आवश्यक मानते हैं. किंतु बाज़ार-समाज में सम्पत्ति का अधिकार अनन्य स्वामित्व की मांग करता है. इसके विपरीत मैक्फर्सन सम्पत्ति के अधिकार को अनन्य के साथ-साथ समावेशी भी मानते हैं. सम्पत्ति के समावेशी अधिकार का उपयुक्त उदाहरण काम का अधिकार है. इस प्रकार मैक्फर्सन का तर्क है कि सम्पत्ति को साध्य नहीं, बल्कि साधन के रूप में देखा जाए.

मैक्फर्सन ने उत्पादन की पूंजीवादी प्रणाली एवं वैयक्तिक विकास के समान अवसर की मांग के अंतर्विरोध को उदार-लोकतांत्रिक समाज के मूलभूत तनाव के रूप में इंगित किया है. पूंजीवाद के आरंभिक दौर में उत्पादन में संवर्द्धन आवश्यक था, किंतु प्रौद्योगिकी की प्रगति एवं उदार लोकतांत्रिक परम्परा के कारण परिस्थितियां बदल गईं हैं. अब लोकतंत्र का एक नया, अधिक सहभागी एवं विकासात्मक मॉडल आवश्यक है जिसमें उत्पादन-मूल्यों पर बल देने के बजाय अवसर की समानता पर अधिक ध्यान दिया जाए. इस क्रम में वे मार्क्यूजे की भांति समाज में चेतना के परिवर्तन से सामाजिक परिवर्तन लाने का समर्थन करते हैं. स्पष्ट है कि मैक्फर्सन का लोकतांत्रिक सिद्धान्त मनुष्य की ऐसी धारणा पर आधारित है जो बाज़ार-समाज से मूलत: भिन्न है तथा वह सामाजिक-आर्थिक विषमताओं के क्षरण एवं वैयक्तिक चेतना में आधारभूत परिवर्तन पर बल देता है.

 मैक्फर्सन ने लोकतंत्र के उदारवादी धारणा के पुनरुद्धार का जो प्रयत्न किया और जिसमें मार्क्सवादी चिंतन से बहुत कुछ ग्रहण किया गया, आलोचना से परे नहीं है. माइकल विंस्टीन के अनुसार मैक्फर्सन ने इतनी सारी उदारवादी मान्यताओं को बरकररार रखा है कि वे अपने लक्ष्य (वर्गहीन समाज की स्थापना) के लिए आवश्यक क्रांतिकारी सिद्धान्त का सृजन नहीं कर पाए. एल वुड ने मैक्फर्सन पर आरोप लगाया कि उन्होंने अपने सैद्धान्तिक उपक्रम की आधारशिला में ही वर्ग-संघर्ष को नकार दिया है.

केनेथ मिनोग ने भी मैक्फर्सन के विचारों में निहित अपर्याप्तता एवं खतरे को इंगित किया. मैक्फर्सन मानते हैं कि एक बार दोहनात्मक शक्ति का उन्मूलन हो जाए, इसके बाद सब लोग मिल-जुल कर रहेंगे. किंतु मिनोग के अनुसार यह धारणा इस त्रुटिपूर्ण मान्यता पर आधारित है कि मानवीय क्षमताओं में कोई परस्पर विरोध ही नहीं, जैसे कि युद्ध, अपराध एवं दुष्टता केवल पूंजीवादी सामाजिक संबंधों का परिणाम हो! मिनोग मैक्फर्सन की सामुदायिकता पर आधारित सद्जीवन की धारणा की भी आलोचना करते हैं. जिससे अंतत: रुचियों, मूल्यों एवं हितों का ऐसा समरूपीकरण होगा कि वह हमें सर्वाधिकारवादी समाज की ओर ले जाएगा.

स्टीवन लूकस ने मैक्फर्सन की मानवीय क्षमता की धारणा को प्रश्नांकित किया है. नितांत अमूर्त होने के कारण मैक्फर्सन की इस धारणा को व्यावहारिक स्वरूप नहीं दिया  जा सकता. ऐसे में मैक्फर्सन द्वारा वर्णित उदार-लोकतंत्र का समूचा ढांचा ही अमूर्त और अव्यावहारिक हो जाता है. जॉन डन ने भी मानवीय क्षमताओं की अस्पष्टता की तीखी आलोचना की है. वह पूछता है कि किन क्षमताओं को अधिकतम किया जाए तथा अधिकतम कैसे किया जाए? डन ने मैक्फर्सन की इस अवधारणा पर भी आपत्ति की है कि प्रतिस्पर्द्धात्मक उपभोग ही मानवीय क्षमता को सर्वाधिक बढ़ाने में मुख्य बाधा है. क्यों अनेक देशों में प्रतिस्पर्द्धात्मक बाज़ार संबंध या प्रतिस्पर्द्धात्मक उपभोग नहीं है. बेहतर होगा कि मैक्फर्सन अध्ययन करें कि क्या वहां मानवीय मूल्यों को सफलतापूर्वक बढ़ाया जा सका है? डन ने तीसरी दुनिया के देशों के गैर-पूंजीवादी होने के कारण उनकी श्रेष्ठता के मैक्फर्सन के विचार का भी खंडन किया है. मैक्फर्सन लीबिया, सऊदी अरब एवं उगांडा में मानवीय क्षमता को सर्वाधिक बढ़ाने के यथार्थ की उपेक्षा करते हैं. डन के अनुसार तीसरी दुनिया के कई देश वस्तुत: पूंजीवादी हैं.

इयान एंगस के अनुसार, मैक्फर्सन को उदारवादी राजनीतिक सिद्धान्त के पुनरुद्धार के अपने दावे की प्रतिपूर्ति के लिए रूपांतरण की वह प्रक्रिया सुझानी चाहिये थी जो वांछित राज्य तक ले जा सके. इस संबंध में मैक्फर्सन केवल सम्पत्ति की प्रकृति एवं अवधारणा में परिवर्तन का सुझाव देते हैं. इसके अलावा क्रांतिकारी परिवर्तन का मैक्फर्सन के पास कोई विकल्प नहीं है. डन ने मैक्फर्सन के चिंतन में प्रौद्योगिकी की भूमिका की भी आलोचना की है. मैक्फर्सन के अनुसार उनके विकासात्मक लोकतंत्र की पूर्व-शर्त यह है कि उन्नत प्रौद्योगिकी की सहायता से दुर्लभता का शमन किया जाए. यह तर्क प्रौद्योगिकी के दुष्प्रभावों पर ध्यान नहीं देता.

सब कमियों के बावजूद, डन के अनुसार ‘’मैक्फर्सन की तीन रचनाएं पूंजीवादी आर्थिक आधार पर उदारवादी राजनीतिक सिद्धान्त की निरंतर निर्भरता की द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के बाद सर्वाधिक विस्तृत एवं सुसंगत आलोचना प्रस्तुत करती है’’  जुंग के अनुसार मैक्फर्सन की मौलिकता एक ऐसी लोकतांत्रिक सत्तामीमांसा प्रस्तावित करने में है जो मनुष्यों के सामाजिक संबंधों में दोहनात्मक शक्ति का उन्मूलन कर मानवीय सारतत्व का पोषण करने की ओर अग्रसर हैं.

निष्कर्ष रूप में कहा जा सकता है कि मैक्फर्सन की रचनाओं में नव-उदारवादी राजनीतिक दर्शन प्रासंगिक हो जाता है जिसमें साधन-साध्य की निरन्तरता तथा आत्म – सुधारात्मक मूल्य निर्णयों पर बल दिया जाता है. हालांकि जॉन डिवी ने एक परिपूर्ण मानवीय समाज को अर्जित करने की पद्धति सुझाई किंतु ऐसे समाज का मॉडल प्रस्तुत नहीं किया. मैक्फर्सन ने ऐसे समाज का मॉडल प्रस्तुत किया किंतु उसे अर्जित करने की कोई पद्धति नहीं सुझा पाए.

एक विकासात्मक समाज में इस सिद्धान्त की मुख्य समस्या इसकी क्रियान्वति की है. क्या मैक्फर्सन की भांति लोगों को साधन के बजाय साध्य मानना संभव है? क्या समाज और उसकी आर्थिक संस्थाओं का ऐसा पुनर्गठन संभव है जिसमें प्रभुत्वशाली वर्ग श्रमजीवियों का शोषण न कर सके?  इस शोषण में रुढ़िवादियों का निहित स्वार्थ है किंतु उदारवादियों का विश्वास है कि इस स्थिति को सुधारा जा सकता है, हालांकि वे भी मैक्फर्सन जितना बड़े पैमाने पर रूपांतरण स्वीकार नहीं करते. केवल उग्र-परिवर्तनकामी उदारवादी ही विकासात्मक, गैर-दोहनात्मक सामाजिक व्यवस्था की ओर ले जा सकते हैं तथा इस संबंध में मैक्फर्सन द्वारा सुझाए गए सामाजिक परिवर्तन के अभिकर्ता अपर्याप्त हैं. अपने समय में डिवी और वर्तमान में मैक्फर्सन, ये दोनों ही ऐसे रूपांतरण की प्रक्रिया एवं राजनीतिक संसाधन सुझाने में विफल रहे हैं, हालांकि इस संदर्भ में मैक्फर्सन के प्रयासों में कोई कमी नहीं रही. उन्होंने गत दो पीढ़ियों में औद्योगिक समाज की सभी मुख्य संस्थाओं और प्रक्रियाओं की गहरी खोजबीन की. राजनीतिक दलों, मजदूर संघों, निगमों एवं नागरिक संगठनों के अपने विश्लेषण में उन्होंने लोकतंत्र की प्रगति और दुर्गति, दोनों को इंगित किया. हालांकि हाल के वर्षों में अमेरिका में प्रतिक्रियावादी, सत्तावादी प्रवृत्तियों के उभार के कारण उन्हें लोकतंत्र की पुष्टि करने वाली मुक्तिदायी शक्तियां कमज़ोर प्रतीत हो रही हैं. इसके बावजूद डिवी की भांति मैक्फर्सन ने औद्योगिक समाज के अंतिम लोकतंत्रीकरण में अपनी आस्था अडिग रखी है. ये दोनों विद्धान जिस सृजनात्मक समाज का समर्थन करते हैं, वह अभी तक कोई काल्पनिक नहीं, बल्कि ज़मीन पर उतरा स्वर्ग है जो ऐसी राजनीतिक क्रियाविधि की खोज में है जो तनिक धुंधली है.

पुनर्लेखन – डॉ. आलोक कुमार श्रीवास्तव, व्याख्याता, राजनीति शास्त्र, गवर्नमेंट कॉलेज, अजमेर(राजस्थान)

प्रस्तुत लेख ‘जर्नल ऑफ इकॉनोमिक इशूज’, वाल्यूम 22, संख्या 1 मार्च 1998, पृष्ठ 181-196 से साभार उद्धृत. मूल लेख ‘सी. बी. मैक्फर्सन कन्ट्रीब्यूशन टू डिमोक्रेटिक थ्योरी’ शीर्षक से प्रकाशित

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